Cyclic Sedimentation of the Barakar Formation, Singrauli Coalfield, India: Statistical Assessment from Borehole Logs

ABSTRACT

The succession of lithofacies of a part of the Barakar Formation of the Singrauli coalfield has been studied by statistical techniques. The lithologies have been grouped under five facies states viz. coarse-, medium-, and fine-grained sandstones, shale and coal for statistical analyses. Markov chain analysis indicates the arrangement of Barakar lithofacies in the form of fining-upward cycles. A complete cycle consists of conglomerate or coarse-grained sandstone at the base sequentially succeeded by medium- and fine-grained sandstones, shales and coal seam at the top. The entropy analysis puts the Barakar cycles in A-4 type of cyclicity, which consists of different proportions of lower-, side- and upper-truncated cycles of lithologic states. Regression analysis indicates a sympathetic relationship between total thickness of strata (net subsidence) and number of coal cycles and an antipathic relationship between average thickness and number of coal cycles. The cyclic sedimentation of the Barakar Formation was controlled by autocyclic process, which occurred due to the lateral migration of streams triggered by intrabasinal differential subsidence. In many instances, the clastic sediments issued from the laterally migrating rivers interrupted the sedimentation resulting in thinner cycles in areas where the numbers of cycles are more. Principal component and multivariate regression analyses suggest that the net subsidence of the basin is mostly controlled by number and thickness of sandstone beds and coal seams.

The succession of lithofacies of a part of the Barakar Formation of the Singrauli coalfield has been studied by statistical techniques. The lithologies have been grouped under five facies states viz. coarse-, medium-, and fine-grained sandstones, shale and coal for statistical analyses. Markov chain analysis indicates the arrangement of Barakar lithofacies in the form of fining-upward cycles. A complete cycle consists of conglomerate or coarse-grained sandstone at the base sequentially succeeded by medium- and fine-grained sandstones, shales and coal seam at the top. The entropy analysis puts the Barakar cycles in A-4 type of cyclicity, which consists of different proportions of lower-, side- and upper-truncated cycles of lithologic states. Regression analysis indicates a sympathetic relationship between total thickness of strata (net subsidence) and number of coal cycles and an antipathic relationship between average thickness and number of coal cycles. The cyclic sedimentation of the Barakar Formation was controlled by autocyclic process, which occurred due to the lateral migration of streams triggered by intrabasinal differential subsidence. In many instances, the clastic sediments issued from the laterally migrating rivers interrupted the sedimentation resulting in thinner cycles in areas where the numbers of cycles are more. Principal component and multivariate regression analyses suggest that the net subsidence of the basin is mostly controlled by number and thickness of sandstone beds and coal seams.

Cite this paper

R. Hota, P. Adhikari, A. Mohanty and W. Maejima, "Cyclic Sedimentation of the Barakar Formation, Singrauli Coalfield, India: Statistical Assessment from Borehole Logs,"*Open Journal of Geology*, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-13. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2012.21001.

R. Hota, P. Adhikari, A. Mohanty and W. Maejima, "Cyclic Sedimentation of the Barakar Formation, Singrauli Coalfield, India: Statistical Assessment from Borehole Logs,"

References

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[2] J. W. Harbaugh and G. Bonham-Carter, “Computer Simu- lation in Geology,” Wiley Interscience, New York, 1970, p. 575.

[3] I. Hattori, “Entropy in Markov Chain and Discrimination of Cyclic Pattern in Lithologic Successions,” Mathematical Geology, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1976, pp. 477-497. doi:10.1007/BF01028983

[4] A. D. Miall, “Markov Chain Analysis Applied to an Alluvial Plain Succession,” Sedimentology, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 347-364. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1973.tb01615.x

[5] S. M. Casshyap, “Cyclic Characteristics of Coal-Bearing Sediments in the Bochumer Formation (Westphal A2) Ruhrgebiet, Germany,” Sedimentology, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1975, pp. 237-255. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1975.tb00292.x

[6] R. N. Hota, K. L. Pandya and W. Maejima, “Cyclic Sedimentation and Facies Organization of the Coal Bearing Barakar Formation, Singrauli Coalfield, Orissa, India: A Statistical Analysis of Subsurface Logs,” Journal of Geoscience, Vol. 46, 2003, pp. 1-11.

[7] R. N. Hota and W. Maejima, “Comparative Study of Cyclicity of Lithofacies in Lower Gondwana Formations of Talchir Basin, Orissa, India: A Statistical Analysis of Subsurface Logs,” Gondwana Research, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2004, pp. 353-362. doi:10.1016/S1342-937X(05)70789-9

[8] R. N. Hota and M. Sahoo, “Cyclic Sedimentation of the Karharbari Formation (Damuda Group), Talchir Gondwana Basin, Orissa,” Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 73, No. 4, 2009, pp. 469-478. doi:10.1007/s12594-009-0032-x

[9] R. N. Hota and B. Das, “Cyclic Sedimentation of the Barren Measures Formation (Damuda Group), Talchir Gondwana Basin: Statistical Appraisal from Borehole Logs,” Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 75, No. 3, 2010, pp. 549-559. doi:10.1007/s12594-010-0044-6

[10] R. N. Hota, “Relationship between Net Subsidence and Coal Cycle Parameters—A Statistical Appraisal from Subsurface Logs of Damuda Group, Talchir Gondwana Basin, India,” Mathematical Geosciences, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2010, pp. 223-242. doi:10.1007/s11004-009-9243-3

[11] P. McL. D. Duff, “Cyclic Sedimentation in the Permian Coal Measures of New South Wales,” Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1967, pp. 293-307. doi:10.1080/00167616708728667

[12] K. R. Johnson and A. C. Cook, “Cyclic Characteristics of Sediments in the Moon Island Beach Subgroup, New Castle Coal Measures, New South Wales,” Mathematical Geology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1973, pp. 91-110. doi:10.1007/BF02114089

[13] W. A. Read and J. M. Dean, “Cycles of Subsidence: Their Relationship in Different Sedimentary and Tectonic Environments in the Scottish Carboriferous,” Sedimentology, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1976, pp. 107-120. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1976.tb00041.x

[14] Z. A. Khan and R. C. Tewari, “Net Subsidence and Number of Coal Cycles; Their Interrelationship in Different Permian Gondwana Basins of Peninsular India,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 73, No. 1-2, 1991, pp. 161-169. doi:10.1016/0037-0738(91)90028-C

[15] J. C. DAVIS, “Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology,” John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, 2002, p. 639.

[16] W. A. Read and J. M. Dean, “Quantitative Relationships between Numbers of Fluvial Cycles, Bulk Lithological Composition and Net Subsidence in a Scottish Namurian Basin,” Sedimentology, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1982, pp. 181-200. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1982.tb01718.x

[17] R. C. Tewari, “Net Subsidence and Evolution of Coal Swamps in Early Permian Coal Measures of Eastern India Gondwana Basins Using Principal Component Analysis,” Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 51, No. 4, 2008, pp. 27-34.

[18] C. S. Raja Rao, “On Singrauli Coalfield,” In: C. S. Raja Rao, Ed., Coalfields of India—Coal resources of Madhya Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir, Geological Survey of India, Kolkata, 1983, pp. 130-153.

[19] J. A. Udden, “Geology and Mineral Resources of Peoria Quadrangle, Illinois,” US Geological Survey Bulletin, No. 506, 1912, p. 103.

[20] J. M. Weller, “Cyclical Sedimentation of the Pensylvanian Period and Its Significance,” Journal of Geology, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1930, pp. 97-135. doi:10.1086/623695

[21] W. A. Read and J. M. Dean, “Cycles of Subsidence: Their Relationship in Different Sedimentary and Tectonic Environments in the Scottish Carboriferous,” Sedimentology, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1976, pp. 107-120. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1976.tb00041.x

[22] S. Sengupta, “Introduction to Sedimentology,” CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 2007, p. 314.

[23] R. C. Tewari, D. P. Singh and Z. A. Khan, “Application of Markov Chain and Entropy Analysis to Lithologic Succession—An Example from the Early Permian Barakar Formation, Bellampalli Coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India,” Journal of Earth System Science, Vol. 118, No. 5, 2009, pp. 583-596. doi:10.1007/s12040-009-0037-2

[24] R. N. Hota and K. L. Pandya, “Quantitative Relationship between Net Subsidence and Coal Cycles in Barakar Formation, Talchir Coalfield, Orissa,” Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 60, 2002, pp. 203-211.

[25] W. A. Read and J. M. Dean, “Principal Component Analysis of Lithologic Variables from Some Namurian (E2) Paralic Sediments in Central Scotland,” Bulletin of Geological Survey of Grate Britain, Vol. 40, 1972, pp. 83-99.

[26] Z. A. Khan and R. C. Tewari, “R-mode Factor Analysis of Lithologic Variables from Cyclically Deposited Late Paleozoic Barakar Sediments in Singrauli Gondwana Sub-Basin, Peninsular India,” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2011, pp. 144-149. doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2010.08.013

[27] B. K. Mishra and B. D. Singh, “The Lower Permian Coal Seams from Singrauli Coalfield (M. P.), India: Petrochemical Nature, Rank, Age and Sedimentation,” International Journal of Coal Geology, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1990, pp. 309-342. doi:10.1016/0166-5162(90)90086-E

[1] P. Billingsley, “Statistical Methods in Chains”, Annals of Mathematical Statistics, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1961, pp. 12-40. doi:/10.1214/aoms/1177705136

[2] J. W. Harbaugh and G. Bonham-Carter, “Computer Simu- lation in Geology,” Wiley Interscience, New York, 1970, p. 575.

[3] I. Hattori, “Entropy in Markov Chain and Discrimination of Cyclic Pattern in Lithologic Successions,” Mathematical Geology, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1976, pp. 477-497. doi:10.1007/BF01028983

[4] A. D. Miall, “Markov Chain Analysis Applied to an Alluvial Plain Succession,” Sedimentology, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 347-364. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1973.tb01615.x

[5] S. M. Casshyap, “Cyclic Characteristics of Coal-Bearing Sediments in the Bochumer Formation (Westphal A2) Ruhrgebiet, Germany,” Sedimentology, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1975, pp. 237-255. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1975.tb00292.x

[6] R. N. Hota, K. L. Pandya and W. Maejima, “Cyclic Sedimentation and Facies Organization of the Coal Bearing Barakar Formation, Singrauli Coalfield, Orissa, India: A Statistical Analysis of Subsurface Logs,” Journal of Geoscience, Vol. 46, 2003, pp. 1-11.

[7] R. N. Hota and W. Maejima, “Comparative Study of Cyclicity of Lithofacies in Lower Gondwana Formations of Talchir Basin, Orissa, India: A Statistical Analysis of Subsurface Logs,” Gondwana Research, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2004, pp. 353-362. doi:10.1016/S1342-937X(05)70789-9

[8] R. N. Hota and M. Sahoo, “Cyclic Sedimentation of the Karharbari Formation (Damuda Group), Talchir Gondwana Basin, Orissa,” Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 73, No. 4, 2009, pp. 469-478. doi:10.1007/s12594-009-0032-x

[9] R. N. Hota and B. Das, “Cyclic Sedimentation of the Barren Measures Formation (Damuda Group), Talchir Gondwana Basin: Statistical Appraisal from Borehole Logs,” Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 75, No. 3, 2010, pp. 549-559. doi:10.1007/s12594-010-0044-6

[10] R. N. Hota, “Relationship between Net Subsidence and Coal Cycle Parameters—A Statistical Appraisal from Subsurface Logs of Damuda Group, Talchir Gondwana Basin, India,” Mathematical Geosciences, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2010, pp. 223-242. doi:10.1007/s11004-009-9243-3

[11] P. McL. D. Duff, “Cyclic Sedimentation in the Permian Coal Measures of New South Wales,” Journal of the Geological Society of Australia, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1967, pp. 293-307. doi:10.1080/00167616708728667

[12] K. R. Johnson and A. C. Cook, “Cyclic Characteristics of Sediments in the Moon Island Beach Subgroup, New Castle Coal Measures, New South Wales,” Mathematical Geology, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1973, pp. 91-110. doi:10.1007/BF02114089

[13] W. A. Read and J. M. Dean, “Cycles of Subsidence: Their Relationship in Different Sedimentary and Tectonic Environments in the Scottish Carboriferous,” Sedimentology, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1976, pp. 107-120. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1976.tb00041.x

[14] Z. A. Khan and R. C. Tewari, “Net Subsidence and Number of Coal Cycles; Their Interrelationship in Different Permian Gondwana Basins of Peninsular India,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol. 73, No. 1-2, 1991, pp. 161-169. doi:10.1016/0037-0738(91)90028-C

[15] J. C. DAVIS, “Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology,” John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, 2002, p. 639.

[16] W. A. Read and J. M. Dean, “Quantitative Relationships between Numbers of Fluvial Cycles, Bulk Lithological Composition and Net Subsidence in a Scottish Namurian Basin,” Sedimentology, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1982, pp. 181-200. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1982.tb01718.x

[17] R. C. Tewari, “Net Subsidence and Evolution of Coal Swamps in Early Permian Coal Measures of Eastern India Gondwana Basins Using Principal Component Analysis,” Journal of Geosciences, Vol. 51, No. 4, 2008, pp. 27-34.

[18] C. S. Raja Rao, “On Singrauli Coalfield,” In: C. S. Raja Rao, Ed., Coalfields of India—Coal resources of Madhya Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir, Geological Survey of India, Kolkata, 1983, pp. 130-153.

[19] J. A. Udden, “Geology and Mineral Resources of Peoria Quadrangle, Illinois,” US Geological Survey Bulletin, No. 506, 1912, p. 103.

[20] J. M. Weller, “Cyclical Sedimentation of the Pensylvanian Period and Its Significance,” Journal of Geology, Vol. 38, No. 2, 1930, pp. 97-135. doi:10.1086/623695

[21] W. A. Read and J. M. Dean, “Cycles of Subsidence: Their Relationship in Different Sedimentary and Tectonic Environments in the Scottish Carboriferous,” Sedimentology, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1976, pp. 107-120. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3091.1976.tb00041.x

[22] S. Sengupta, “Introduction to Sedimentology,” CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 2007, p. 314.

[23] R. C. Tewari, D. P. Singh and Z. A. Khan, “Application of Markov Chain and Entropy Analysis to Lithologic Succession—An Example from the Early Permian Barakar Formation, Bellampalli Coalfield, Andhra Pradesh, India,” Journal of Earth System Science, Vol. 118, No. 5, 2009, pp. 583-596. doi:10.1007/s12040-009-0037-2

[24] R. N. Hota and K. L. Pandya, “Quantitative Relationship between Net Subsidence and Coal Cycles in Barakar Formation, Talchir Coalfield, Orissa,” Journal of the Geological Society of India, Vol. 60, 2002, pp. 203-211.

[25] W. A. Read and J. M. Dean, “Principal Component Analysis of Lithologic Variables from Some Namurian (E2) Paralic Sediments in Central Scotland,” Bulletin of Geological Survey of Grate Britain, Vol. 40, 1972, pp. 83-99.

[26] Z. A. Khan and R. C. Tewari, “R-mode Factor Analysis of Lithologic Variables from Cyclically Deposited Late Paleozoic Barakar Sediments in Singrauli Gondwana Sub-Basin, Peninsular India,” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2011, pp. 144-149. doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2010.08.013

[27] B. K. Mishra and B. D. Singh, “The Lower Permian Coal Seams from Singrauli Coalfield (M. P.), India: Petrochemical Nature, Rank, Age and Sedimentation,” International Journal of Coal Geology, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1990, pp. 309-342. doi:10.1016/0166-5162(90)90086-E