AJPS  Vol.3 No.1 , January 2012
Effect of Compaction on Physical and Micromorphological Properties of Forest Soils
Abstract: The objective of this research was to assess the effect of skidding machinery on soil physical and micromorphological properties. The different positions (control or non-traffic areas, left wheel track, right wheel track and log track) and two soil depths (0 - 10 and 10 - 20 cm) in three repetitions were investigated. The results showed that average soil dry bulk density in four positions and two soil depths were significantly different. Comparison of average total porosity percentage and soil saturated hydraulic conductivity revealed that there were significant differences in four positions and two soil depths. Soil thin section studies using Image Tool software showed that in compacted samples there was an increase in the number of vughs voids and channels voids were in low occurrence. Micromorphological studies showed that soil compaction caused void size to decrease. In compacted samples voids bigger than 10 μm were very rare and dominant voids size was 2 μm. In compacted samples soil structure were damaged and aggregates were compressed. Also soil matrix was compressed and microstructure was massive. Results from this study confirmed that skidding machinery had a significant effect on soil physical and morphological properties. These changes causes soil and environmental degradation due to reduction in water infiltration increasing soil erosion risk.
Cite this paper: I. Bagheri, S. Kalhori, M. Akef and F. Khormali, "Effect of Compaction on Physical and Micromorphological Properties of Forest Soils," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 1, 2012, pp. 159-163. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.31018.

[1]   R. I. McDonald, G. Motzkin, M. S. Bank, D. B. Kittredge, J. Burk and D. R. Foster, “Forest Harvesting and Land- Use Conversion over Two Decades in Massachusetts,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 227, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 31-41. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2006.02.006

[2]   M. Susnjar, D. Horvat and J. Seselj, “Soil Compaction in Timber Skidding in Winter Conditions,” Croation Journal of Forest Engineering, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2006, pp. 3-15.

[3]   R. Naghdi, I. Bagheri, M. Lotfalian and B. Setodeh, “Rutting and Soil Displacement Caused by 450C Timber Jack Wheeled Skidder (Asalem Forest Northern Iran),” Journal of Forest Science, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2009, pp. 177-183.

[4]   J. R. Williamson and W. A. Neilsen, “The Influence of Forest Site on Rate and Extent of Soil Compaction and Profile Disturbance of Skid Trail during Ground-Based Harvesting,” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 30, No. 8, 2000, pp. 1196-1205. doi:10.1139/x00-041

[5]   R. Naghdi, I. Bagheri and M. Akef, “Soil Compaction Caused by 450C Timber Jack Wheeled Skidder (Shefarood Forest, Northern Iran),” Journal of Forest Science, Vol. 53, No. 7, 2007, pp. 314-319.

[6]   A. Najafi, A. Solgi and S. H. Sadeghi, “Soil Disturbance Following Four Wheel Rubber Skidder Logging on the Steep Trail in the North Mountainous Forest of Iran,” Soil and Tillage Research, Vol. 103, No. 1, 2009, pp. 165-169. doi:10.1016/j.still.2008.10.003

[7]   D. H. McNabb, A. D. Startsev and H. Nguyen, “Soil Wetness and Traffic Effects on Bulk Density and Air-Filled Porosity of Compacted Boreal Forest Soils,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 65, No. 4, 2001, pp. 1238-1247. doi:10.2136/sssaj2001.6541238x

[8]   M. Pagliai, S. Pellegrini, N. Vignozzi, S. Rousseva and O. Grasselli, “The Quantification of the Effect of Subsoil Compaction on Soil Porosity and Related Physical Properties under Conventional to Reduced Management Practices,” Advances in GeoEcology, Vol. 32, 2000, pp. 305-313.

[9]   S. Kapur, A. Mermut and G. Stoops, “New Trends in Soil Micromorphology,” Springer, Berlin, 2008. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-79134-8

[10]   P. Boivin, B. Schaffer, E. Temgoua, M. Gratier and G. Steinman, “Assessment of Soil Compaction Using Soil Shrinkage Modeling: Experimental Data and Perspectives,” Soil and Tillage Research, Vol. 88, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 65-79. doi:10.1016/j.still.2005.04.008

[11]   M. Pagliai, A. Marsili, P. Servadio, N. Vignozzi and S. Pellegrini, “Changes in Some Physical Properties of a Clay Soil in Central Italy Following the Passage of Rubber Tracked and Wheeled Tractors of Medium Power,” Soil and Tillage Research, Vol. 73, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 119-129. doi:10.1016/S0167-1987(03)00105-3

[12]   Soil Survey Staff, “Keys to Soil Taxonomy,” 10th Edition, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, 2006.

[13]   G. Stoops, “Guidelines for Analysis and Description of Soil and Regolith Thin Sections,” SSSA, Madison, 2003.

[14]   D. Wilcox, B. Dove, D. McDavid and D. Greer, “UTHSCSA Image Tool for Windows Version 3.0,” The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, 2002.

[15]   A. Ares, T. A. Terry, R. E. Miller, H. W. Anderson and B. L. Flaming, “Ground-Based Forest Harvesting Effects on Soil Physical Properties and Douglas-Fir Growth,” Soil Science Society of America Journal, Vol. 69, No. 6, 2005, pp. 1822-1832. doi:10.2136/sssaj2004.0331

[16]   M. Demir, E. Makineci and E. Yilmaz, “Investigation of Timber Harvesting Impacts on Herbaceous Forest and Surface Soil Properties on Skid Road in an Oak (Quercus Petrea L.) Stand,” Building and Environment, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2007, pp. 1194-1199. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.11.008

[17]   J. Kuht and E. Reintam, “Soil Compaction Effect on Soil Physical Properties and the Content of Nutrients in Spring Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) and Spring Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.O.),” Agronomy Research, Vol. 35, 2004, pp. 3149-3158.

[18]   J. Pranagal, J. Lipiec and H. Domzal, “Changes in Pore Distribution and Stability of Two Soils under Long Term Tillage Systems,” International agrophysics, Vol. 19, 2005, pp. 165-174.

[19]   S. Zhang, H. Grip and L. Lovdahl, “Effect of Soil Compaction on Hydraulic Properties of Two Loess Soils in China,” Soil and Tillage Research, Vol. 90, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 117-125. doi:10.1016/j.still.2005.08.012

[20]   R. Brewer, “Fabric and Mineral Analysis of Soils,” John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1964.