ABSTRACT A two-layer Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed to predict the removal efficiency of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution using shelled Moringa Oleifera seed (SMOS) powder. Batch experiments re-sulted into standardization of optimum conditions: biomass dosage (4.0 g), Cd(II) concentration (25 mg/L) volume (200 mL) at pH 6.5. A time of forty minutes was found sufficient to achieve the equilibrium. The ANN model was designed to predict sorption efficiency of SMOS for target metal ion by combining back propagation (BP) with principle component analysis. A sigmoid axon was used as transfer function for input and output layer. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) was applied, giving a minimum mean squared error (MSE) for training and cross validation at the ninth place of decimal.
Cite this paper
nullA. Kardam, K. Raj, J. Arora, M. Srivastava and S. Srivastava, "Artificial Neural Network Modeling for Sorption of Cadmium from Aqueous System by Shelled Moringa Oleifera Seed Powder as an Agricultural Waste," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2 No. 4, 2010, pp. 339-344. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.24039.
 K. H. Rostami and M. R. Joodaki, “Some Studies of Cadmium Adsorption Using Aspergillus Niger, Penicil-lium Austurianum, Employing an Airlift Fermenter,” Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 89, No. 1-3, October 2002, pp. 239-252.
A. Basu, S. Kumar and S. Mukherjee, “Arsenic Reduction from Environment by Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.),” Indian Journal of Environmental Health, Vol. 45, No. 2, April 2003, pp. 143-150.
T. Okuda, A. U. Baes, W. Nishijima and M. Okada, “Iso-lation and Characterization of Coagulant Extracted from Moringa Oleifera Seed by Salt Solution,” Water Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, February 2001, pp 405-410.
S. J. Park and Y. S. Jang, “Pore Structure and Surface Properties of Chemically Modified Activated Carbons for Adsorption Mechanism and Rate of Cr (VI),” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 249, No. 2, May 2002, pp 458-463.
Y.-S. Park, T.-S. Chon, I.-S. Kwak and S. Lek, “Hierarchical Community Classification and Assessment of Aquatic Ecosystems Using Artificial Neural Networks,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 327, No. 1-3, July 2004, pp. 105-122.
L. Belanche, J. J. Valdes, J. Comas, I. R. Roda and M. Poch, “Prediction of the Bulking Phenomenon in Wastewater Treatment Plants,” Artificial Intelligence in Engi-neering, Vol. 14, No. 4, October 2000, pp. 307-317.
G. R. Shetty and S. Chellam, “Predicting Membrane Fouling during Municipal Drinking Water Nanofiltration Using Artificial Neural Networks,” Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 217, No. 1-2, June 2003, pp 69-86.
P. Sharma, P. Kumari, M. M. Srivastava and S. Srivastava, “Removal of Cd from Aqueous System by Shelled Moringa Oleifera Lamarck Seed Powder,” Bioresourse Technology, Elsevier, Vol. 97, No. 2, 2006, pp.299-305.
P. Sharma, P. Kumari, M. M. Srivastava and S. Srivastava, “Ternary Biosorption Studies of Cd(II), Cr(III) and Ni(II) on Shelled Moringa Oleifera Seeds,” Bioresourse Tech-nology, Elsevier, Vol. 98, No. 2, January 2007, pp. 474- 477.
P. Sharma, P. Kumari, M. M. Srivastava and S. Srivastava, “Biosorption Studies on Shelled Moringa Oleifera Lamarck Seed Powder: Removal and Recovery of Arsenic from Aqueous System,” International Journal of Mineral Processing, Vol. 78, No. 3, February 2006, pp. 131-139.
K. Yetilmezsoy and S. Demirel, “Artificial Neural Net-work (ANN) Approach for Modeling of Pb (II) Adsorption from Aqueous Solution by Antep Pistachio (Pistacia Vera L.) Shells,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 153, No. 3, May 2008, pp. 1288-1300.
M. A. Hashem, “Adsorption of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solution by Okra Wastes,” International Journal of Physical Science, Vol. 2, No. 7, 2007, pp. 178-184.
N. T. Abdel-Ghani and G. A. Elchaghaby, “Influence of Operating Conditions on the Removal of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb Ions from Wastewater by Adsorption,” International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2007, pp. 451-456.
H. Parmar, J. Patel, P. Sudhakar and V. J Koshi, “Removal of Fluoride from Water with Powdered Corn cobs,” Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2006, pp. 135-138.
N. T. Abdel-Ghani, M. Hefny and G. A. F. El-Chaghaby, “Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solution Using Low Cost Abundantly Available Adsorbents,” International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2007, pp. 67-73.
M. Iqbal, A. Saeed and N. Akhtar, “Petiolar Felt-Shealth of Palm: A New Biosorbent for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Water,” Bioresourse Tech-nology, Vol. 81, No. 2, January 2002, pp. 151-153.
A. C. Brostlap and J. Schuurmans, “Kinetics of L-valine Uptake in Tobacco Leaf Disc. Comparison of Wild-Type, the Digenic Mutant Valr-2, and its Monogenic Deriva-tives,” Planta, Vol. 176, No. 1, November 1988, pp. 42- 50.
G. Costa, J. C. Michant and A. Guckert, “Amino Acids Exuded from Axenic Roots of Lettuce and White Lupin Seedlings Exposed to Different Cadmium Concentra-tions,” Journal of Plant Nutrition, Vol. 20, No. 7-8, 1997, pp. 883-900.