Health  Vol.4 No.1 , January 2012
Influence of socio-economic status and environmental factors on serologically diagnosed Japanese encephalitis cases in the state of West Bengal, India during 2005-2010
ABSTRACT
Objectives: The main aim of the current study is to examine the influence of socio-economic status and environmental factors on serologically diagnosed Japanese encephalitis cases in the state of West Bengal, India during 2005-2010. Materials and methods: A total of 648 blood/CSF specimens were collected and/or referred from the suspected AES cases, admitted in the different medical colleges and hospitals of the state during the year of 2005-2010. These specimens were subjected to JE Mac ELISA to determine the actual JE case amongst these AES. The association of the socio-economic status and environmental factors with the serologically diagnosed JE positive cases was studied by a statistical analysis through Normal Deviate test or Z test. Result: Out of 648 specimens, only 175 (27.0%) specimens were reactive to JE IgM antibody, of which 60.0% were from the male individuals and 40.0% from the female population. Major cases were observed in the age group of 0 - 10 years; followed by 11 - 20 years. Regarding literacy, only 58.3% cases had no education and 41.7% were from the literate with varying level of education, i.e., from primary level to post gra- duate level. A total of 65.7% cases were from low income group where as only 34.3% cases were from high income group. Regarding house type, 62.3% cases lived in mud house and 37.7% cases lived in the brick house. In most of the cases (74.3%), persons were living in close proximity to rice fields/lakes/ponds. 69.7% cases were found to occur in the monsoon and post-monsoon period whereas 30.3% cases were reported in the pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: Our study concludes that socio-economic status and environmental conditions were statistically significant contextual risk factors for serologically diagnosed JE incidences in West Bengal where JE is proved to be endemic in nature and such study constitutes a new report of this kind in the region.

Cite this paper
Sarkar, A. , Taraphdar, D. , Mukhopadhyay, B. , Kumar, M. , Mukhopadhyay, S. and Chatterjee, S. (2012) Influence of socio-economic status and environmental factors on serologically diagnosed Japanese encephalitis cases in the state of West Bengal, India during 2005-2010. Health, 4, 6-12. doi: 10.4236/health.2012.41002.
References
[1]   Lindenbach, B.D. (2001) Flaviviridae: The viruses and their replication. In: Knipe, D.M. and Howley P.M., Eds., Fields Virology, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 991-1041.

[2]   Theodore, F.T. (1996) Effectiveness of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (SA 14-14-2): A case-control study. The Lancet, 347, 1583-1586. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(96)91075-2

[3]   Tsai, T.F. (2000) New initiatives for the control of Japanese encephalitis by vaccination: Minutes of a WHO?CVI meeting, Bangkok, Thailand, 13-15 October 1998. Vaccine, 18, 1-25. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00037-2

[4]   Geevarghese, G., Kanogia, P.C. and Mishra, A.C. (2004) Japanese encephalitis-Vector Biology. NIV Pune Year Book. Orient Longman Publication, Himayatnagar, 335-356.

[5]   Japanese Encephalstis. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/japanese_encephalitis.pdf

[6]   Reuben, R. and Gajanana, A. (1997) Japanese encephalitis in India. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 64, 243-251. doi:10.1007/BF02752458

[7]   Diagana, M., Preux, P.M. and Dumas, M. (2007) Japanese encephalitis revisited. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 262, 165-170. doi:10.1016/j.jns.2007.06.041

[8]   Scherer, W.F., Kitaoka, M., Okuno, T. and Ogata, T. (1959) Ecologic studies of Japanese encephalitis virus in Japan. VII. Human infection. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 8, 707-715.

[9]   Smithburn, K.C., Kerr, J.A. and Gatne, P.B. (1954) Neutralising antibodies against certain viruses in the sera of residents of India. Journal of Immunology, 72, 248-251.

[10]   Namachivayam, V. and Umayal, K. (1982) Proceedings of National Conference on Japanese Encephalitis. Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, 30-33.

[11]   Dhillon, G.P. and Raina, V.K. (2008) Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in context with Indian scenario. Journal of the Indian Medical Association, 106, 660-663.

[12]   Kabilan, L., Rajendran, R., Arunachalam, N., Ramesh, S., Srinivasan, S. and Samuel, P.P. (2004) Japanese encephalitis in India: An overview. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 71, 609-615. doi:10.1007/BF02724120

[13]   Dutta, K., Rangarajan, P.N., Vrati. S. and Basu, A. (2010) Japanese encephalitis: Pathogenesis, prophylactics and therapeutics. Current Science, 98, 326-334.

[14]   Chakravarty, S.K., Sarkar, J.K., Chakravarty, M.S., Mukherjee, M.K., Mukherjee, K.K. and Das, B.C. (1975) The first epidemic of Japanese encephalitis studied in India-Virological studies. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 63, 77-82.

[15]   Ghosh, S.N., Rodrigues, F.M., Seth. G.P., Tongaonkar, S.S., Padbidri, V.S. and Gupta, N.P. (1975) Investigations on the outbreak of Japanese encephalitis in Burdwan district, West Bengal. Part II. Serological survey of human population. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 63, 1472-1477.

[16]   Rodrigues, F.M., Ghosh, S.N., Banerjee, K., Chatterjee, A.K. and Gupta, N.P. (1975) A post-epidemic serological survey of humans in Bankura district, West Bengal, following the epidemic of Japanese encephalitis in 1973. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 63, 1478-1485.

[17]   Rajagopalan, P.K. and Panicker, K.N. (1978) A note on the 1976 epidemic of Japanese encephalitis in Burdwan district, West Bengal. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 68, 3938.

[18]   Banerjee, K., Sengupta, S.N., Dandawate, C.N., Tongaonkar, S.S. and Gupta, N.P. (1976) Virological and serological investigations of an epidemic of encephalitis which occurred at Bankura district, West Bengal. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 64, 121-130.

[19]   Mukhopadhyay, B.B., Mukherjee, B., Bagchi, S.B., Chakraborty, M. and Mukherjee, K.K. (1990) An epidemiological investigation of Japanese encephalitis outbreak in Burdwan, District of west Bengal during 1987-1988. Indian Journal of Public Health, 34, 107-116.

[20]   State Bureau of Health Intelligence (2009) Health on the March 2008-09. Director of Health Science, Goverment of West Bengal, p. 139.

[21]   Burke, D.S. and Leake, C.J. (1986) Japanese encephalitis. In: Monath, T.P., Ed., The Arboviruses: Miology and Ecology, CRC, Boca Ruton, 3.

[22]   Halstead, S.B. and Jacobson, J. (2003). Japanese encephalitis. Advances in Virus Research, 61, 103-138. doi:10.1016/S0065-3527(03)61003-1

[23]   Latitude and Longitude of West Bengal. http://www.mapsofindia.com/lat_long/westbengal/westbengal.htm

[24]   West Bengal. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Bengal

[25]   Census of India. http://censusindia.gov.in/

[26]   Climate of West Bengal. http://www.webindia123.com/westbengal/land/climate.htm

[27]   Borah, J., Dutta, P., Khan, S.A. and Mahanta, J. (2011) A comparison of clinical features of Japanese encephalitis virus infection in the adult and pediatric age group with Acute Encephalitis Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Virology, 52, 45-49. doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2011.06.001

[28]   Khan, S.A., Dutta, P., Khan, A.M., Topno, R., Chowdhury, P., Borah, J. and Mahanta, J. (2011) Japanese encephalitis epidemiology in Arunachal Pradesh, a hilly state in northeast India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 1, 119-122. doi:10.1016/S2222-1808(11)60050-9

[29]   Kabilan, L. (2004) Control of Japanese encephalitis in India: a reality. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 71, 707-712. doi:10.1007/BF02730659

[30]   Lewthwaite, P., Shankar, M.V., Tio, P.H., Daly, J., Last, A. and Ravikumar, R. (2010) Evaluation of two commercially available ELISAs for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis applied to field samples. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 15, 811-818. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02537.x

[31]   Solomon, T., Thao, L.T.T., Dung, N.M., Kneen, R., Hung, N.T. and Nisalak, A. (1998) Rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis by using an immunoglobulin M dot enzyme immunoassay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 36, 2030-2034.

[32]   Swami, R., Ratho, R.K., Mishra, B. and Singh, M.P. (2008) Usefulness of RT-PCR for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in clinical samples. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 40, 815-820. doi:10.1080/00365540802227102

[33]   L.-H., W., S.-H., Fu., H.-Yu, W., X.-F., L., J.-X., C. and H.-M., J. (2007) Japanese encephalitis outbreak, Yuncheng, China, 2006. Emerging Infectious Disease, 13, 1123-1124.

[34]   Pant, S.D. (2009) Epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis in Nepal. Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society, 29, 35-37. doi:10.3126/jnps.v29i1.1600

[35]   Solomon, T. (2006) Control of Japanese encephalitis— within our grasp? New England Journal of Medicine, 355, 869-871. doi:10.1056/NEJMp058263

[36]   Chatterjee, S., Chattopadhyay, D., Bhattacharya, M.K. and Mukherjee, B. (2004) Serosurveillance for Japanese encephalitis in children in several districts of West Bengal, India. Acta Paediatrica, 93, 390-393. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2004.tb02967.x

[37]   Chatterjee, A.K. and Banerjee, K. (1975) Epidemiological studies on the encephalitis epidemic in Bankura. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 63, 1164-1177.

[38]   Badari, V.S. (1985) A socio-economic study of Japanese encephalitis in Kolar district of Karnataka during 1981. Health and Population—Perspectives & Issues, 8, 29-49.

[39]   Luo, D., Ying, H., Yao, R., Song, J. and Wang, Z. (1995) Socio-economic status and micro-environmental factors in relation to the risk of Japanese encephalitis: A case-control study. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 26, 276–279.

[40]   Luo, D., Zhang, K., Song, J., Yao, R., Huo, H., Liu, B., Li, Y. and Wang, Z. (1994) The protective effect of bed nets impregnated with pyrethroid insecticide and vaccination against Japanese encephalitis. Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 88, 632-634. doi:10.1016/0035-9203(94)90201-1

[41]   Mani, T.R., Reuben, R. and Akiyama, J. (1991) Field efficacy of “Mos-bar” mosquito repellent soap against vectors of bancroftian filariasis and Japanese encephalitis in Southern India. American Mosquito Control Association, 7, 565-568.

[42]   Jennifer, K., Michael, F.M., Tobias, E.E., Robert, B., Marcel, T., Burton, H.S. and Jurg, U. (2005) Effect of irrigated rice agriculture on Japanese encephalitis, including challenges and opportunities for integrated vector management. Acta Tropica, 95, 40-57. doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2005.04.012

[43]   Nitatpattana, N., Audrey, D.P. and Ar Gouilh, M. (2008) Change in Japanese encephalitis virus distribution, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 14, 1762-1765. doi:10.3201/eid1411.080542

[44]   Vijayrani, H. and Gajanana A. (2000) Low rate of Japanese encephalitis infection in rural children in Thanjavur district (Tamil Nadu), an area with extensive cultivation. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 111, 212-214.

 
 
Top