JEP  Vol.3 No.1 , January 2012
Toxic Cyanobacteria in Four Brazilian Water Supply Reservoirs
Abstract: Cyanobacterial blooms have become a worldwide concern due to the production of toxins harmful to humans and animals. In Brazil and worldwide, microcystins are the most frequently found cyanotoxin in water bodies. Four important reservoirs in Brazil’s Southeast and Northeast regions were sampled to identify the cyanobacteria community and the occurrence of potential toxin-producing species in the country’s public supply reservoirs. A total of 14 taxa were identi-fied, 11 of which are known as potential toxin producers. Potentially toxic cyanobacteria were recorded at concentra-tions above 20,000 in all samples from all four reservoirs, thus requiring microcystin monitoring in drinking water according to Brazilian legislation. Although the sample from Mundaú reservoir showed the highest concentration of microcystins in water, it had one of the lowest values of, which demonstrates the non-correspondence between these two parameters. This calls into question the existence of a minimum level of potentially toxic cyanobacteria cells to merit the monitoring of microcystins in the treated water from these sources.
Cite this paper: V. Piccin-Santos and M. Bittencourt-Oliveira, "Toxic Cyanobacteria in Four Brazilian Water Supply Reservoirs," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2012, pp. 68-73. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.31009.

[1]   J. F. Briand, S. Jacquet, C. Bernard and J. F. Humbert, “Health Hazards for Terrestrial Vertebrates from Toxic Cyanobacteria in Surface Water Ecosystems,” Veterinary Research, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2003, pp. 361-377. doi:10.1051/vetres:2003019

[2]   W. W. Carmichael, “The Toxins of Cyanobacteria,” Sci- entific American, Vol. 270, No. 1, 1994, pp. 78-86. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0194-78

[3]   I. R. Falconer, A. M. Beresford and M. T. Runnegar, “Evidence of Liver Damage by Toxin from a Bloom of the Blue-Green Alga Microcystis aeruginosa,” Medicine Journal, Vol. 1, No. 11, 1983, pp. 511-114.

[4]   D. R. Figueiredo, U. M. Azeiteiro, S. M. Esteves, F. J. M. Gon?alves and M. J. Pereira, “Microcystin-Producing Blooms a Serious Global Public Health Issue,” Ecotoxi- cology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 59, No. 2, 2004, pp. 151-163. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2004.04.006

[5]   E. M. Jochimsen, W. W. Carmichael, J. An, D. M. Cardo, S. T. Cookson, C. E. M. Holmes, B. C. Antunes, D. A. Melo Filho, T. M. Lyra, V. S. T. Barreto, S. M. F. O. Azevedo and W. R. Jarvis, “Liver Failure and Death After Exposure to Microcystin at a Hemodialysis Center in Brazil,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 338, No. 13, 1998, pp. 873-878. doi:10.1056/NEJM199803263381304

[6]   Brazil Health Minister, Regulation N. 518/2004, “Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality,” Official Law Reports, 2004, p. 266.

[7]   F. M. A. Anjos, M. C. Bittencourt-Oliveira, M. P. Zajac, S. Hiller, B. Christian, K. Erler, K. Luckas, and E. Pinto, “Detection of Harmful Cyanobacteria and Their Toxins by Both PCR Amplification and LC-MS during a Bloom Event,” Toxicon, Vol. 48, No. 3, 2006, pp. 239-245. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.05.006

[8]   M. C. Bittencourt-Oliveira, D. M. S. Santos and N. A. Moura, “Toxic Cyanobacteria in Reservoirs in Northeast- ern Brazil: Detection Using a Molecular Method,” Bra- zilian Journal of Biology, Vol. 70, No. 4, 2010, pp. 1005- 1010. doi:10.1590/S1519-69842010000500012

[9]   M. C. Bittencourt-Oliveira, V. Piccin-Santos and S. Gou- vêa-Barros, “Microcystin-Producing Genotypes from Cyanobacteria in Brazilian Reservoirs,” Environmental Toxicology, Early View (Online Version of Record Published before Inclusion in an Issue). doi:10.1002/tox.20659 2010

[10]   M. C. Bittencourt-Oliveira, V. Piccin-Santos, P. Kujbida and A. N. Moura, “Cylindrospermopsin in Water Supply Reservoirs in Brazil Determined by Immunochemical and Molecular Methods,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 3, No. 6, 2011, pp. 349-355. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2011.36044

[11]   M. Bouvy, D. Falc?o, M. Marinho, M. Pagano and A. Moura, “Occurrence of Cylindrospermopsis (Cyanobac- teria) in 39 Brazilian Tropical Reservoirs during the 1998 Drought,” Aquatic Microbial Ecology, Vol. 23, No. 5, 2000, pp. 13-27. doi:10.3354/ame023013

[12]   I. A. S. Costa, S. M. F. O. Azevedo, P. A. C. Senna, R. R. Bernardo, S. M. Costa and N. T. Chellappa, “Occurrence of Toxin-Producing Cyanobacteria Blooms in a Brazilian Semiarid Reservoir,” Brazilian Journal of Biology, Vol. 66, No. 1B, 2006, pp. 211-219. doi:10.1590/S1519-69842006000200005

[13]   V. Moschini-Carlos, S. Bortoli, E. Pinto, P. Y. Nishimura, L. G. Freitas, M. L. M. Pompêo and F. D?rr, “Cyanobac- teria and Cyanotoxin in the Billings Reservoir (S?o Paulo, SP, Brazil),” Limnetica, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2009, pp. 273- 282.

[14]   R. B. Sotero-Santos, C. R. S. E. Silva, N. F. Verani, K. O. Nonaka and O. Rocha, “Toxicity of a Cyanobacteria Bloom in Barra Bonita Reservoir (Middle Tietê River, S?o Paulo, Brazil),” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 64, No. 2, 2006, pp. 163-170. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2005.03.011

[15]   R. B. Sotero-Santos, G. E. Carvalho, M. J. Dellamano- Oliveira and O. Rocha, “Occurrence and Toxicity of an Anabaena Bloom in a Tropical Reservoir (Southeast Bra- zil),” Harmful Algae, Vol. 7, No. 5, 2008, pp. 590-598. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2007.12.017

[16]   A. Rantala, P. Rajaniemi-Wacklin, C. Lyra, L. Lepisto, J. Rintala, J. Mankiewicz-Boczek and K. Sivonen, “Detection of Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacteria in Finnish Lakes with Genus-Specific Microcystin Synthetase Gene E (mcyE) PCR and Associations with Environmental Factors,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 72, No. 9, 2006, pp. 6101-6110. doi:10.1128/AEM.01058-06

[17]   M. C. Bittencourt-Oliveira, A. N. Moura, T. C. Hereman and E. W. Dantas, “Increase in Straight and Coiled Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Cyanobacteria) Popula- tions Under Conditions of Thermal De-Stratification in a Shallow Tropical Reservoir,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 3, No. 4, 2011, pp. 245-252. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2011.34031

[18]   A. N. Moura, E. W. Dantas, H. S. B. Oliveira and M. C. Bittencourt-Oliveira, “Vertical and Temporal Dynamics of Cyanobacteria in the Carpina Potable Water Reservoir in Northeastern Brazil,” Brazilian Journal of Biology, Vol. 71, No. 2, 2011, pp. 1-9. doi:10.1590/S1519-69842011000300015

[19]   H. Uterm?hl, “Zur Vervollkommnung der Quantitativen Phytoplankton-Methodik,” Mitteilungen Internationale Vereiningung fuer Theoretische und Angewandte Limno- logie, Vol. 9, 1958, pp. 1-38.

[20]   L. R. Carvalho, C. L. Sant’Anna, M. P. Gemelgo and M. T. P. Azevedo, “Cyanobacterial Occurrence and Detection of Microcystin by Planar Chromatography in Surface Water of Billings and Guarapiranga Reservoirs, SP, Brazil,” Revista Brasileira de Botanica, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2007, pp. 141-148.

[21]   Z. Beyruth and H. A. S. Pereira, “The Isolation of Rio Grande from Billings Reservoir, S?o Paulo, Brazil: Ef- fects on the Phytoplankton,” Boletim do Instituto de Pe- sca, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2002, pp. 111-123.

[22]   A. N. Moura, E. W. Dantas and M. C. Bittencourt- Oliveira, “Structure of the Phytoplankton in a Water Sup ply System in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil,” Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2007, pp. 645-654. doi:10.1590/S1516-89132007000400010