Back
 CE  Vol.13 No.8 , August 2022
Developing a Model for Crises Containment Management in South African Schools
Abstract: School learners and educators encounter several crises on a regular basis, which can lead to various maladaptive behaviours, leaving the individual feeling numb, overwhelmed, and hopeless with decreased energy levels. Therefore, it is vital for a team to be allocated in schools that are well prepared to intervene to create a safe and healthy school environment. This qualitative document analysis aimed to develop a model for crises containment management in South African schools by combining findings from two recently published research studies. The researchers focused on identifying themes and placing themes in logical order to ensure that the developed model is related to other models, transparent and easy to interpret, easily understandable, and adaptable to various school contexts. The findings of this qualitative document analysis concluded the following themes: threats to school safety; impact of crises; management of crises; and Covid-19 mitigation. Based on these themes, steps were developed for the proposed model for crises containment management in South African schools. These steps include: assessing the safety and the situation; stabilising the environment; reflecting on facts, needs and support structure; referring (if needed); and checking-in on self and the individual in need. It is imperative that South African school learners, educators, and support staff need to be trained to handle various crises, for they are the first responders in most cases.
Cite this paper: de Klerk, M. and de Klerk, W. (2022) Developing a Model for Crises Containment Management in South African Schools. Creative Education, 13, 2385-2400. doi: 10.4236/ce.2022.138151.
References

[1]   Ahmad, N. S. (2019). Crisis Intervention: Issues and Challenges. In Proceedings of the 4th ASEAN Conference on Psychology, Counselling, and Humanities (Vol. 304, pp. 452-455). Atlantis Press.
https://doi.org/10.2991/acpch-18.2019.105

[2]   Alhija, F. N. A. (2015). Teacher Stress and Coping: The Role of Personal and Job Characteristics. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 185, 374-380.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.415

[3]   American Psychological Association [APA] (2013). Trauma.
http://www.apa.org/topics/trauma/

[4]   American Psychological Association [APA] (2020). Resilience Guide for Parents and Teachers.
https://www.apa.org/topics/resilience/guide-parents-teachers

[5]   Arvidsdotter, T., Marklund, B., Kylén, S., Taft, C., & Ekman, I. (2016). Understanding Persons with Psychological Distress in Primary Health Care. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 30, 687-694.
https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12289

[6]   Bipath, K. (2017). Challenges Faced by the School Management Team (SMT) Regarding School Safety in South Africa. International Journal of Sciences and Research, 73, 65-83.
https://doi.org/10.21506/j.ponte.2017.3.36

[7]   Bowen, G. A. (2009). Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9, 27-40.
https://doi.org/10.3316/QRJ0902027

[8]   Brock, S. E., Sandoval, J., & Lewis, S. (2012). Crisis Intervention in the Schools.
https://www.slideshare.net/Carikiwi/crisis-intervention-in-the-schools

[9]   Brymer, M., Layne, C., Jacobs, A., Pynoos, R., Ruzek, J., Steinberg, A. et al. (2006). Psychological First Aid: Field Operations Guide (2nd ed.). National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for PTSD.
https://www.nctsn.org/sites/default/files/resources//pfa_field_operations_guide.pdf

[10]   Calitz, K., & De Villiers, C. (2020). Sexual Abuse of Pupils by Teachers in South African Schools: The Vicarious Liability of Education Authorities. South African Law Journal, 137, 72-107.

[11]   Chitsamatanga, B. B., & Rembe, N. S. (2020). School Related Gender Based Violence as a Violation of Children’s Rights to Education in South Africa: Manifestations, Consequences and Possible Solutions. Journal of Human Ecology, 69, 65-80.
https://doi.org/10.31901/24566608.2020/69.1-3.3203

[12]   de Klerk, M., & de Klerk, W. (2020). Crises Containment Management in South African Schools: A Critical Review. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 30, 599-604.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14330237.2020.1842442

[13]   de Klerk, M., & de Klerk, W. (2022). Exploring Educators’ and Support Staffs’ Experiences Regarding Crises Containment Management in South African Schools. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 32, 199-206.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14330237.2022.2027632

[14]   De Man, J., Smith, M. R., Schneider, M., & Tabana, H. (2022). An Exploration of the Impact of Covid-19 on Mental Health in South Africa. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 27, 120-130.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2021.1954671

[15]   de Wet, C. (2016). The Cape Times’s Portrayal of School Violence. South African Journal of Education, 36, Article No. 1231.
https://doi.org/10.15700/saje.v36n2a1231

[16]   de Wet, C., & Jacobs, L. (2013). South African Educators’ Understanding of Bullying. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 23, 339-343.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14330237.2013.10820633

[17]   de Wet, N. C. (2009). Newspapers’ Portrayal of School Violence in South Africa. Acta Criminologica, 22, 46-67.
https://www.ojp.gov/ncjrs/virtual-library/abstracts/newspapers-portrayal-school-violence-south-africa

[18]   Debiec, J. (2018). Memories of Trauma Are Unique Because of How Brains and Bodies Respond to Threat.
https://theconversation.com/memories-of-trauma-are-unique-because-of-how-brains-and-bodies-respond-to-threat-103725

[19]   Dlamini, P. (2018, March 16). Violence in Schools Is Under-Reported, Says Teachers’ Association.
https://www.timeslive.co.za/news/south-africa/2018-03-16-violence-in-schools-is-under-reported-says-teachers-association/

[20]   Dube, B. (2020). Rural Online Learning in the Context of Covid 19 in South Africa: Evoking an Inclusive Education Approach. Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research, 10, 135-157.
https://doi.org/10.17583/remie.2020.5607

[21]   Duma, M. A. N. (2015). Crisis Intervention in Rural Schools in South Africa: Experiences of Educators. Studies of Tribes and Tribals, 13, 142-148.
https://doi.org/10.1080/0972639X.2015.11886720

[22]   Eberlein, E., & Moen, M. (2016). Incidents and Accidents: How Are Schools Implementing the Safety Regulations Prescribed by the South African Schools Act. Journal of Social Science, 48, 108-118.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09718923.2016.11893575

[23]   Ertl, M. M., Trapp, S. K., Alzueta, E., Baker, F. C., Perrin, P. B., Caffarra, S. et al. (2022). Trauma-Related Distress during the Covid-19 Pandemic in 59 Countries. The Counseling Psychologist, 50, 306-334.
https://doi.org/10.1177/00110000211068112

[24]   Flannery, R. B., & Everly, G. S. (2000). Crisis Intervention: A Review. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 2, 119-125.

[25]   Grobler, R. (2019, June 7). Violence in SA’s Schools Is Worse than You Think, and Spanking Is Part of the Problem. News24.
https://www.news24.com/news24/SouthAfrica/News/violence-in-sas-schools-is-worse-than-you-think-and-spanking-is-part-of-the-problem-20190607

[26]   Hoosen, P., Adams, S., Tiliouine, H., & Savahl, S. (2022). Youth and Adolescents’ Perceptions of Violence in Post-Apartheid South Africa: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Child Indicators Research, 15, 885-911.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-021-09890-5

[27]   James, R. K., & Gilliland, B. E. (2012). Crisis Intervention Strategies. Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.

[28]   Kelloway, R. (2020, February 14). Why Understanding What Trauma Does to the Brain Helps You Heal.
https://life-care-wellness.com/understanding-what-trauma-does-to-the-brain-helps-you-heal/

[29]   Khumalo, S. S. (2019). Implications of School Violence in South Africa on Socially Just Education. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 16, 1-11.

[30]   Mabasa, L. T., & Mafumo, T. N. (2017). The Way in Which Schools Choose Strategies in Dealing with Safety of Learners in Schools. Gender and Behaviour, 15, 9238-9248.

[31]   Magamela, M. R., Dzinamarira, T., & Hlongwa, M. (2021). Covid-19 Consequences on Mental Health: An African Perspective. South African Journal of Psychiatry, 27, Article No. a1611.
https://doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v27i0.1611

[32]   Mahabeer, D. (2020). Novice Teachers’ Beliefs and Fears on Bullying in Schools in South Africa. Koers, 85, Article No. 2445.
https://doi.org/10.19108/KOERS.85.1.2445

[33]   Mampane, J. N. (2022). Homophobic Bullying in South African Schools: Theory into Practice Solutions (TIPS). In Information Resources Management Association (Ed.), Research Anthology on Inclusivity and Equity for the LGBTQ+ Community (pp. 113-129). IGI Global.
https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-6684-3674-5.ch007

[34]   Maree, J. G. (2021). Managing the Covid-19 Pandemic in South African Schools: Turning Challenge into Opportunity. South African Journal of Psychology, 52, 249-261.
https://doi.org/10.1177/00812463211058398

[35]   Martin, D., & Moss, P. (2021). Back to the Future? Remembering Extended Schools in a Post-Pandemic World. FORUM, 63, 98-108.
https://doi.org/10.3898/forum.2021.63.2.09

[36]   Masitsa, M. G. (2011). Exploring Safety in Township Secondary Schools in the Free State Province. South African Journal of Education, 31, 163-174.
https://doi.org/10.15700/saje.v31n2a477

[37]   Mayeza, E., Bhana, D., & Mulqueeny, D. (2022). Normalising Violence? Girls and Sexuality in a South African High School. Journal of Gender Studies, 31, 165-177.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2021.1881460

[38]   McClelland, D., & Gilyard, C. (2019). Calming Trauma—How Understanding the Brain Can Help.
https://www.phoenix-society.org/resources/calming-trauma

[39]   Minero, E. (2017, October 4). When Students Are Traumatized, Teachers Are Too.
https://www.edutopia.org/article/when-students-are-traumatized-teachers-are-too

[40]   Nako, N., & Muthukrishna, N. (2018). Teacher-Instigated In-School Interpersonal Violence: Types and Prevalence in South African Public Schools. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 28, 371-374.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14330237.2018.1527553

[41]   Namome, C., Winnaar, L., & Arends, F. (2021). Improving Psychosocial Support in SA Schools during and after COVID-19 as Part of a Recovery Plan (HSRC Policy Brief, February).
http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11910/15829

[42]   Netshitahame, N. E., & Van Vollenhoven, W. J. (2002). School Safety in Rural Schools: Are Schools as Safe as We Think They Are? South African Journal of Education, 22, 313-318.

[43]   Nguse, S., & Wassenaar, D. (2021). Mental Health and Covid-19 in South Africa. South African Journal of Psychology, 51, 304-313.
https://doi.org/10.1177/00812463211001543

[44]   Oliver, B. (2019, January 28). All Trauma Is Not the Same: Big T vs Little T and How to Treat Them.
https://nexusrecoveryservices.com/blog/big-t-vs-little-t-trauma/

[45]   Ottens, A. J., & Roberts, A. R. (2005). The Seven-Stage Crisis Intervention Model: A Systematic Blueprint for Intentional Crisis Resolution. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 5, Article No. 329.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/31325314_The_Seven-Stage_Crisis_Intervention_Model_A_Road_Map_to_Goal_Attainment_Problem_Solving_and_Crisis_Resolution

[46]   Panchal, N., Kamal, R., Cox, C., & Garfield, R. (2021). The Implications of Covid-19 for Mental Health and Substance Use.
https://pameladwilson.com/wp-content/uploads/4_5-2021-The-Implications-of-COVID-19-for-Mental-Health-and-Substance-Use-_-KFF-1.pdf

[47]   Parahakaran, S., Macer, D. R. J., Mantegazza, S. S., Sheriff, D. S., Maboloc, C. R., Eviota, G., Takahashi, R. et al. (2021). Implications of Covid-19 for Education. Statement of the World Emergency Covid19 Pandemic Ethics (WeCope) Committee (31 March 2021).
https://eubios.info/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Wecope_Education_Report.9363349.pdf

[48]   Pijoos, I. (2020, July 31). #CrimeStats|School Bullying Sees Murders, Hundreds of Serious Assaults. Sunday Times.
https://www.timeslive.co.za/news/south-africa/2020-07-31-crimestats-school-bullying-sees-murders-hundreds-of-serious-assaults/

[49]   Pillay, I. (2021). The Impact of Inequality and Covid-19 on Education and Career Planning for South African children of Rural and Low-Socioeconomic Backgrounds. African Journal of Career Development, 3, Article No. a36.
https://doi.org/10.4102/ajcd.v3i1.36

[50]   Rholetter, W. M. (2013). Burnout (Psychology). Salem Press Encyclopedia.

[51]   Rodgers, S., & Hassan, S. (2021). Therapeutic Crisis Intervention in Schools (TCI-S): An International Exploration of a Therapeutic Framework to Reduce Critical Incidents and Improve Teacher and Student Emotional Competence in Schools. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools, 31, 238-245.
https://doi.org/10.1017/jgc.2021.2

[52]   Ross, D. (2017, December 4). How Trauma Affects the Brain: Doctors’ Notes.
https://www.thestar.com/life/health_wellness/analysis/2017/12/04/how-trauma-affects-the-brain-doctors-notes.html

[53]   Shafique, F., & Mahmood, K. (2010). Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA. Library Philosophy and Practice (E-Journal), Article No. 427.

[54]   Solomon, B., Katz, E., Steed, H., & Temkin, D. (2018). Creating Policies to Support Healthy Schools: Policymaker, Educator, and Student Perspectives. Child Trends.
https://www.childtrends.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/healthyschoolstakeholderreport_ChildTrends_October2018.pdf

[55]   Spaull, N., & Van der Berg, S. (2020). Counting the Cost: Covid-19 School Closures in South Africa and Its Impact on Children. South African Journal of Childhood Education, 10, Article No. a924.
https://doi.org/10.4102/sajce.v10i1.924

[56]   Steyn, H., Myburgh, C., & Poggenpoel, M. (2011). Teachers’ experience of Aggression in a Secondary School: Case Study. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 21, 125-130.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14330237.2011.10820438

[57]   Swingler, H. (2019, August 26). Conflict Leaves Children Traumatised, Anxious—For Life.
https://www.news.uct.ac.za/article/-2019-08-26-conflict-leaves-children-traumatised-anxious-for-life

[58]   Trauma Sensitive Schools (2016). Helping All Children Feel Safe.
https://traumasensitiveschools.org/blog-helping-all-students-feel-safe/

[59]   Van der Merwe, M. (2017). Exposure to Violence: What Crime and Trauma Cost Our Learners.
https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2017-10-29-exposure-to-violence-what-crime-and-trauma-cost-our-learners/#.WzTcVMSxXIU

[60]   Van Tonder, C. L., & Williams, C. (2009). Exploring the Origins of Burnout among Secondary Educators. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 35, Article No. 762.
https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v35i1.762

[61]   Wan, W. (2020, May 4). The Coronavirus Pandemic Is Pushing America into a Mental Health Crisis. Washington Post.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2020/05/04/mental-health-coronavirus/

[62]   Warren County School (2011). Warren County School Crisis Intervention Plan: Guidelines for a Proactive Building Response to a Traumatic Event.
https://www.warrencountyesc.com/docs/Warren%20County%20School%20Crisis%20Intervention%20Plan-0.pdf

[63]   Weir, K. (2020, September 1). Safeguarding Student Mental Health.
https://www.apa.org/monitor/2020/09/safeguarding-mental-health

[64]   Western Cape Government (2021). Covid-19 Dashboard.
https://coronavirus.westerncape.gov.za/Covid-19-dashboard

[65]   White, C. J., Gina, J. M., & Coetzee, I. E. M. (2015). Safety and Security in Schools in KwaZulu-Natal. Educational Studies, 41, 551-564.
https://doi.org/10.1080/03055698.2015.1090301

[66]   Wiederhold, B. K. (2022). The Escalating Crisis in Adolescent Mental Health. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 25, 81-82.
https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2022.29237.editorial

[67]   Xaba, M. (2006). An Investigation into the Basic Safety and Security Status of Schools’ Physical Environments. South African Journal of Education, 26, 565-580.

[68]   Young, J. (2022). Addressing the Mental Health Crisis: The Covid-19 Pandemic’s Escalating Impact on Behavioral Health. Professional Case Management, 27, 158-160.
https://doi.org/10.1097/NCM.0000000000000570

[69]   Zhang, L., Zhou, J., & Li, L. (2015). Crisis Intervention in the Acute Stage after Trauma. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 17, 714-716.

 
 
Top