Back
 AJAC  Vol.2 No.8 A , December 2011
Persistence of Indoxacarb on Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis. L.) and Its Risk Assessment
Abstract: A rapid, simple and an efficient method for the determination of indoxacarb in cauliflower and soil samples was developed and validated using QuEChERS technique (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe). Recoveries at four different spiking concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg kg–1 ranged from 87 to 96% were achieved with good repeatability and RSD of 1% - 6%. The average initial deposits of 0.23 and 0.45 mg kg–1 were observed after last application of indoxacarb @ 52.2 and 104.4 g. a.i. ha–1 at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively. The residues in cauliflower dissipated below its LOQ of 0.01 mg kg–1 after 7 days and its half-life periods were observed to be 1.12 and 1.31 days, respectively, at single and double the dosages. Keeping in view 80 g consumption of cauliflower curds per day for a 55 kg person, theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) of indoxacarb when calculated from maximum residues observed on 0 day samples at recommended and double the recommended dosages, respectively, were found to be 20.8 and 36.8 µg in comparison to its acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 550 µg, which is quite safe.
Cite this paper: nullR. Takkar, S. Sahoo, G. Singh, K. Mandal, R. Battu and B. Singh, "Persistence of Indoxacarb on Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis. L.) and Its Risk Assessment," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 2 No. 8, 2011, pp. 69-76. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2011.228126.
References

[1]   C. T. Allen, M. S. Kharboutli, J. R. C. Capp, L. Eearnest and StewardTM, “New Insecticides for the New Millennium Special Report 193,” Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Uni-versity of Arkansas, 1999, pp. 56- 64.

[2]   A. Moncada, “Environmental Fate of Indoxacarb,” En- vironmental Monitoring Branch, Department of Pesticide Regulation, CA, 2003.

[3]   Anonymous, “Farm Chemicals Handbook,” Meister Pu- blishing Company, 2002.

[4]   S. F. McCann, G. D. Annis, R. Shapiro, D. W. Piotrowshi, G. P. Lahm and J. K Long, “The Discovery of Indoxacarb: Oxadiazine as a New Class of Pyrazoline Type Insecticides,” Pest Management Science, Vol. 57, No. 2, 2001, pp.153-164. doi:10.1002/1526-4998(200102)57:2<153::AID-PS288>3.0.CO;2-O

[5]   H. H. Harder, S. L. Riley, S. S. MacCann and S. N. Irving, “DPX-MPO62: A Noval Broad Spectrum, Environmentally Soft, Insect Control Compound,” Proceedings of the 1996 Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Brighton, 1996, pp. 449-454.

[6]   J. P. Michand and A. K. Grant, “IPM-Compatibility of Foliar Insecticides for Citrus: Indices Derived from Toxicity to Beneficial Insects from Four Orders,” Journal of Insect Science, Vol. 16, 2003, pp. 3-18.

[7]   S. Hewa-Kapuge, S. McDougall and A. A. Hoff?man, “Effects of Methoxyfenozide, Indoxacarb, and Other Insecticides on the Beneficial Egg Parasitoid Trichograma near Brassicae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) under Laboratory and Field Conditions,” Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 96, No. 4, 2003, pp. 1083-1090. doi:10.1603/0022-0493-96.4.1083

[8]   G. E. Studebaker and T. J. Kring, “Effects of Insecticides on Orius Insidiosus Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), Measured by Field, Green?house and Petri Dish Bioassays,” Florida Entomological, Vol. 86, 2003, pp. 179-185.

[9]   J. Saimandir and M. Gopal, “Application of Indoxacarb for Managing Shoot and Fruit Borer of Egg Plant (Solanum Melongena L.) and Its Decontamination,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B, Vol. 44, No. 3, 2009, pp. 292-301. doi:10.1080/03601230902728443

[10]   Anonymous, “Package of Practice for Vegetable Crops,” Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, 2008, pp. 92-110.

[11]   S. Islam, N. Afrin, M. S. Hossain, N. Nahar, M. Mosihuzzaman and M. I. R. Rouf Mamun, “Analysis of Some Pesticide Residue in Cauliflower by High Performanace Liquid Chromatography,” American Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2009, pp. 325-329. doi:10.3844/ajessp.2009.325.329

[12]   17 November, 2011. http://www.thefloweringgarden.com/cauliflower.htm

[13]   A. Regupathy, B. Habcebullah and M. Balasubramanian, “Dissi-pation of Insecticides Applied to Control Plutella Xyllostella Citrus and Spodoptera Litura, Faber in Ca- bbage,” Pesticides, Vol. 19, No. 9, 1985, pp. 53-56.

[14]   B. A. Patel, M. F. Shah, B. K. Patel, J. L. Patel and J. G. Talati, “Chlorpyriphos Residues in/on Cabbage and Brinjal,” Pesticides Research Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1999, pp. 194-196.

[15]   C. K. Gill, S. Kaur and B. S. Joia, “Efficacy of New Insecticides for the Management of Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (Linnaeus) on Cau-liflower and Ca- bbage,” Journal of Insect Science, Vol. 21, 2008, pp. 171- 177.

[16]   M. S. Murthy, P. S. Jagdish and V. T. Sannaveerappananvar, “Efficacy of Plant Products and New Insecticides against Diamondback Moth, Plutella Xylostella (L.) (Yponomeutidae: Lepidoptera) on Cabbage,” Journal of Plant Interactions, Vol. 3, 2006, pp. 1-5.

[17]   T. X. Liu, J. A. N. Sparks and W. Chen, “Toxicity, Persistance and Efficiency of Indoxacarb and Two Other Insecticides on Plutella Xylostella (Lepidoptera:Plutellidae) Immature in Cabbage,” International Journal of Pest Management, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2003, pp. 235-241. doi:10.1080/0967087031000101070

[18]   B. S. Joia, “Susceptibility of Plutella Xyllostella (Linnaeus) Populations from Punjab to Emamectin Benzoate and Indoxacarb,” Journal of Insect Science, Vol. 20, 2007, pp. 204-207.

[19]   A. Kaur, B. K. Kang and B. Singh, “Toxicity of Different Insecticide against Spodoptera Litura (Fabricius) in Punjab,” India Pesticide Research Journal, Vol. 19, 2007, pp. 47-50.

[20]   S. Singh, D. P. Choudhary and Y. S. Mathure, “Efficacy of Some Newer Insecticides against Fruit Borer, Helicoverpa Armigera (Hubner) on Tomato,” Indian Journal of Entomology, Vol. 67, No. 4, 2005, pp. 339-341.

[21]   V. Singh, B. S. Thakur and M. K. Chandraker, “Bio- Efficacay of Insecticides against Insect Pests of Chilli,” Environment and Ecology, Vol. 23S (Special 3), 2005, pp. 600-604.

[22]   T. X. Liu, J. A. N. Sparks, W. Chen, G. M. Liang and C. Brister, “Toxicity, Persistence and Efficacy of Indoxacarb on Cabbage Looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Ca- bbage,” Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol. 92, 2002, pp. 360-367. doi:10.1603/0022-0493-95.2.360

[23]   M. Anastassiades, S. J. Lehotay, D. Stajnbaher and F. J. Schenck, “Fast and Easy Multiresidue Method Employing Acetonitrile Extraction/Partitioning and Dispersive solid-Phase Extraction for the Determination of Pesticide Residues in Produce,” Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 86, No. 2, 2003, pp. 412-431.

[24]   S. J. Lehotay, K. Mastovska and S. J. Yun, “Evaluation of Two Fast and Easy Methods for Pesticide Residue Analysis in Fatty Food Matrixes,” Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 88, 2005, pp. 630-638.

[25]   J. A. R. Paschoal, S. Rath, F. P. S. Airoldi and F. G. R. Reyes, “Validation of Chromatographic Methods for the Determination of Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Fo- ods,” Química Nova, Vol. 31, 2008, pp. 1190-1198. doi:10.1590/S0100-40422008000500048

[26]   F. M. Lanc, “Validation of Chromatographic Methods of Analysis,” Rima, Sa?o Carlos.

[27]   A. R. C. Hill and S. L. Reynolds, “Guideline for In-House Validation of Analytical Methods for Pesticide Residues in Food and Animal Feeds,” Analyst, Vol. 124, No. 2, 1999, pp. 953-958. doi:10.1039/a900603f

[28]   M. Ribani, C. B. G. Bottoli, C. H. Collins, I. C. S. F. Jardim and L. F. C. Melo, “Validation for Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Methods,” Química Nova, Vol. 27, 2004, pp. 771-780. doi:10.1590/S0100-40422004000500017

[29]   P. Aysal, A. A. Rpa, S. J. Lehotay and A. Cannavan, “Validation of an Efficient Method for the Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables Using Ethyl Acetate for Extraction,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B, Vol. 42, 2007, pp. 481-490. doi:10.1080/19312450701392490

[30]   W. M. Hoskins, “Mathematical Treatment of the Rate of Loss of Pesticide Residue,” FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, Vol. 9, 1961, pp. 163-168.

[31]   S. R. Sinha, R. K. Gupta, V. T. Gajbhiye and N. Vishwa, “Bioefficacy and Persistence of Indoxacarb on Solanum Melongena,” Annual Plant Protection Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2010, pp. 223-282.

[32]   S. Gupta, R. K. Sharma, R. K. Gupta, S. R. Sinha and V. T. Gajbhiye, “Persistence of a New Insecticides and Their Efficacy against Insect Pests of Okra,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 82, 2009, pp. 243-247. doi:10.1007/s00128-008-9581-8

[33]   Anonymous, “Dietary Guidelines for the Indians,” Indian Council of Medical Research, 1999.

[34]   Anonymous, “Guide to Codex Maximum Limits for Pesticide Residues,” Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, 2009.

 
 
Top