PP  Vol.13 No.9 , September 2022
Effect of the Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Schumanniophyton magnificum on Reproductive Functions on Wistar Strain Mature Female Rats
Abstract: In recent years, the rate of infertility has not stopped increasing in the world. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the aqueous extract of Schumanniophyton magnificum (Rubiaceae) on cyclicity, ovulation and gestation in mature rats. Methods: After a qualitative phytochemical analysis of these aqueous extracts, the experimental studies carried out were based on the evaluation of the pro-fertility effects of this extract in mature rats. For this purpose, 35 rats were used for the estrous cyclicity test and treated for 21 days at the end of which vaginal smears were taken and the duration, as well as the frequency of the appearance of the phases of the cycle, were evaluated. The ovulation test was performed on 80 female rats, which were divided into two groups of 40 animals and treated respectively in the morning and evening with distilled water, β-oestradiol or plant extract at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. At the end of estrus, the rats were sacrificed, the ovaries were removed and weighed, the hemorrhagic points counted and the blood samples were taken for hormonal studies. The last phase of the study consisted in evaluating the effects of these plant extracts on the evolution of gestation. Thus, 42 mature rats were treated during the periods from the 1st to the 10th day (1st stage), and from the 11th to the 17th day (2nd stage). At the end of these two phases, a laparotomy was performed and the number of implantation sites and corpus luteum was counted. And finally, at parturition, from the 18th to the 22nd day (3rd stage), the number of living pups was performed and the gestational parameters were calculated. Results: Administration at the beginning of pr&oelig;strus allowed a significant increase (p < 0.0001) in the number of ovulations, bleeding points and oestradiol levels at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of S. magnificum extract. On the other hand, a significant decrease in progesterone levels (p < 0.0001) was noted. Concerning the effects on the estrous cycle, after 3 weeks of treatment of the rats, there was no disturbance in the total duration of the estrous cycle when compared to the control. However, there was a significant increase in the duration of proestrus coupled with a significant decrease in the duration of diestrus in these treated animals. In pregnant rats, administration of the different extracts from day 1 to day 10 resulted in a significant decrease in the number of implantation sites (p < 0.01) at the dose of 800 mg/kg. Similarly, blood discharges were observed during the first six days of treatment when compared to the control. Decreases in progesterone, implantation and pregnancy levels were observed in rats treated with 400 and 800 mg/kg (p < 0.0001). Treatment from day 18 to 22 of gestation significantly decreased fetal weight from female rats treated with S. magnificum at doses of 200, 800 mg/kg (p < 0.01) and 400 mg/kg (p < 0.05) when compared to the control. In addition, early parturition was recorded in these animals treated at dose of 400 mg/kg (21 ± 0.25 d) and 800 mg/kg (20.33 ± 0.21 d) (p < 0.0001) with S. magnificum when compared to the control (23 ± 0.16 d). Conclusion: It appears from all these investigations that the aqueous extract of S. magnificum promotes fertility in the rat but represents a danger for the good development of gestation. All these results obtained would be closely related to the presence of certain chemical compounds contained in these various extracts; which would justify their use in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain cases of female infertility in Cameroon.
Cite this paper: Bend, E. , Koloko, B. , Ateba, S. , Wankeu-Nya, M. , Njila, M. , Nde, Z. , Mboumwa, P. , Tchamadeu, M. , Mandengue, S. , Moundipa, P. , Dimo, T. and Lembè, D. (2022) Effect of the Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Schumanniophyton magnificum on Reproductive Functions on Wistar Strain Mature Female Rats. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 13, 340-354. doi: 10.4236/pp.2022.139026.

[1]   BUCREP (2011) Rapport National sur l’Etat de la Population au Cameroun, édition 2011.

[2]   Chenge, M., Tambwe, M., Kinzonde, K., Kakoma, S.Z. and Kalengo, M.K. (2004) Profil Clinique et social de la femme stérile à Lubumbashi. Congo Médical, Kinshasa, 13, 1132-1137.

[3]   Gurunath, S., Pandian, Z., Anderson, R.A. and Bhattacharya, S. (2011) Defining Infertility a Systematic Review of Prevalence Studies. Human Reproduction Update, 17, 575-588.

[4]   Butterstein, G.M., Schladler, M.H., Lysogorski, E., Robin, L. and Sipperly, S. (1985) A Naturally Occurring Plant Compound, 6-Methoxybenzoxazolinone, Stimulates Reproductive Responses in Rats. Biology of Reproduction, 32, 1018-1023.

[5]   Yakubu, M.T. and Musa, I.F. (2012) Effects of Post-Coital Administration of Alkaloids from Senna alata (Linn. Roxb) Leaves on Some Fetal and Maternal Outcomes of Pregnant Rats. Journal of Reproduction and Infertility, 13, 211-217.

[6]   Bend, E.F., Oundoum, P.C.O., Njila, M.I.N., Landry, K.B., Nyonseu, C.D., Mandengue, S.H., Moundipa, P., Théophile, D. and Dieudonné, M.L. (2018) Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Schumanniophyton magnificum Harms on Sexual Maturation and Fertility of Immature (K. Schum) Female Rat. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 9, 415-427.

[7]   Okogun, J.I., Adeboye, J.O. and Okorie, D.A. (1983) Novel Structures of Two Chromone Alkaloids from Root-Bark of Schumanniophyton magnificum. Planta Medica, 49, 95-99.

[8]   Tchouya, G.R.F., Foundikou, H. and Lebibi, J. (2014) Phytochemical and in Vitro Antimicrobial Evaluation of the Stem Bark of Schumanniophyton magnificum (Rubiaceae). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 3, 185-189.

[9]   Marcondes, F.K., Bianchi, F.J. and Tanno, A.P. (2002) Determination of the Estrous Cycle Phases of Rats: Some Helpful Considerations. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 62, 609-614.

[10]   Costa-Silva, J.H., Lyra, M.M.A., Lima, C.R., Arruda, V.M., Araújo, A.V., Ribeiro e Ribeiro, A., Arruda, A.C., Fraga, M.C.C.A., Lafayette, S.S.L. and Wanderley, A.G. (2007) A Toxicological Evaluation of the Effect of Carapa guianensis Aublet on Pregnancy in Wistar Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 112, 122-126.

[11]   Westwood, F.R. (2008) The Female Rat Reproductive Cycle: A Practical Histological Guide to Staging. Toxicologic Pathology, 36, 375-384.

[12]   Wheater, P.R., Burkitt, G.H., Daniels, V.G. and Deakin, J.P. (1979) Histologie Fonctionnelle. Ed Médecine et sciences Internationales (MEDSI), 278.

[13]   Soto, M., Maeba, H., Watari, J. Takashio, M. (2002) Analysis of an Inactivated Lg-FL01 Gene Present in Bottom-Fermeting Yeast. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 93, 395-398.

[14]   Tong, W. and Pollard, J.W. (2002) In the Endometrium. In: Glasser, S.R., Aplin, J.D., Giudice, L.C., Tabibzadeh, S., Eds., Taylor and Francis, London, 94-109.

[15]   Scaramuzzi, R.J. and Radford, H.M. (1983) Factors Regulating Ovulation Rate in the Ewe. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 69, 353-367.

[16]   Dierschke, D.J., Braw, R.H. and Tsafriri, A. (1983) Estradiol-17ß Reduces Number of Ovulations in Adult Rats: Direct Action on the Ovary? Biology of Reproduction, 39, 1147-1154.

[17]   Whitten, P.L. and Patisaul, H.B. (2001) Cross-Species and Interassay Comparisons of Phytoestrogen Action. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109, 5-20.

[18]   Gbotolorun, S.C., Oremosu, A.A., Noronha, C.C. and Okanlawon, O.A. (2004) The Effect of Alcohol Extract of Neem Seed on Ovulation, Estrous Cycle and the Fertility of Adult Cyclic Sprague-Dawley Rats. Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences, 3, 116-119.

[19]   Ernest, Z.N., Nadia, B.A., Daouda, K.K. and Koffi, K. (2018) Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Cnestis ferruginea on the Histological Structure of Female Rat Ovary and Uterine Horns. Biomedical Journal of Scientific and Technical Research, 2, 2073-2078.

[20]   Yakubu, M.T., Akanji, M.A. and Oladiji, A.T. (2005) Aphrodisiac Potentials of the Aqueous Extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) Stem in Male Albino Rats. Asian Journal of Andrology, 7, 399-404.

[21]   Padmashali, B., Vaidya, V.P., Vagdevi, H.M. and Satyanarayana, N.D. (2007) Antifertility Efficacy of the Plant Balanites roxburghii (Balanitaceae) in Female Rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 68, 347-351.

[22]   Riddle, J.M. (1997) A History of Contraception and Abortion in the West Cambrige. Havard University Press, Cambridge.

[23]   Shrikanth, M., Swamy, T.R., Rao, M.T. and Rao, B.G. (2013) Abortifacient and Antioxidant Activities of Different Extracs of Musa rosecea. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, 2, 174-177.

[24]   Paria, B.C., Ma, W., Tan, J., Raja, S., Das, S.K., Dey, S.K., et al. (2001) Cellular and Molecular Responses of Uterus to Embryo Implantation Can Be Elicited by Locally Applied Growth Factors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98, 1047-1052.

[25]   Koneri, R., Saraswati, C.D., Balaraman, R. and Ajeesha, E.A. (2007) Antiimplantation Activity of the Ethanolic Root Extract of Momordicacy mbalaria Fenzl in Rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 39, 90-96.

[26]   Berne, R.M. and Levy, N.M. (1988) Physiology. 2nd Edition, C.V. Mosby Company, St. Louis, 1004-1014.

[27]   Salah, A.M. and Wagner, H. (2009) Effects of Ruellia praetermissa Extract on Ovulation, Implantation, and the Uterine Endometrium of Female Rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 3, 641-645.