IJOC  Vol.1 No.4 , December 2011
In Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Methanol, Chloroform and Aqueous Extracts of Origanum vulgare and Their Comparative Analysis
Abstract: The work reports antibacterial and antifungal activity of different solvent extracts of Origanum vulgare. The antimicrobial activity of methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts were determined against nine different gram negative and gram positive bacterial strains and three fungal stains. The bacterial strains were Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Micrococcus luteus (ATCC 9341), Pseudo-monas aeruginosa (ATCC 33347), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella typhi (ATCC 19430), Shig-ella flexneri (ATCC 25929), Salmonella para typhi A (ATCC 9150) and Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 49565) and fungal strains were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nigar and Aspergillus pterus. Agar well diffusion method was followed in this study. The comparative analysis of antibacterial activity reflects that among these three extracts, chloroform and methanol extracts shows promising result by exhibiting maximum anti-bacterial activity, whereas aqueous extract is not active against most of these strains. The analysis of anti-fungal activity reveals chloroform extract as most efficacious unlike methanol and Aqueous extracts.
Cite this paper: nullZ. Ashraf, A. Muhammad, M. Imran and A. Tareq, "In Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Methanol, Chloroform and Aqueous Extracts of Origanum vulgare and Their Comparative Analysis," International Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol. 1 No. 4, 2011, pp. 257-261. doi: 10.4236/ijoc.2011.14037.

[1]   P. R. V. Santos, A. C. X. Oliveira and T. C. B. Tomassini, “Controle Microbiogico de Produtos Fitoterapicos,” Rev Farm Bioquim, Vol. 31, 1985, pp. 35-38.

[2]   T. O. Ekpendu, A. A. Akshomeju and J. I. Ologun, “Anti- Inflammatory Antimicrobial Activity,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, Vol. 30, 1994, pp. 379-384.

[3]   M. C. Roghmann, M. T. Wallin, P. H. Gorman and J. A. Johnson, “Prevalence and Natural History of Colonization with Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Community Dwelling People with Spinal Cord Dysfunction,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 87, No. 10, 2006, pp. 1305-1309. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2006.07.260

[4]   X. Y. Qin, J. R. Razia, J. R. Johnson, D. R. Stapp, T. Boster, D. L. Tsosie, C. R. Smith, K. G. Braden, F. J. Angulo and P. I. Tarr, “Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Gram- negative Bacilli in the Fecal Micro Flora of Children,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 50, No. 10, 2006, pp. 3325-3329. doi:10.1128/AAC.00548-06

[5]   M. W. Iwu, A. R. Duncan and C. O. Okunji, “New Antimicrobials of Plant Origin,” In: J. Janick, Ed., Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses, ASHS Press, Alex- andria, 1999, pp. 457-462.

[6]   M. Sousa, C. Pinheiro, M. E. O. Matos, F. J. Matos, M. I. Lacerda and A. A. Craveiro, “Constituintes Quimicos de Plantas Medicinais Brasileiras,” Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, 1991, pp. 385-388.

[7]   L. Kubo, H. Muroi and M. Himejima, “Structure-Anti- bacterial Activity Relationships of Anacardic Acids,” Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, Vol. 41, No. 6, 1993, pp. 1016-1019. doi:10.1021/jf00030a036

[8]   E. E. S. Shapoval, S. M. Silveira, M. L. Miranda, C. B. Alice and A. T. Henriques, “Evaluation of Some Pharm- acological Activities of Eugenia Uniflora,” Journal of Ethnopharmacol, Vol. 44, 1994, pp. 136-142.

[9]   N. Artizzu, L. Bonsignore, F. Cotttiglia and G. Loy, “Studies of the Diuretic and Antimicrobial Activity of Cynodon Dactylon Essential Oil,” Fitoterapia, Vol. 66, 1995, pp. 174-175.

[10]   A. A. Izzo, D. I. Carlo, G. Biscardi, D. Fusco, R. Mascolo, N. Borreli, F. Capasso, F. Fasulo and M. P. Autore, “Biological Screening of Italian Medicinal Plants for Antibacterial Activity,” Phytotherapy Research, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1995, pp. 281-286. doi:10.1002/ptr.2650090410

[11]   M. W. Sultan, A. D. Altaf and S. Jehandar, “Common Medicinal Plants of Chapursan Valley, Gojal II, GILGIT- PAKISTAN,” Journal of Research (Science), Vol. 15, No. 1, 2004, pp. 41-43.

[12]   M. T. Baratta, H. J. D. dorman, S. G. Deans, A. C. Figueiredo, J. G. Barroso and G. Ruberto, “Antimicrobials and Antioxidants Properties of Some Commercial Essential Oils,” Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1998, pp. 235-253. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1026(1998070)13:4<235::AID-FFJ733>3.0.CO;2-T

[13]   D. J. Daferera, B. N. Ziogas and M. G. Polissiou, “GC- MS Analysis of Essential Oils from Some Greek Aromatic Plants and Their Fungi Toxicity on Penicillium Digitatum,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, No. 6, 2000, pp. 2576-2581. doi:10.1021/jf990835x

[14]   S. G. Deans and K. P. Svoboda, “The Antimicrobial Properties of Marjoram (Origanum majorana L) Volatile Oil,” Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2001, pp. 187-190. doi:10.1002/ffj.2730050311

[15]   M. A. Garcia and J. Sanz, “Analysis of Origanum vulgare Volatile by Direct Thermal Desorption Coupled to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 918, No. 1, 2001, pp. 189-194. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(01)00750-6

[16]   S. Kokkini, D. Vokou and R. Karousou, “Morphological and Chemical Variation of Origanum vulgare L. in Greece,” Botanica Chronica, Vol. 10, 1991, pp. 337-346.

[17]   D. Vokou, S. Kokkini and J. M. Bessiere, “Geographic Variation of Greek Oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) Essential Oils,” Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Vol. 21, No. 2, 1993, pp. 287-295. doi:10.1016/0305-1978(93)90047-U

[18]   O. N. Ertas, T. Guler, M. Ciftci, B. Darlkilic and U. G. Simsek, “The Effect of an Essential Oil Mix Drive from Oregano, Clove and Anise on Brolier Performance,” International Journal of Poultry Science, Vol. 4, No. 11, 2005, pp. 879-884. doi:10.3923/ijps.2005.879.884

[19]   E. J. Veldhuizen, T. O. Creutzberg, S. A. Burt and H. P. Haagsman, “Low Temperature and Binding to Food Components Inhibit the Antibacterial Activity of Carvacrol against Listeria monocytogenes in Streak Tartare,” Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 70, No. 9, 2007, pp. 2127-2132.

[20]   C. C. Arcila-Lozano, G. Loarca-Pina, S. Lecona-Uribe and E. M. Gonzalez, “Oregano Properties, Composition and Biological Activity,” Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2004, pp. 100-111.

[21]   D. Gatsing, J. A. Mbah, I. H. Garba, P. Tane, P. Djemgou and B. F. Nji-Nkah, “An Antisalmonellal Agent from the Leaves of Glossocalys. Brevipes Benth (Monimiaceae),” Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2006, pp. 84-87. doi:10.3923/pjbs.2006.84.87

[22]   R. V. Shastri and J. S. Varudkar, “Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 3-Propen-1,2-benzisoxazole Derivatives,” Indian Journal of Chemical Sciences, Vol. 48B, 2009, pp. 1156-1160.