A. V. D'Amico, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, et al., “Biochemical outcome after radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, or interstitial radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 280, pp. 969-974, 1998.
 “Adjuvant systemic therapy for women with node-positive breast cancer,” The Steering Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care and Treatment of Breast Cancer, Canadian Medical Association Journal, Vol. 158, Supplement 3, pp. S52-64, 1998.
 “Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: An overview of the randomized trials,” Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group, Lancet, Vol. 365, pp. 1687-1717, 2005.
 C. G. Moertel, T. R. Fleming, J. S. Macdonald, et al., “Levamisole and fluorouracil for adjuvant therapy of resected colon carcinoma,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 322, pp. 352-358, 1990.
 D. P. Lubeck, M. S. Litwin, J. M. Henning, et al., “The CaPSURE database: A methodology for clinical practice and research in prostate cancer,” CaPSURE Research Panel, Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor, Urology, Vol. 48, pp. 773-777, 1996.
 C. R. Pound, A. W. Partin, M. A. Eisenberger, D. W. Chan, J. D. Pearson, and P. C. Walsh, “Natural history of progression after PSA elevation following radical prostatectomy,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 281, pp. 1591-1597, 1999.
 S. J. Freedland, E. B. Humphreys, L. A. Mangold, et al., “Risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality following biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 294, pp. 433-439, 2005.
 V. Ravery, C. Chastang, M. Toublanc, L. Boccon-Gibod, V. Delmas, and L. Boccon-Gibod, “Percentage of cancer on biopsy cores accurately predicts extracapsular extension and biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy for T1-T2 prostate cancer,” European Urology, Vol. 37, pp. 449–455, 2000.
 A. V. D'Amico, M. H. Chen, K. A. Roehl, and W. J. Catalona, “Preoperative PSA velocity and the risk of death from prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 351, pp. 125-135, 2004.
 M. W. Kattan, J. A. Eastham, A. M. Stapleton, T. M. Wheeler, and P. T. Scardino, “A preoperative nomogram for disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 90, pp. 766-771, 1998.
 M. W. Kattan, T. M. Wheeler, and P. T. Scardino, “Postoperative nomogram for disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 17, pp. 1499-1507, 1999.
 D. Weckermann, P. Muller, F. Wawroschek, G. Krawczak, G. Riethmuller, and G. Schlimok, “Micrometastases of bone marrow in localized prostate cancer: Correlation with established risk factors,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 17, pp. 3438-3443, 1999.
 P. B. Morgan, A. L. Hanlon, E. M. Horwitz, M. K. Buyyounouski, R. G. Uzzo, and A. Pollack, “Timing of biochemical failure and distant metastatic disease for low-, intermediate, and high-risk prostate cancer after radiotherapy,” Cancer, Vol. 110, pp. 68-80, 2007.
 H. Miyake, T. Kurahashi, I. Hara, A. Takenaka, and M. Fujisawa, “Significance of micrometastases in pelvic lymph nodes detected by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy after neoadjuvant hormonal therapy,” British Journal of Urology International, Vol. 99, pp. 315-320, 2007.
 M. Fukuda, M. Egawa, T. Imao, H. Takashima, K. Yokoyama, and M. Namiki, “Detection of sentinel node micrometastasis by step section and immunohistochemistry in patients with prostate cancer,” Journal of Urology, Vol. 177, pp. 1313-1317, discussion 1317, 2007.
 S. F. Shariat, M. P. Roudier, G. E. Wilcox, et al., “Comparison of immunohistochemistry with reverse transcription-PCR for the detection of micrometastatic prostate cancer in lymph nodes,” Cancer Research, Vol. 63, pp. 4662-4670, 2003.
 A. J. Stephenson, A. Smith, M. W. Kattan, et al., “Integration of gene expression profiling and clinical variables to predict prostate carcinoma recurrence after radical prostatectomy,” Cancer, Vol. 104, pp. 290-298, 2005.
 M. Ohori, J. R. Goad, T. M. Wheeler, J. A. Eastham, T. C. Thompson, and P. T. Scardino, “Can radical prostatectomy alter the progression of poorly differentiated prostate cancer?” Journal of Urology, Vol. 152, pp. 1843-1849, 1994.
 H. Van Poppel, H. Goethuys, P. Callewaert, L. Vanuytsel, W. Van de Voorde, and L. Baert, “Radical prostatectomy can provide a cure for well-selected clinical stage T3 prostate cancer,” European Urology, Vol. 38, pp. 372-379, 2000.
 N. Craft, C. Chhor, C. Tran, et al., “Evidence for clonal outgrowth of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells from androgen-dependent tumors through a two-step process,” Cancer Research, Vol. 59, pp. 5030-5036, 1999.
 D. Friedland, J. Cohen, and R. Miller, Jr., et al., “A phase II trial of docetaxel (Taxotere) in hormone-refractory prostate cancer: Correlation of antitumor effect to phosphorylation of Bcl-2,” Seminars in Oncology, Vol. 26, pp. 19-23, 1999.
 W. Berry, S. Dakhil, M. A. Gregurich, and L. Asmar, “Phase II trial of single-agent weekly docetaxel in hormone-refractory, symptomatic, metastatic carcinoma of the prostate,” Seminars in Oncology, Vol. 28, pp. 8-15, 2001.
 B. J. Roth, B. Y. Yeap, G. Wilding, B. Kasimis, D. McLeod, and P. J. Loehrer, “Taxol in advanced, hormone-refractory carcinoma of the prostate. A phase II trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group,” Cancer, Vol. 72, pp. 2457-2460, 1993.
 C. Trivedi, B. Redman, L. E. Flaherty, et al., “Weekly 1-hour infusion of paclitaxel. Clinical feasibility and efficacy in patients with hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma,” Cancer, Vol. 89, pp. 431-436, 2000.
 I. F. Tannock, D. Osoba, M. R. Stockler, et al., “Chemotherapy with mitoxantrone plus prednisone or prednisone alone for symptomatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer: A Canadian randomized trial with palliative end points,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 14, pp. 1756-1764, 1996.
 P. W. Kantoff, S. Halabi, M. Conaway, et al., “Hydrocortisone with or without mitoxantrone in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer: Results of the cancer and leukemia group B 9182 study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 17, pp. 2506-2513, 1999.
 R. Morant, S. F. Hsu Schmitz, J. Bernhard, et al., “Vinorelbine in androgen-independent metastatic prostatic carcinoma–a phase II study,” European Journal of Cancer, Vol. 38, pp. 1626-1632, 2002.
 K. P. Delaere, H. Leliefeld, F. Peulen, E. W. Stapper, J. Smeets, and J. Wils, “Phase II study of epirubicin in advanced hormone-resistant prostatic carcinoma,” British Journal of Urology, Vol. 70, pp. 641-642, 1992.
 B. J. Eigl, S. E. Eggener, J. Baybik, et al., “Timing is everything: Preclinical evidence supporting simultaneous rather than sequential chemohormonal therapy for prostate cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, Vol. 11, pp. 4905-4911, 2005.
 E. M. Messing, J. Manola, M. Sarosdy, G. Wilding, E. D. Crawford, and D. Trump, “Immediate hormonal therapy compared with observation after radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in men with node-positive prostate cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 341, pp. 1781-1788, 1999.
 E. M. Messing, J. Manola, J. Yao, et al., “Immediate versus deferred androgen deprivation treatment in patients with node-positive prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy,” Lancet Oncology, Vol. 7, pp. 472-479, 2006.
 D. G. McLeod, P. Iversen, W. A. See, T. Morris, J. Armstrong, and M. P. Wirth, “Bicalutamide 150 mg plus standard care vs standard care alone for early prostate cancer,” British Journal of Urology International, Vol. 97, pp. 247-254, 2006.
 P. Iversen, J. E. Johansson, P. Lodding, et al., “Bicalutamide (150 mg) versus placebo as immediate therapy alone or as adjuvant to therapy with curative intent for early nonmetastatic prostate cancer: 5.3-year median followup from the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group Study Number 6,” Journal of Urology, Vol. 172, pp. 1871-1876, 2004.
 I. M. Thompson, Jr., C. M. Tangen, J. Paradelo, et al., “Adjuvant radiotherapy for pathologically advanced prostate cancer: a randomized clinical trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 296, pp. 2329-2335, 2006.
 G. P. Swanson, M. A. Hussey, C. M. Tangen, et al., “Predominant treatment failure in postprostatectomy patients is local: Analysis of patterns of treatment failure in SWOG 8794,” Journal of Clinic Oncology, Vol. 25, pp. 2225-2229, 2007.
 T. Wiegel, O. Bottke, N. Willich, et al., “Phase III results of adjuvant radiotherapy versus wait-and-see in patients with pT3 prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy (RO 96-02/AUO AP 09/05),” Journal of Clinic Oncology, Annual Meeting Proceedings Part 1, Vol. 25, 18S (June 20, Supplement), p. 5060, 2007.
 C. Parker, M. R. Sydes, C. Catton, et al., “Radiotherapy and androgen deprivation in combination after local surgery (RADICALS): A new Medical Research Council/National Cancer Institute of Canada phase III trial of adjuvant treatment after radical prostatectomy,” British Journal of Urology International, Vol. 99, pp. 1376-1379, 2007.
 D. P. Petrylak, C. M. Tangen, M. H. Hussain, et al., “Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 351, pp. 1513-1520, 2004.
 I. F. Tannock, R. de Wit, W. R. Berry, et al., “Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 351, pp. 1502-1512, 2004.
 J. D. Schmidt, R. P. Gibbons, G. P. Murphy, and A. Bartolucci, “Adjuvant therapy for clinical localized prostate cancer treated with surgery or irradiation,” European Urology, Vol. 29, pp. 425-433, 1996.
 J. D. Schmidt, R. P. Gibbons, G. P. Murphy, and A. Bartolucci, “Evaluation of adjuvant estramustine phosphate, cyclophosphamide, and observation only for node-positive patients following radical prostatectomy and definitive irradiation,” Investigators of the National Prostate Cancer Project, Prostate, Vol. 28, pp. 51-57, 1996.
 A. S. Kibel, E. Rosenbaum, M. W. Kattan, et al., “Adjuvant weekly docetaxel for patients with high risk prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: A multiinstitutional pilot study,” Journal of Urology, Vol. 177, pp. 1777-1781, 2007.
 T. M. Beer, M. Garzotto, B. A. Lowe, et al., “Phase I study of weekly mitoxantrone and docetaxel before prostatectomy in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer,” Clinic Cancer Research, Vol. 10, pp. 1306-1311, 2004.
 W. K. Oh, D. J. George, D. S. Kaufman, et al., “Neoadjuvant docetaxel followed by radical prostatectomy in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer: A preliminary report,” Seminars Oncology, Vol. 28, pp. 40-44, 2001.
 P. G. Febbo, J. P. Richie, D. J. George, et al., “Neoadjuvant docetaxel before radical prostatectomy in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer,” Clinic Cancer Research, Vol. 11, pp. 5233-5240, 2005.
 K. Pummer, M. Lehnert, H. Stettner, and G. Hubmer, “Randomized comparison of total androgen blockade alone versus combined with weekly epirubicin in advanced prostate cancer,” European Urology, Vol. 32, Supplement 3, pp. 81-85, 1997.
 J. Wang, S. Halford, A. Rigg, R. Roylance, M. Lynch, and J. Waxman, “Adjuvant mitozantrone chemotherapy in advanced prostate cancer,” British Journal of Urology International, Vol. 86, pp. 675-680, 2000.
 G. Ploussard, B. Paule, L. Salomon, Y. Allory, S. Terry, D. Vordos, A. Hoznek, F. Vacherot, C. C. Abbou, S. Culine, and A. de la Taille, “Pilot trial of adjuvant paclitaxel plus androgen deprivation for patients with high-risk prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy: Results on toxicity, side effects and quality-of-life,” Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, pp. 1-5, 2009.
 A. Hussain, N. Dawson, P. Amin, et al., “Docetaxel followed by hormone therapy in men experiencing increasing prostate-specific antigen after primary local treatments for prostate cancer,” Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, Vol. 23, pp. 2789-2796, 2005.
 C. C. Park, M. Mitsumori, A. Nixon, et al., “Outcome at 8 years after breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy for invasive breast cancer: Influence of margin status and systemic therapy on local recurrence,” Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, Vol. 18, pp. 1668-1675, 2000.
 S. J. Kausik, M. L. Blute, T. J. Sebo, et al., “Prognostic significance of positive surgical margins in patients with extraprostatic carcinoma after radical prostatectomy,” Cancer, Vol. 95, pp. 1215-1219, 2002.
 T. H. Van der Kwast, M. Bolla, H. Van Poppel, et al., “Identification of patients with prostate cancer who benefit from immediate postoperative radiotherapy: EORTC 22911,” Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, Vol. 25, pp. 4178-4186, 2007.
 L. B. Marks and L. R. Prosnitz, “Postoperative radiotherapy for lung cancer: The breast cancer story all over again?” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, Vol. 48, pp. 625-627, 2000.
 I. C. Henderson, D. A. Berry, G. D. Demetri, et al., “Improved outcomes from adding sequential Paclitaxel but not from escalating Doxorubicin dose in an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with node-positive primary breast cancer,” Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, Vol. 21, pp. 976-983, 2003.
 M. L. Citron, D. A. Berry, C. Cirrincione, et al., “Randomized trial of dose-dense versus conventionally scheduled and sequential versus concurrent combination chemotherapy as postoperative adjuvant treatment of nodepositive primary breast cancer: First report of Intergroup Trial C9741/Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9741,” Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, Vol. 21, pp. 1431-1439, 2003.
 Y. Shaked, U. Emmenegger, G. Francia, et al., “Low-dose metronomic combined with intermittent bolus-dose cyclophosphamide is an effective long-term chemotherapy treatment strategy,” Cancer Research, Vol. 65, pp. 7045-7051, 2005.
 J. A. Sparano, M. Wang, S. Martino, et al., “Phase III study of AC followed by paclitaxelor docetaxel given every 3 weeks or weekly in patients with axillary nodepositive or high-risk node-negative breast cancer: Results of intergroup trial E1199,” Presented at the 28th Annual San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, San Antonio, TX, 8-11 December 2005 (abstract #48).
 G. Bocci, K. C. Nicolaou, and R. S. Kerbel, “Protracted low-dose effects on human endothelial cell proliferation and survival in vitro reveal a selective antiangiogenic window for various chemotherapeutic drugs,” Cancer Research, Vol. 62, pp. 6938-6943, 2002.
 T. Sorlie, C. M. Perou, R. Tibshirani, et al., “Gene expression patterns of breast carcinomas distinguish tumor subclasses with clinical implications,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, Vol. 98, pp. 10869-10874, 2001.
 M. J. van de Vijver, Y. D. He, L. J. van't Veer, et al., “A gene-expression signature as a predictor of survival in breast cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 347, pp. 1999-2009, 2002.
 J. C. Chang, E. C. Wooten, A. Tsimelzon, et al., “Gene expression profiling for the prediction of therapeutic response to docetaxel in patients with breast cancer,” Lancet, Vol. 362, pp. 362-369, 2003.
 J. C. Chang, E. C. Wooten, A. Tsimelzon, et al., “Patterns of resistance and incomplete response to docetaxel by gene expression profiling in breast cancer patients,” Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, Vol. 23, pp. 1169-1177, 2005.
 M. P. Jansen, J. A. Foekens, I. L. van Staveren, et al., “Molecular classification of tamoxifen-resistant breast carcinomas by gene expression profiling,” Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, Vol. 23, pp. 732-740, 2005.
 G. V. Glinsky, A. B. Glinskii, A. J. Stephenson, R. M. Hoffman, and W. L. Gerald, “Gene expression profiling predicts clinical outcome of prostate cancer,” Joint Commission International, Vol. 113, pp. 913-923, 2004.
 S. M. Henshall, D. E. Afar, J. Hiller, et al., “Survival analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles of prostate cancers identifies new prognostic targets of disease relapse,” Cancer Reseach, Vol. 63, pp. 4196-4203, 2003.
 S. Bettuzzi, M. Scaltriti, A. Caporali, et al., “Successful prediction of prostate cancer recurrence by gene profiling in combination with clinical data: A 5-year follow-up study,” Cancer Research, Vol. 63, pp. 3469-3472, 2003.
 A. Latil, I. Bieche, L. Chene, et al., “Gene expression profiling in clinically localized prostate cancer: A four-gene expression model predicts clinical behavior,” Clinical Cancer Research, Vol. 9, pp. 5477-5485, 2003.
 J. Lapointe, C. Li, J. P. Higgins, et al., “Gene expression profiling identifies clinically relevant subtypes of prostate cancer,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, Vol. 101, pp. 811-816, 2004.
 G. V. Glinsky, A. B. Glinsky, A. J. Stephenson, A. J. Hoffman, R. M. Hoffman, and W. L. Gerald, “Gene expression profiling predicts clinical outcome of prostate cancerf,” Joint Commission International, Vol. 113, pp. 913-923, 2004.
 S. A. Tomlins, D. R. Rhodes, S. Perner, S. M. Dhanasekaran, R. Mehra, X. W. Sun, S. Varambally, X. Cao, J. Tchinda, R. Kuefer, C. Lee, J. E. Montie, R. B. Shah, K. J. Pienta, M. A. Rubin, and A. M. Chinnaiyan, “Recurrent fusion of TMPRSS2 and ETS transcription factor genes in prostate cancer,” Science, Vol. 310, pp. 644-648, 2005.
 F. Demichelis, K. Fall, S. Perner, O. Andrén, F. Schmidt, S. R. Setlur, Y. Hoshida, J. M. Mosquera, Y. Pawitan, C. Lee, H. O. Adami, L. A. Mucci, P. W. Kantoff, S. O. Andersson, A. M. Chinnaiyan, J. E. Johansson, and M. A. Rubin, “TMPRSS2: ERG gene fusion associated with lethal prostate cancer in a watchful waiting cohort,” Oncogene, Vol. 26, pp. 4596-4599, 2007.
 J. C. Cheville, R. J. Karnes, T. M. Therneau, F. Kosari, J. M. Munz, L. Tillmans, E. Basal, L. J. Rangel, E. Bergstralh, I. V. Kovtun, C. D. Savci-Heijink, E. W. Klee, and G. Vasmatzis, “Gene panel model predictive of outcome in men at high-risk of systemic progression and death from prostate cancer after radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, Vol. 20, No. 26, pp. 3930-3936, 2008.