AIT  Vol.12 No.3 , July 2022
Internet of Things: Towards a Solid Ecosystem of Interconnected Things
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is a technological revolution that has changed everything we do and given us a new perspective on our daily lives, but despite the fact that numerous publications have focused on characterizing the many edges and technologies that make up an IoT system, the IoT ecosystem is still seen as too complex to be recognized as a stand-alone environment due to its significant diversity; hence, the objective of this research is to address such a complex environment in a way that highlights its components and distinguishes them both individually and in relation to their broader context. Therefore, the definition of IoT and its emergence were discussed and organized around the timeline of Internet development phases demonstrating that IoT has been a need that has accompanied the presence of the Internet since its early stages, and then its growth and impact were discussed and highlighted with estimates and numbers. On the technical side, each of the following groups, IoT components, protocols, and architectures, was defined, discussed, and grouped in such a way that their intergroup organization, as well as their placement and contribution to the overall ecosystem, was highlighted. This, in addition to the various examples mentioned throughout the discussion, will provide the reader with a better understanding of the Internet of Things and how deeply it has become entwined in our daily lives and routines as a result of its numerous applications.
Cite this paper: Chakroun, M. , Sayah, J. , Kallab, C. and Haddad, S. (2022) Internet of Things: Towards a Solid Ecosystem of Interconnected Things. Advances in Internet of Things, 12, 35-64. doi: 10.4236/ait.2022.123004.

[1]   Pramudianto, F., Simon, J., Eisenhauer, M., Khaleel, H., Pastrone, C. and Spirito, M. (2013) Prototyping the Internet of Things for the Future Factory Using a SOA-Based Middleware and Reliable WSNs. 2013 IEEE 18th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA), Cagliari, 10-13 September 2013, 1-4.

[2]   Novo, O. (2018) Blockchain Meets IoT: An Architecture for Scalable Access Management in IoT. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 5, 1184-1195.

[3]   Oracle (2021) What is IoT?

[4]   Wu, F.J., Solmaz, G. and Kovacs, E. (2018) Toward the Future World of Internet of Things. Proceedings of the 2018 Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS), Bilbao, 4-7 June 2018, 1-6.

[5]   Mihovska, A., Prasad, R. and Pejanovic, M. (2017) Human-Centric IoT Networks. In: Dixit, S. and Prasad, R., Eds., Human Bond Communication: The Holy Grail of Holistic Communication and Immersive Experience, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, 71-86.

[6]   Kovalchuk, V., Voitovich, O., Demchuk, D. and Demchuk, O. (2021) Development of Low-Cost Internet-of-Things (IoT) Networks for Field Air and Soil Monitoring within the Irrigation Control System. International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering and Education Applications, Kyiv, 21-22 January 2020, 86-96.

[7]   Gbadamosi, A.Q., Oyedele, L.O., Delgado, J.M.D., Kusimo, H., Akanbi, L., Olawale, O. and Muhammed-yakubu, N. (2020) IoT for Predictive Assets Monitoring and Maintenance: An Implementation Strategy for the UK Rail Industry. Automation in Construction, 122, Article ID: 103486.

[8]   Celesti, A., Mulfari, D., Galletta, A., Fazio, M., Carnevale, L. and Villari, M. (2019) A Study on Container Virtualization for Guarantee Quality of Service in Cloud-of-Things. Future Generation Computer Systems, 99, 356-364.

[9]   Sadowski, S. and Spachos, P. (2018) RSSI-Based Indoor Localization with the Internet of Things. 2018 IEEE 9th Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (IEMCON), Vancouver, 1-3 November 2018, 24-29.

[10]   Fraga-Lamas, P., Fernández-Caramés, T.M., Suárez-Albela, M., Castedo, L. and González-López, M. (2016) A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety. Sensors, 16, Article No. 1644.

[11]   Vambe, W.T., Chang, C. and Sibanda, K. (2020) A Review of Quality of Service in Fog Computing for the Internet of Things. International Journal of Fog Computing, 3, 22-40.

[12]   Sobin, C.C. (2020) A Survey on Architecture, Protocols and Challenges in IoT. Wireless Personal Communications, 112, 1383-1429.

[13]   Gabr, B. and Azer, M.A. (2018) IoT Agile Framework Enhancement. 2018 1st International Conference on Computer Applications & Information Security (ICCAIS), Riyadh, 4-6 April 2018, 1-4.

[14]   Rayes, A. and Salam, S. (2019) The Things in IoT: Sensors and Actuators. In: Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019, Internet of Things from Hype to Reality, Springer, Cham, 67-87.

[15]   García-Magariño, I., Muttukrishnan, R. and Lloret, J. (2019) Human-Centric AI for Trustworthy IoT Systems with Explainable Multilayer Perceptrons. IEEE Access, 7, 125562-125574.

[16]   Zou, X.D., Xu, X.Y., Yao, L.B. and Lian, Y. (2009) A 1-V 450-nW Fully Integrated Programmable Biomedical Sensor Interface Chip. IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, 44, 1067-1077.

[17]   de Moura Costa, H.J., da Costa, C.A., da Rosa Righi, R. and Antunes, R.S. (2020) Fog Computing in Health: A Systematic Literature Review. Health and Technology, 10, 1025-1044.

[18]   Ammar, M., Russello, G. and Crispo, B. (2018) Internet of Things: A Survey on the Security of IoT Frameworks. Journal of Information Security and Applications, 38, 8-27.

[19]   Hause, M., Hummell, J. and Grelier, F. (2018) MBSE Driven IoT for Smarter Cities. 2018 13th Annual Conference on System of Systems Engineering (SoSE), Paris, 19-22 June 2018, 365-371.

[20]   Ashton, K. (2010) That “Internet of Things” Thing. RFID Journal, 22, 97-114.

[21]   Avoussoukpo, C.B., Xu, C.X. and Tchenagnon, M. (2020) Polyvalent Wireless Communication System (PWCS): A Potentially Useful Technology for Opportunistic Networks. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Information Systems (ICAIIS), Dalian, 20-22 March 2020, 762-766.

[22]   Evans, D. (2011) The Internet of Things, How the Next Evolution of the Internet Is Changing Everything. CISCO.

[23]   International Telecommunication Union (2005) ITU Internet Reports The Internet of Things.

[24]   Mistry, I., Tanwar, S., Tyagi, S. and Kumar, N. (2020) Blockchain for 5G-Enabled IoT for Industrial Automation: A Systematic Review, Solutions, and Challenges. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 135, Article ID: 106382.

[25]   Srivastava, A., Gupta, S., Quamara, M., Chaudhary, P. and Aski, V.J. (2020) Future IoT-Enabled Threats and Vulnerabilities: State of the Art, Challenges, and Future Prospects. International Journal of Communication Systems, 33, e4443.

[26]   Stute, M., Agarwal, P., Kumar, A., Asadi, A. and Hollick, M. (2020) LIDOR: A Lightweight DoS-Resilient Communication Protocol for Safety-Critical IoT Systems. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 7, 6802-6816.

[27]   Eclipse IoT Working Group (2016) The Three Software Stacks Required for IoT Architectures.

[28]   Dimenstein, I.B. and Dimenstein, S.I. (2013) Development of a Laboratory Niche Web Site. Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, 17, 448-456.

[29]   Mowery, D.C. and Simcoe, T. (2002) Is the Internet a US Invention? An Economic and Technological History of Computer Networking. Research Policy, 31, 1369-1387.

[30]   Agarwal, A., Xu, L.D. and Whitmore, A. (2016) The Internet of Things: A Survey of Topics and Trends. Information Systems Frontiers, 17, 261-274.

[31]   Ma, X.B., Qu, J., Li, J.F., Lui, J.C.S., Li, Z.H. and Guan, X.H. (2020) Pinpointing Hidden IoT Devices via Spatial-Temporal Traffic Fingerprinting. IEEE Conference on Computer Communications, Toronto, 6-9 July 2020, 894-903.

[32]   Boca Raton Newsletter (1998).

[33]   CISCO (2014) The Internet of Things Reference Model.

[34]   Ip, K., Asok, A., Xu, Y., Le, D., Mionis, N., Srinivasan, S. and Batoukov, R. (2020) ML-Assisted Monitoring and Characterization of IoT Sensor Networks. 2020 IEEE Conference on Evolving and Adaptive Intelligent Systems (EAIS), Bari, 27-29 May 2020, 1-8.

[35]   Berhea, S., Maynardb, M. and Khomh, F. (2020) Software Release Patterns When Is It a Good Time to Update a Software Component? Procedia Computer Science, 170, 618-625.

[36]   Sinha, R.S., Wei, Y.Q. and Hwang, S.H. (2017) A Survey on LPWA Technology: LoRa and NB-IoT. ICT Express, 3, 14-21.

[37]   Mehmood, Y., Ahmad, F., Yaqoob, I., Adnane, A., Imran, M. and Guizani, S. (2017) Internet-of-Things-Based Smart Cities: Recent Advances and Challenges. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55, 16-24.

[38]   Rodríguez, J.M. and Stammati, L. (2018) The Economic Impact of IoT: Putting Numbers on a Revolutionary Technology.

[39]   Holton, K. and Sandle, P. (2020) Online Learning Rockets in Coronavirus Pandemic, Says Pearson. Reuters.

[40]   Deutsche Welle (2020) Germany Gradually Warming up to COVID-19 Tracking App.

[41]   Deutsche Welle (2020) Germany Launches ‘Best’ Coronavirus Tracing App.

[42]   De Donno, M., Tange, K. and Dragoni, N. (2019) Foundations and Evolution of Modern Computing Paradigms: Cloud, IoT, Edge, and Fog. IEEE Access, 7, 150936-150948.

[43]   Sotenga, P.Z., Djouani, K. and Kurien, A.M. (2020) Media Access Control in Large-Scale Internet of Things: A Review. IEEE Access, 8, 55834-55859.

[44]   Alsubaei, F., Shiva, S. and Abuhussein, A. (2017) Security and Privacy in the Internet of Medical Things: Taxonomy and Risk Assessment. 2017 IEEE 42nd Conference on Local Computer Networks Workshops (LCN Workshops), Singapore, 9 October 2017, 112-120.

[45]   Biswas, A., Majumdar, A., Nath, S., Dutta, A. and Baishnab, K.L. (2019) LRBC: A Lightweight Block Cipher Design for Resource Constrained IoT Devices. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing.

[46]   Khoo, B. (2011) RFID as an Enabler of the Internet of Things: Issues of Security and Privacy. 2011 International Conference on Internet of Things and 4th International Conference on Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, Dalian, 19-22 October 2011, 709-712.

[47]   Parikh, D. and Zitnick, C.L. (2010) The Role of Features, Algorithms and Data in Visual Recognition. Toyota Technological Institute, Chicago and Microsoft Research, Redmond.

[48]   El-Haddad, S., Genet, M.G., El-Hassan, B. and El-Nabbouch, D. (2008) MDSAP Simulation Using TinyOs and Hospital Application Modeling. 2008 First International Conference on the Applications of Digital Information and Web Technologies (ICADIWT), Ostrava, 4-6 August 2008, 133-138.

[49]   Merenda, M., Porcaro, C. and Iero, D. (2020) Edge Machine Learning for AI-Enabled IoT Devices: A Review. Sensors, 20, Article No. 2533.

[50]   Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S. and Palaniswami, M. (2013) Internet of Things (IoT): A Vision, Architectural Elements, and Future Directions. Future Generation Computer Systems, 29, 1645-1660.

[51]   Intel® (2015) The Intel® IoT Platform. Architecture Specification White Paper Internet of Things (IoT).

[52]   Guth, J., Breitenbücher, U., Falkenthal, M., Fremantle, P., Kopp, O., Leymann, F. and Reinfurt, L. (2018) A Detailed Analysis of IoT Platform Architectures: Concepts, Similarities, and Differences. In: Di Martino, B., Li, K.C., Yang, L. and Esposito, A., Eds., Internet of Everything, Springer, Singapore, 81-101.

[53]   Zhang, Z.Y. and Jin, Y. (2020) Design of Temperature Remote Monitoring System Based on STM32. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Applications (ICAICA), Dalian, 27-29 June 2020, 757-759.

[54]   Yan, W.Y., Wang, Z.X., Wang, H., Wang, W.D., Li, J.H. and Gui, X.L. (2020) Survey on Recent Smart Gateways for Smart Home: Systems, Technologies, and Challenges. Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies, 33, e4067.

[55]   Nitti, M., Murroni, M., Fadda, M. and Atzori, L. (2016) Exploiting Social Internet of Things Features in Cognitive Radio. IEEE Access, 4, 9204-9212.

[56]   Nouraa, H., Hatouma, T., Salmanb, O., Yaacoubb, J.P. and Chehab, A. (2020) LoRaWAN Security Survey: Issues, Threats and Possible Mitigation Techniques. Internet of Things, 12, Article ID: 100303.

[57]   Barot, V. and Kapadia, V. (2020) Air Quality Monitoring Systems Using IoT: A Review. 2020 International Conference on Computational Performance Evaluation (ComPE), Shillong, 2-4 July 2020, 226-231.

[58]   Nour, B., Ibn-Khedher, H., Moungla, H., Afifi, H., Li, F., Sharif, K., Khelifi, H. and Guizani, M. (2019) Internet of Things Mobility over Information-Centric/Named-Data Networking. IEEE Internet Computing, 24, 14-24.

[59]   Alani, M.M. (2014) Chapter 3 TCP/IP Model. In: SpringerBriefs in Computer Science, Guide to OSI and TCP/IP Models, Springer, Cham, 19-50.

[60]   Wu, M., Lu, T.L., Ling, F.Y., Sun, L. and Du, H.Y. (2010) Research on the Architecture of Internet of Things. 2010 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (ICACTE), Chengdu, 20-22 August 2010, V5-484-V5-487.

[61]   Babun, L., Aksu, H., Ryan, L., Akkaya, K., Bentley, E.S. and Uluagac, A.S. (2020) Z-IoT: Passive Device-Class Fingerprinting of ZigBee and Z-Wave IoT Devices. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), Dublin, 7-11 June 2020, 1-7.

[62]   Cannon, D., O’Hara, B.T. and Keele, A. (2016) Networking Technology Basics. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.

[63]   Zhao, L.X., Pop, P., Zheng, Z. and Li, Q. (2018) Timing Analysis of AVB Traffic in TSN Networks Using Network Calculus. 2018 IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), Porto, 11-13 April 2018, 25-36.

[64]   Jaafar, A.A., Sharif, K.H., Ghareb, M.I. and Jawawi, D.N.A. (2019) Internet of Thing and Smart City: State of the Art and Future Trends. In: Bhatia, S., Tiwari, S., Mishra, K. and Trivedi, M., Eds., Advances in Computer Communication and Computational Sciences, Springer, Singapore, 3-28.

[65]   Sun, Y.C., Song, H.B., Jara, A.J. and Bie, R.F. (2016) Internet of Things and Big Data Analytics for Smart and Connected Communities. IEEE Access, 4, 766-773.

[66]   Guth, J., Breitenbücher, U., Falkenthal, M., Leymann, F. and Reinfurt, L. (2016) Comparison of IoT Platform Architectures: A Field Study Based on a Reference Architecture. 2016 Cloudification of the Internet of Things (CIoT), Paris, 23-25 November 2016, 1-6.

[67]   Sarkar, C., Akshay Uttama Nambi, S.N., Venkatesha Prasad, R. and Rahim, A. (2014) A Scalable Distributed Architecture towards Unifying IoT Applications. 2014 IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT), Seoul, 6-8 March 2014, 508-513.

[68]   Kaur, H. and Kumar, R. (2020) A Survey on Internet of Things (IoT): Layer-Specific, Domain-Specific and Industry-Defined Architectures. In: Gao, X.Z., Tiwari, S., Trivedi, M. and Mishra, K., Eds., Advances in Computational Intelligence and Communication Technology, Springer, Singapore, 265-275.

[69]   dos Santos, M.G., Ameyed, D., Petrillo, F., Jaafar, F. and Cheriet, M. (2020) Internet of Things Architectures: A Comparative Study. arXiv:2004.12936.

[70]   Atmani, A., Kandrouch, I., Hmina, N. and Chaoui, H. (2019) Big Data for Internet of Things: A Survey on IoT Frameworks and Platforms. In: Ezziyyani, M., Ed., Advanced Intelligent Systems for Sustainable Development (AI2SD’2019), Springer, Cham, 59-67.

[71]   Jamali, M.A.J., Bahrami, B., Heidari, A., Allahverdizadeh, P. and Norouzi, F. (2019) IoT Architecture. In: Towards the Internet of Things. EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing. Springer, Cham, 9-31.

[72]   Atlam, H.F. and Wills, G.B. (2019) IoT Security, Privacy, Safety and Ethics. In: Farsi, M., Daneshkhah, A., Hosseinian-Far, A. and Jahankhani, H., Eds., Digital Twin Technologies and Smart Cities, Springer, Cham, 123-149.

[73]   Wang, K., Wang, Y.H., Sun, Y.F., Guo, S. and Wu, J.S. (2016) Green Industrial Internet of Things Architecture: An Energy-Efficient Perspective. IEEE Communications Magazine, 54, 48-54.

[74]   Boyes, H., Hallaq, B., Cunningham, J. and Watson, T. (2018) The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT): An Analysis Framework. Computers in Industry, 101, 1-12.

[75]   Caesarendra, W., Pappachan, B.K., Wijaya, T., Lee, D., Tjahjowidodo, T., Then, D. and Manyar, O.M. (2018) An AWS Machine Learning-Based Indirect Monitoring Method for Deburring in Aerospace Industries towards Industry 4.0. Applied Sciences, 8, Article No. 2165.

[76]   CISCO (2020) Cisco Annual Internet Report (2018-2023).

[77]   Alsubaei, F., Abuhussein, A. and Shiva, S. (2018) Quantifying Security and Privacy in Internet of Things Solutions. 2018 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, Taipei, 23-27 April 2018, 1-6.

[78]   Smart, N.P. (2000) Physical Side-Channel Attacks on Cryptographic Systems. Software Focus, 1, 6-13.;2-W

[79]   Owasp (2020) What Is an Attack?

[80]   Rakovic, V., Karamachoski, J., Atanasovski, V. and Gavrilovska, L. (2019) Blockchain Paradigm and Internet of Things. Wireless Personal Communications, 106, 219-235.