JEP  Vol.3 No.1 , January 2012
Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Sulfuric Acid and Microwave Irradiation Processes
Abstract: A comparative study of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using sulfuric acid (Two-step) and microwave-assisted transesterification (One-step) was carried out. A two-step transesterification process was used to produce biodiesel (alkyl ester) from high free fatty acid (FFA) waste cooking oil. Microwave-assisted catalytic transesterification using BaO and KOH was evaluated for the efficacy of microwave irradiation in biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. On the basis of energy consumptions for waste cooking oil (WCO) transesterification by both conventional heating and microwave-heating methods evaluated in this study, it was estimated that the microwave-heating method consumes less than 10% of the energy to achieve the same yield as the conventional heating method for given experimental conditions. The thermal stability of waste cooking oil and biodiesel was assessed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The analysis of different oil properties, fuel properties and process parametric evaluative studies of waste cooking oil are presented in detail. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced were compared with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards for biodiesel and regular diesel.
Cite this paper: P. Patil, V. Gude, H. Reddy, T. Muppaneni and S. Deng, "Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Sulfuric Acid and Microwave Irradiation Processes," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2012, pp. 107-113. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.31013.

[1]   B. Freedman, R. O. Butterfield and E. H. Pryde, “Transesterification Kinetics of Soybean Oil,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 63, No. 10, 1986, pp. 1375-1380.

[2]   X. Lang, A. K. Dalai, N. N. Bakhashi and M. J. Reaney, “Preparation and Characterization of Biodiesels from Va- rious Bio-Oils,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 80, No. 1, 2002, pp. 53-62. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00051-7

[3]   M. Canakci and J. Van Gerpen, “A Pilot Plant to Produce Biodiesel from High Free Fatty Acid Feedstocks,” Journal of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Vol. 46, No. 4, 2003, pp. 945-954.

[4]   M. G. Kulkarni and A. K. Dalai, “Waste cooking oil—An Economical Source for Biodiesel: A Review,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, Vol. 45, No. 9, 2006, pp. 2901-2913. doi:10.1021/ie0510526

[5]   A. Radich, “Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use,” US Energy Information Administration, 2006.

[6]   B. Supple, R. Holward-Hildige, E. Gonzalez-Gomez and J. J. Leashy, “The Effect of Stream Treating Waste Cook- ing Oil on the Yield of Methyl Ester,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 79, No. 2, 2002, pp. 175-178.

[7]   A. Chhetri, K. Watts and M. Islam, “Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production,” Energies, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2008, pp. 3-18. doi:10.3390/en1010003

[8]   Y. Zhang, M. A. Dube, D. D. Mclean and M. Kates, “Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil: 1. Process Design and Technological Assessment,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 89, No. 1, 2003, pp. 1-16. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(03)00040-3

[9]   P. D. Patil, S. Deng, I, Rhodes and P. Lammers, “Conversion of Waste Cooking Oil to Biodiesel Using Ferric Sulfate and Supercritical Methanol Processes,” Fuel ,Vol. 89, No. 2, 2010, pp. 360-364. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2009.05.024

[10]   Y. Shimada, Y. Watanabe, A. Sugihara and Y. Tominaga, “Enzymatic Alcoholysis for Biodiesel Fuel Production and Application of the Reaction to Oil Processing,” Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, Vol. 17, No. 3-5, 2002, pp. 133-142. doi:10.1016/S1381-1177(02)00020-6

[11]   F. R. Ma and M. A. Hanna, “Biodiesel Production: A Re- view,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 70, No. 1, 1999, pp. 1-15. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00025-5

[12]   P. R. Muniyappa, S. C. Brammer and H. Noureddini, “Improved Conversion of Plant Oils and Animal Fats into Biodiesel and Co-Product,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 56, No. 1, 1996, pp. 19-24. doi:10.1016/0960-8524(95)00178-6

[13]   M. P. Dorado, E. Ballesteros, F. J. Lopez and M. Mittelbach, “Optimization of Alkali-Catalyzed Transesterification of Brassica Carinate Oil for Biodiesel Production,” Energy Fuels, Vol. 18, No.1, 2004, pp. 77-83. doi:10.1021/ef0340110

[14]   G. Antolin, F. V. Tinaut, Y. Briceno, V. Castano, C. Perez and A. I. Ramirez, “Optimization of Biodiesel Production by Sunflower Oil Transesterification,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 83, No. 2, 2002, pp. 111-114. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00200-0

[15]   N. E. Leadbeater and L. M. Stencel, “Fast, Easy Preparation of Biodiesel Using Microwave Heating,” Energy Fuels, Vol. 20, No. 5, 2006, pp. 2281-2283. doi:10.1021/ef060163u

[16]   A. A. Refaat, S. T. Sheltawy and K. U. Sadek, “Optimum Reaction Time, Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Biodiesel Produced by Microwave Irradiation,” International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2008, pp. 315-322

[17]   S. Deng and Y. S. Lin, “Microwave Heating Synthesis of Supported Sorbents,” Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 52, No. 10, 1997, pp. 1563-1575. doi:10.1016/S0009-2509(97)00495-8

[18]   P. Patil, G. Veera, A. Mannarswamy, S. Deng, P.Cooke, S. Munson-McGee, P. Lammers and N. Khandan, “Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Transesterification of Dry Algal Biomass Using Response Surface Methodology,” Bioresource Technology ,Vol. 102, No. 2, 2011, pp. 1399-1405. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2010.09.046

[19]   N. Azcan and A. Danisman, “Alkali Catalyzed Transesterification of Cottonseed Oil by Microwave Irradiation,” Fuel, Vol. 86, No. 17-18, 2007, pp. 2639-2644. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2007.05.021

[20]   I. Roy and M. N. Gupta, “Applications of Microwaves in Biological Sciences,” Current Science, Vol. 85, No. 12, 2003, pp. 1685-1693.

[21]   M. Canakci and J. Van Gerpen, “Biodiesel Production from Oils and Fats with High Free Fatty Acids,” American Society of Agricultural and Engineers, Vol. 44, No. 6, 2001, pp. 1429-1436.

[22]   A. S. Ramadas, S. Jayraj and C. Muraleedharan, “Biodiesel Production from High FFA Ubber Seed Oil,” Fuel, Vol. 84, No. 4, 2005, pp. 335-340. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2004.09.016

[23]   P. D. Patil, V. G. Gude, L. M. Camacho and S. Deng, “Microwave-Assisted Catalytic Transesterification of Ca- melina Sativa Oil,” Energy Fuels, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2010, pp. 1298-1304. doi:10.1021/ef9010065

[24]   F. Ma, L. D. Clements and M. A. Hanna, “The Effects of Catalysts, Free Fatty Acids, and Water on Transesterification of Beef Tallow,” Transactions of American Society of Agricultural and Engineers, Vol. 41, No. 5, 1998, pp. 1261-1264.

[25]   M. Canakci and J. Van Gerpen, “Biodiesel Production via Acid Catalysis,” Transactions of American Society of Agricultural and Engineers, Vol. 42, No. 5, 1999, pp. 1203- 1210.

[26]   S. Zhang, Y. G. Zu, Y. J. Fu, M. Luo, D. Y. Zhang and T. Efferth, “Rapid Microwave-Assisted Transesterification of Yellow Horn Oil to Biodiesel Using a Heteropolyacid Solid Catalyst,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, No. 3, 2010, pp. 931-936. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2009.08.069

[27]   J. H. Kim, B. S. Kang, M. J. Kim, Y. M. Park, D. K. Kim, J. S. Lee and K. Y. Lee, “Transesterification of Vegetable Oil to Biodiesel Using Heterogeneous Base Catalyst,” Catalysis Today, Vol. 93-95, 2004, pp. 315-320. doi:10.1016/j.cattod.2004.06.007

[28]   A. J. Gotch, A. J. Reeder and A. J. McCormick, “Study of Heterogeneous Base Catalysts for Biodiesel Production,” Journal of Undergraduate Chemistry Research, Vol. 4, 2008, pp. 58-62.

[29]   A. W. Coats and J. P. Redfern, “Thermogravimetyric Ana- lysis: A Review,” Analyst, Vol. 88, No. 1053, 1963, pp. 906-924. doi:10.1039/an9638800906