ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to understand the validity of salinity vertical profiles collected from shallow piezometers that are not previously flushed. This study shows that salinity data collected from boreholes are only an average value along the entire screened section of the piezometer. In order to collect data that is rep-resentative for the salinity of the adjacent aquifer, a new monitoring strategy has been developed. This strat-egy includes measurement of the salinity at the top of the watertable in an auger hole which is a shallow boreholes made with an handheld drill. This should be combined with measurements in piezometers that are first flushed to take out stagnant water. From the piezometers on can measure the average salinity of the screened part and the salinity at the bottom of the aquifer. By using this monitoring strategy it is also possi-ble to define where the piezometers screens are located if this is not known beforehand.
Cite this paper
nullE. Balugani and M. Antonellini, "Measuring Salinity within Shallow Piezometers:Comparison of Two Field Methods," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2010, pp. 251-258. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.23029.
 T. Beatley, D. J. Brower, and A. K. Schwab, “An intro-duction to coastal zone management,” Published by Is-land Press, 2002.
M. Antonellini, P. Mollema, B. Giambastiani, K. Bishop, L. Caruso, A. Minchio, L. Pellegrini, M. Sabia, E. Ulazzi, and G. Gabbianelli, “Salt water intrusion in the coastal aquifer of the southern Po Plain, Italy,” Hydrogeology Journal, Vol. 16, No. 8, December 2008.
S. S. A. Nassir, M. H. Loke, C. Y. Lee, M. N. M. Naw-awi, “Salt-water intrusion mapping by geoelectrical maging surveys,” Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 48, pp. 647–661, 2000.
O. E. GHP, “Salt water intrusion in a three-dimensional groundwater system in the Netherlands: a numerical study,” Transp Porous Media, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 137– 158, 2001.
R. M. Powell and R. W. Puls, “Passive sampling of groundwater monitoring wells without purging: Multi-level well chemistry and tracer disappearance,” Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Vol. 12, No. 1–2, pp. 57–77, 1993.
P. E. Church and G. E. Granato, “Bias in groundwater data caused by well-bore flow in long-screen wells,” Ground Water, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 262–273, 1996.
J. M. Martin-Hayden and G. A. Robbins, “Plume distor-tion and apparent attenuation due to concentration aver-aging in monitoring wells,” Ground Water, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 339–346, 1997.
L. S. Britt, “Testing the in-well horizontal laminar flow assumption with a sand-tank well model,” Ground Water Monitoring & Remediation, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 73–81, 2005.
E. Shalev, A. Lazar, S. Wollman, S. Kington, Y. Yechieli, and H. Gvirtzman, “Biased monitoring of fresh water-salt water mixing zone in coastal aquifers, Ground Water, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 49–56, 2009.
C. W. Fetter, Applied Hydrogeology, 4th ed., Upper Sad-dle River, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2001.
T. E. Reilly and D. R. LeBlanc, “Experimental evaluation of factors affecting temporal variability of water samples obtained from long-screened wells,” Ground Water, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 566–576, 1998.
J. M. Martin-Hayden, “Sample concentration response to laminar wellbore flow: Implication to groundwater data variability,” Ground Water, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 12–19. 2000.
A. Elci, F. J. Molz III, and W. R. Waldrop, “Implication of observed and simulated ambient flow in monitoring wells,” Ground Water, Vol. 39, No. 6, pp. 853–862, 2001.
S. R. Hutchins and S. D. Acree, “Ground water sampling bias observed in shallow, convenional wells,” Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 86–93, 2000.
B. M. S. Giambastiani, M. Antonellini, G. H. P. Oude Essink, R. J. Stuurman, “Saltwater intrusion in he uncon-fined coastal aquifer of Ravenna (Italy): A numerical model,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 340, pp. 91–104, 2007.
P. Teatini, M. Ferronato, G. Gambolati, and M. Gonella, “Groundwater pumping and land subsidence in the Emilia-Romagna coastland, Italy: Modeling the past oc-currence and the future trend,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 42, 2006.
M. Bondesan, G. Calderoni, and R. Dal Cin, “Il litorale delle province di Ferrara e di Ravenna (alto Adriatico), evoluzione morfologica e distribuzione dei sedimenti,” Boll Soc Geol, pp. 247–287, 1978.
A. Amorosi, M. L. Colalongo, G. Pasini, D. Preti, “Sedi- mentary response to Late Quaternary sea-level changes in the Romagna coastal plain (Northern Italy),” Sedimentology, Vol. 46, pp. 99–121. 1999.
M. Bondesan, V. Favero, and M. J. Vi?als, “New evi-dence on the evolution of the Po delta coastal plain dur-ing the Holocene,” Quaternary International, Vol. 29/30, pp. 105–110, 1995.
L. Marchesini, A. Amorosi, U. Cibin, A. Zuffa, E. Spadafora, and D. Preti, “Sand composition and sedimentary evolution of a late quaternary depositional sequence, Northwestern Adriatic Coast, Italy,” Journal of Sedimentary Research, Vol. 70, No. 4, pp. 829–838, 2000.
A. Veggiani, “Le ultime vicende geologiche del Raven-nate,” In: Influenza di insediamenti industriali sul circos- tante ambiente naturale, Studio sulla pineta di S. Vitale di Ravenna. Ed. Compositori, Bologna, pp. 48–58, 1974.
B. M. S. Giambastiani, “Evoluzione idrologica ed idrogeologica della pineta di San Vitale (Ravenna),” Ph.D. Thesis, Bologna University, 2007.
UNESCO, “Algorithms for computation of fundamental properties of seawater. Unesco technical papers in marine science 44,” Unesco/SCOR/ICES/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards and SCOR Working Group 51, 1983.
J. M. Martin-Hayden, “Controlled laboratory investi- ga- tions of wellbore concentration response to pumping,” Ground Water, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 121–128, 2000.
P. E. Wendell, “Introduction to environmental engineer-ing and science,” Prentice Hall, 3rd ed. ISBN, No. 0–13–148193–2, 2007.
M. S. Hantush, “Hydraulics of wells,” in Advances in Hydroscience,” Vol. 1, Ed.: V. T. Chow, Academic Press, New York, pp. 281–432, 1964.