ABSTRACT In homogeneous media, N,N-Dimethylacrylamide (DMA) was grafted copolymerization to cellulose by a metal-catalyzed atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) process. First, cellulose was dissolved in DMAc/LiCl system, and it reacted with 2-bromoisobutyloyl bromide (BiBBr) to produce macroinitiator (cell-BiB). Then DMA was polymerized to the cellulose backbone in a homogeneous DMSO solution in presence of the cell-BiB. Characterization with FT-IR, NMR, and GPC measurements showed that there obtained a graft copolymer with cellulose backbone and PDMA side chains (cell-PDMA) in well-defined structure. The proteins adsorption studies showed that the cellulose membranes modified by the as-prepared cell-PDMA copolymer owns good protein adsorption resistancet.
Cite this paper
nullYan, L. and Wei, T. (2008) Graft Copolymerization of N,N-Dimethylacrylamide to Cellulose in Homogeneous Media Using Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization for Hemocompatibility. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 1, 37-43. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2008.11006.
 D.W. Jenkins, S.M. Hudson, 2001. Review of vinyl graft copolymerization featuring recent advances toward controlled radical-based reactions and illustrated with chitin/chitosan trunk polymers. Chem Rev, 101: 3245-3273.
 Z.H. Hu, L.M. Zhang, 2002. Water-soluble ampholytic grafted polysaccharides. II. Synthesis and characterization of graft terpolymers of starch with acrylamide and [2-(methacryloylox)] ethyl dimethyl (3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide. J Macromol Sci Pure Appl Chem, A39: 419-430.
 D. Roy, J. T. Guthrie, S. Perrier. 2005. Graft polymerization: grafting poly(styrene) from cellulose via RAFT polymerization. Macromolecules, 38:10363-10372;
 J. Qiu, B. Charleux, K. Matyjaszewski, 2001. Controlled/living radical polymerization in aqueous media: homogeneous and heterogeneous system. Prog Polym Sci, 26, 2083-2134.
 D. Roy, J.T. Guthrie, S. Perrier, 2006. RAFT graft polymerization of 2-(Dimethylaminoethyl) Methacrylate onto cellulose fibre, Aust J Chem, 59: 737-741.
 A. Carlmark, E.E. Malmstrom, 2003. ATRP grafting from cellulose fibers to create block-copolymer grafts. Biomacromolecules, 4: 1740-1745.
 D.W. Shen, H. Yu, Y. Huang, 2005. Densely grafting copolymers of ethyl cellulose through atom transfer radical polymerization. J Polym Sci Part A Polym Chem, 43:4099-4108; D. Shen, H. Yu, Y. Huang, 2006.
 T. Aoki, H.K. Kawashima, H. Katono, K. Sanui, N. Igata, T. Okano, Y. Sakurai 1994. Temperature-Responsive Interpentrating Polymer Networks Constructed with Poly(Acrylic Acid) and Poly(N,N-Dimethylacrylamide). Macromolecules, 27: 947-952.
 M.S. Donovan, T.A. Sanford, A.B. Lowe, B.S. Sumerlin, Y. Mitsukami, C.L. McCormick, 2002. RAFT polymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide in water Macromolecules, 35: 4570-4572.
 S.J. Ding, M. Radosz, Y.Q. Shen, 2004. Atom transfer radical polymerization of N,N-dimethylacrylamide. Macromole Rapid Commun, 25: 632-636.
 J. N. Kizhakkedathu, D. E. Brooks, 2003. Synthesis of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) brushes from charged polymeric surfaces by aqueous ATRP: Effect of surface initiator concentration. Macromolecules,36: 591-598.
 T. Nishimura,. In Biomedical Applications of Polymeric Materials, T. Tsuruta,; T.Hayashi,; K.Kataoka,; K Ishihara,.; Y.Kimura, , Eds.; CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1993.
 P. Delanaye, B. Lambermount, J. M.Dongne, B.Dubois, A.Ghuysen, N. Janssen, T. Desaive, P. Kolh, V.D’Drio, J. M. Krzesinki, 2006. Int. J. Artif. Organs, 29, 944.
 H.D. Humes, W.H. Fissell, K. Tiranathanagul, 2006. The future of hemodialysis membranes. Kidney Int, 69:1115-1119.
 F.C. Kung, W.L. Chou, M.C. Yang, 2006. In vitro evaluation of cellulose acetate hemodialyzer immobilized with heparin. Polym Adv Tech, 17: 453-462.
 J. Yuan, J. Zhang, X.P. Zang, J. Shen, S. Lin,,2003. Improvement of blood compatibility on cellulose membrane surface by grafting betaines. Colloids Surf B Biointerf, 30:147-155.
 T. Furuzono, K. Ishihara, N. Nakabayashi, Y. Tamada, 2000. Chemical modification of silk fibroin with 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine. II. Craft-polymerization onto fabric through 2-methacryloyloxyethyl isocyanate and interaction between fabric and platelets. Biomaterials, 21:327-333.
 K. Ishiahra, R. Aragaki, T. Ueda, A. Watanabe, N. Nakabayashi, 1990. Reduced thrombogenicity of polymers having phospholipid polar groups. J Biomed Mater Res, 24:1069-1077.
 Z. H. Qi, 2001. Synthesis of CA by solid acid catalyst. BS Thesis, University of Science and Technology of China.
 K. Fukumoto, K. Ishihara, R. Takayama, J. Aoki, N. Nakabayashi,1992. Improvement of blood compatibility on cellulose dialysis membrane.2.blood compatibility of phospholipid polymer grafted cellulose membrane. Biomaterials, 13: 235-239.
 P. Vlcek, M. Janata, P. Latalova, J. Kriz, E. Cadova, L. Toman, 2006. Controlled grafting of cellulose diacetate. Polymer, 47:2587-2595.
 D. Bontempo, G. Masci, P.D. Leonardis, L. Mannina, D. Capitani, V. Crescenzi, 2006. Versatile grafting of polysaccharides in homogeneous mild conditions by using atom transfer radical polymerization. Biomacromolecules, 7:2154-2161.
 E. Meaurio, L.C. Cesteros, I. Katime, 1997. FTIR study of hydrogen bonding of blends of poly(mono n-alkyl itaconates) with poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) and poly(ethyloxazoline). Macromolecules, 30:4567-4573.
 Huynh-Ba-Gia, J.E. McGraph, 1980. High resolution NMR spectra of poly n,n-dimethylacrylamide in CDCl3 solution. Polym Bull, 2:837-840.
 B.L.Rivas, S.A. Pooley, M. Soto, H.A. Maturana, K.E. Geckeler. 1998. Poly(N,N’-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid): Synthesis, characterization, and application for the removal and separation of inorganic ions in aqueous solution. J Appl Polym Sci, 67:93-100.