FNS  Vol.2 No.10 , December 2011
Alanine Transaminase Individual Variation Is a Better Marker than Socio-Cultural Factors for Body Mass Increase in Healthy Males
Abstract: Overweight and obesity are considered a major burden on public health in developed countries. Underlying etiologies are enigmatic and metabolic causes have been suggested to various extents before. We analyze links of major blood parameters to individual body mass in a young male cohort, controlling for socio-cultural factors, in order to explore an underlying metabolic cause of obesity. Anthropometric (height, weight) physiologic (blood pressure) and metabolic data (total cholesterol, alanine transaminase, creatinine, postprandial glucose, blood cell counts, haemoglobin) of Swiss conscripts (N = 46,684; 18 - 20 yrs old; 2005-2007 census) were examined in the context of their socio-cultural groupings (occupation, mother tongue, religion) by ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Swiss Armed Forces recruiting is mandatory, thus each year’s group studied reflects more than 80% of a year’s male Swiss citizen birth cohort. Individual body mass index ranged from 19 kg/m2 (5th percentile) to 29 kg/m2 (95th percentile) with a median of 22 kg/m2. BMI increases significantly, even within its normal range (18.5 - 25 kg/m2) with increases in alanine transaminase (r2 = 0.10), total cholesterol (r2 = 0.08) and erythrocyte counts (r2 = 0.02). All other parameters, including socio-cultural categories, explain individually 1% or less of total BMI variation. Glucose values do not correlate with BMI significantly, thus suggesting a specific metabolic co-etiology of individual mass increases. There may occur a biochemical anomaly in liver metabolism that underlies development of the metabolic syndrome later in life. Were it so, pharmacological intervention rather than just diet and exercise regime could be more effective treatment of obesity.
Cite this paper: nullM. Henneberg, F. Rühli, P. Gruber and U. Woitek, "Alanine Transaminase Individual Variation Is a Better Marker than Socio-Cultural Factors for Body Mass Increase in Healthy Males," Food and Nutrition Sciences, Vol. 2 No. 10, 2011, pp. 1054-1062. doi: 10.4236/fns.2011.210141.

[1]   D. Veitch, L. Veitch and M. Henneberg, “Sizing for the Clothing Industry Using Principal Component Analysis—An Australian Example,” American Society for Testing and Materials International, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2007, ID: JAI100824.

[2]   K. Bhatia, M. Ghabriel and M. Henneberg, “Anatomical Variations in the Branches of the Human Arch of the Aorta: A Possible Increase in Recent Times?” Folia Morphologica, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2005, pp. 217-223.

[3]   M. Henneberg and B. J. George, “Possible Secular Trend in the Incidence of an Anatomical Variant: Median Artery of the Forearm,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 96, No. 4, 1995, pp. 329-334. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330960402

[4]   R. J. Henneberg and M. Henneberg, “Variation in the Closure of the Sacral Canal in the Skeletal Sample from Pompeii, Italy 79 AD,” Perspectives of Human Biology, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1999, pp. 177-188.

[5]   F. J. Rühli and M. Henneberg, “Clinical Perspectives on Secular Trends of Intervertebral Foramen Diameters in an Industrialized European Society,” European Spine Journal, Vol. 13, 2004, pp. 733-739.

[6]   F. J. Rühli, L. B. Solomon and M. Henneberg, “High Prevalence of Tarsal Coalitions and Tarsal Joint Variants in a Recent Cadaver Sample and Its Possible Significance,” Clinical Anatomy, Vol. 16, No. 5, 2003, pp. 411-415. doi:10.1002/ca.10146

[7]   M. Henneberg and S. J. Ulijaszek, “Body Frame Dimensions Can Predict Obesity: Body Mass Index, Body Frame and Fatness,” American Journal of Human Biology, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2010, pp. 83-91. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20957

[8]   F. Frey, G. Huber and G. A. Lupi, “Rekrutierung XXI,” Schweizerische Arztezeitung, Vol. 84, 2003, pp. 341-345.

[9]   B. E. Schleiffenbaum, D. J. Schaer, D. Burki, A.-F. Viollier, E. Viollier, E. R. Stettler and R. Wegmueller, “Unexpected High Prevalence of Metabolic Disorders and Chronic Disease among Young Male Draftees—The Swiss Army XXI Experience,” Swiss Medical Weekly, Vol. 136, 2006, pp. 175-184.

[10]   G. Whitlock, T. Clark, S. van deer Hoorn, A. Rodgers, R. Jackson, R. Norton and S. MacMahon, “Random Errors in the Measurement of 10 Cardiovascular Risk Factors,” European Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 17, No. 10, 2001, pp. 907-909. doi:10.1023/A:1016228410194

[11]   A. Pitton, T. Poynard, F. Imbert-Bismut, L. Khalil, J. Delattre, E. Pelissier, N. Snsonetti and P. Opolon, “Factors Associated with Serum Alanine Transaminase Activity in Healthy Subjects: Consequences for the Definition of Normal Values, for Selection of Blood Donors and for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C,” Hepatology, Vol. 27, No. 5, 1998, pp. 1213-1219. doi:10.1002/hep.510270505

[12]   G. Bedogni, L. Miglioli, N. Battistini, F. Masutti, C. Tribelli and S. Bellentani, “Body Mass Index Is a Good Predictor of an Elevated Alanine Transaminase Level in the General Population: Hints from the Dionysos Study,” Digestive and Liver Disease, Vol. 35, No. 9, 2003, pp. 648-652. doi:10.1016/S1590-8658(03)00378-5

[13]   T. S. Church, J. L. Kuk, R. Ross, E. L. Priest, E. Biltoff and S. N. Blair, “Association of Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Body Mass Index, and Waist Circumference to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease,” Gastroenterology, Vol. 130, No. 7, 2006, pp. 2023-2030. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2006.03.019

[14]   T. C. Schreuder, B. J. Verwer, C. M. van Nieuwkerk and C. J. Mulder, “Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: An Overview of Current Insights in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 14, No. 16, 2008, pp. 2474-2486. doi:10.3748/wjg.14.2474

[15]   K. Omagari, et al., “Fatty Liver in Non-Alcoholic Non-Overweight Japanese Adults: Incidence and Clinical Characteristics,” Journal of Gastoenterology and Hepatology, Vol. 17, No. 10, 2002, pp. 1098-1105. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1746.2002.02846.x

[16]   I. Friis-Liby, F. Aldenborg, P. Jerlstad, K. Rundstr?m and E. Bj?rnsson, “High Prevalence of Metabolic Complications in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 39, No. 9, 2004, pp. 864-869. doi:10.1080/00365520410006431

[17]   2008.

[18]   2008.

[19]   G. Banfi and P. Morelli, “Relation between Body Mass Index and Serum Aminotransferases Concentrations in Professional Athletes,” Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2008, pp. 197-200.