Why the Big Bang Model Cannot Describe the Observed Universe Having Pressure and Radiation

Author(s)
Abhas Mitra

ABSTRACT

It has been recently shown that, since in general relativity (GR), given one time label t, one can choose any other time label t → t_{*}= f(t), the pressure of a homogeneous and isotropic fluid is intrinsically zero (Mitra, Astrophys. Sp. Sc. 333, 351, 2011). Here we explore the physical reasons for the inevitability of this mathematical result. The essential reason is that the Weyl Postulate assumes that the test particles in a homogeneous and isotropic spacetime undergo pure geodesic motion without any collisions amongst themselves. Such an assumed absence of collisions corresponds to the absence of any intrinsic pressure. Accordingly, the “Big Bang Model” (BBM) which assumes that the cosmic fluid is not only continuous but also homogeneous and isotropic intrinsically corresponds to zero pressure and hence zero temperature. It can be seen that this result also follows from the relevant general relativistic first law of thermodynamics (Mitra, Found. Phys. 41, 1454, 2011). Therefore, the ideal BBM cannot describe the physical universe having pressure, temperature and radiation. Consequently, the physical universe may comprise matter distributed in discrete non-continuous lumpy fashion (as observed) rather than in the form of a homogeneous continuous fluid. The intrinsic absence of pressure in the “Big Bang Model” also rules out the concept of a “Dark Energy”.

It has been recently shown that, since in general relativity (GR), given one time label t, one can choose any other time label t → t

Cite this paper

nullA. Mitra, "Why the Big Bang Model Cannot Describe the Observed Universe Having Pressure and Radiation,"*Journal of Modern Physics*, Vol. 2 No. 12, 2011, pp. 1436-1442. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2011.212177.

nullA. Mitra, "Why the Big Bang Model Cannot Describe the Observed Universe Having Pressure and Radiation,"

References

[1] A. Mitra, “Revisiting the Old Problem of General Relativistic Adiabatic Collapse of a Uniform Density Self- Gravitating Sphere,” Gravitation & Cosmology, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2012, (To be published).

[2] A. Mitra, “No Uniform Density Star in General Relativity,” Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 333, No. 1, 2010, pp. 169-174. doi:10.1007/s10509-010-0567-8

[3] A. Mitra, “Why Gravitational Contraction Must Be Accompanied by Emission of radiation in Both Newtonian and Einstein Gravity,” Physical Review D, Vol. 74, No. 2, 2006, p. 024010. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.74.024010

[4] A. Mitra, “The Fallacy of Oppenheimer Snyder Collapse: No General Relativistic Collapse at All, No Black Hole, No Physical Singularity,” Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 332, No. 1, 2011 pp. 43-48. doi:10.1007/s10509-010-0578-5

[5] A. Mitra, “The Matter in the Big-Bang Model Is Dust and Not Any Arbitrary Perfect Fluid!” Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 333, No. 1, 2011, pp. 351-356. doi:10.1007/s10509-011-0635-8

[6] B. F. Schutz, “A First Course in General Relativity,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985.

[7] J. V. Narlikar, “An Introduction to Cosmology,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002.

[8] E. Harrison, “Cosmology, the Science of the Universe,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000, p. 349.

[9] S. A. Hayward, “Gravitational Energy in Spherical Symmetry,” Physical Review D, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1996, pp. 1938-1949. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.53.1938

[10] M. E. Cahill and G. C. McVittie, “Spherical Symmetry and Mass-Energy in General Relativity. II: Particular Cases,” Journal Mathematical Physics, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1970, pp. 1392-1401. doi:10.1063/1.1665274

[11] A. Mitra, “Macroscopic Form of the First Law of Thermodynamics for an Adibatically Evolving Non-singular Self-gravitating Fluid,” Foundations of Physics, Vol. 41, No. 9, 2011 pp. 1454-1461. doi:10.1007/s10701-011-9557-0

[12] Yu. V. Baryshev, “Expanding Space: The Root of Con- ceptual Problems of the Cosmological Physics,” Pro- ceedings of the International Conference on Problems of Practical Cosmology, St. Petersburg, 23-27 June 2008, pp. 20-30.

[13] P. J. E. Peebles, “Principles of Physical Cosmology,” Princeton University Press, Priceton, 1993

[14] A. Mitra, “Does Pressure Increase or Decrease Active Gravitational Mass Density,” Physics Letters B, Vol. 685, No. 1, 2010, pp. 8-11. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2010.01.048

[15] N. Rosen, “The Energy of the Universe,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1994 pp. 319-321. doi:10.1007/BF02108013

[16] A. Mitra, “Einstein Energy Associated with the Fried- mann-Robertson-Walker Metric,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2010, pp. 443-469. doi:10.1007/s10714-009-0863-1

[17] M. Kriele, “A Bound on the Concentration of Mmatter in Spherically Symmetric Stars & Its Application for the Existence of Black-Holes,” Rendiconti del Seminario Matematico Università e Politecnico di Torino, Vol. 50, 1992, pp. 147-152.

[18] A. Mitra, “Quantum Information Paradox: Real or Ficti- tious,” Pramana, Vol. 73, No. 3, 2009, pp. 615-622. doi:10.1007/s12043-009-0113-9

[19] A. Mitra, “Comments on “The Euclidean Gravitational Action as Black Hole Entropy, Singularities, and Space- Time Voids,” Journal of Mathematical Physics, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2009, p. 042502. doi:10.1063/1.3118910

[20] Y. A. Yatsunenk and J. A. Budagov, “Red Shift in a Laboratory Environment,” arXiv.org., 2011, arXiv:1103.0808.

[21] J. G. Hartnett, “Is the Universe Really Expanding?” arXiv. org., 2011, arXiv:1107.24851.

[22] D. F. Crawford, “Observational Evidence Favors a Static Universe (Part I),” Journal of Cosmology, Vol. 13, 2011, pp. 3875-3946.

[23] D. F. Crawford, “Observations of Type 1a Supernovae Are Consistent with a Static Universe,” arXiv.org., 2009, (arXiv:0901. 4172).

[24] D. F. Crawford, “No Evidence of Time Dilation in Gam- ma Ray Burst Data,” arXiv.org., 2009, (arXiv:0901.4169).

[25] D. Kocevski and V. Petrosian, “On the Lack of Time Dilation Signatures in Gamma-Ray Burst Light Curves,” The Astrophysical Journal, Submitted 2011, (arXiv: 1110.6175).

[1] A. Mitra, “Revisiting the Old Problem of General Relativistic Adiabatic Collapse of a Uniform Density Self- Gravitating Sphere,” Gravitation & Cosmology, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2012, (To be published).

[2] A. Mitra, “No Uniform Density Star in General Relativity,” Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 333, No. 1, 2010, pp. 169-174. doi:10.1007/s10509-010-0567-8

[3] A. Mitra, “Why Gravitational Contraction Must Be Accompanied by Emission of radiation in Both Newtonian and Einstein Gravity,” Physical Review D, Vol. 74, No. 2, 2006, p. 024010. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.74.024010

[4] A. Mitra, “The Fallacy of Oppenheimer Snyder Collapse: No General Relativistic Collapse at All, No Black Hole, No Physical Singularity,” Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 332, No. 1, 2011 pp. 43-48. doi:10.1007/s10509-010-0578-5

[5] A. Mitra, “The Matter in the Big-Bang Model Is Dust and Not Any Arbitrary Perfect Fluid!” Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 333, No. 1, 2011, pp. 351-356. doi:10.1007/s10509-011-0635-8

[6] B. F. Schutz, “A First Course in General Relativity,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985.

[7] J. V. Narlikar, “An Introduction to Cosmology,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002.

[8] E. Harrison, “Cosmology, the Science of the Universe,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000, p. 349.

[9] S. A. Hayward, “Gravitational Energy in Spherical Symmetry,” Physical Review D, Vol. 53, No. 4, 1996, pp. 1938-1949. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.53.1938

[10] M. E. Cahill and G. C. McVittie, “Spherical Symmetry and Mass-Energy in General Relativity. II: Particular Cases,” Journal Mathematical Physics, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1970, pp. 1392-1401. doi:10.1063/1.1665274

[11] A. Mitra, “Macroscopic Form of the First Law of Thermodynamics for an Adibatically Evolving Non-singular Self-gravitating Fluid,” Foundations of Physics, Vol. 41, No. 9, 2011 pp. 1454-1461. doi:10.1007/s10701-011-9557-0

[12] Yu. V. Baryshev, “Expanding Space: The Root of Con- ceptual Problems of the Cosmological Physics,” Pro- ceedings of the International Conference on Problems of Practical Cosmology, St. Petersburg, 23-27 June 2008, pp. 20-30.

[13] P. J. E. Peebles, “Principles of Physical Cosmology,” Princeton University Press, Priceton, 1993

[14] A. Mitra, “Does Pressure Increase or Decrease Active Gravitational Mass Density,” Physics Letters B, Vol. 685, No. 1, 2010, pp. 8-11. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2010.01.048

[15] N. Rosen, “The Energy of the Universe,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1994 pp. 319-321. doi:10.1007/BF02108013

[16] A. Mitra, “Einstein Energy Associated with the Fried- mann-Robertson-Walker Metric,” General Relativity and Gravitation, Vol. 42, No. 3, 2010, pp. 443-469. doi:10.1007/s10714-009-0863-1

[17] M. Kriele, “A Bound on the Concentration of Mmatter in Spherically Symmetric Stars & Its Application for the Existence of Black-Holes,” Rendiconti del Seminario Matematico Università e Politecnico di Torino, Vol. 50, 1992, pp. 147-152.

[18] A. Mitra, “Quantum Information Paradox: Real or Ficti- tious,” Pramana, Vol. 73, No. 3, 2009, pp. 615-622. doi:10.1007/s12043-009-0113-9

[19] A. Mitra, “Comments on “The Euclidean Gravitational Action as Black Hole Entropy, Singularities, and Space- Time Voids,” Journal of Mathematical Physics, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2009, p. 042502. doi:10.1063/1.3118910

[20] Y. A. Yatsunenk and J. A. Budagov, “Red Shift in a Laboratory Environment,” arXiv.org., 2011, arXiv:1103.0808.

[21] J. G. Hartnett, “Is the Universe Really Expanding?” arXiv. org., 2011, arXiv:1107.24851.

[22] D. F. Crawford, “Observational Evidence Favors a Static Universe (Part I),” Journal of Cosmology, Vol. 13, 2011, pp. 3875-3946.

[23] D. F. Crawford, “Observations of Type 1a Supernovae Are Consistent with a Static Universe,” arXiv.org., 2009, (arXiv:0901. 4172).

[24] D. F. Crawford, “No Evidence of Time Dilation in Gam- ma Ray Burst Data,” arXiv.org., 2009, (arXiv:0901.4169).

[25] D. Kocevski and V. Petrosian, “On the Lack of Time Dilation Signatures in Gamma-Ray Burst Light Curves,” The Astrophysical Journal, Submitted 2011, (arXiv: 1110.6175).