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 AID  Vol.12 No.2 , June 2022
COVID-19 in Bouake (Côte D’Ivoire): Comparative Study of the Epidemiological, Clinical, Therapeutic, Evolutionary and Prognostic Aspects in Younger and Elderly Patients
Abstract: Introduction: The clinical manifestations of many diseases vary with age, and older people often do not show typical symptoms of the disease. The present study aims to compare the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary aspects of elderly patients with COVID-19 compared to young adult patients and to identify risk factors for mortality. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective single-center analytical study conducted from January 27, 2021 to January 27, 2022 at the COVID-19 Care Center of the Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department of the Bouaké University Teaching Hospital. The study population consisted of all patients aged at least 18 years seen in consultation and/or hospitalized with a positive COVID-19 RT-PCR. The patients were divided into two groups: younger patients (<60 years old) and elderly patients (≥60 years old). Data analysis was done with SPSS software. The statistical tests used were the chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test depending on the validity conditions and univariate and multivariate logistic regression with a significance level of 0.05. Results: Of a total of 779 patients, 644 (82.7%) were young. The median age of all patients was 41 years (IQR 32 - 54, extreme 18 and 96). Of all the patients 38.5% had a comorbidity. Compared to younger patients, chronic heart disease (61.7% vs 21.5%; p < 0.0001) and diabetes (23.4% vs 10.9%; p = 0.006) predominated in elderly patients. Patients were symptomatic in 89.2% of cases. In the elderly patients, the predominant symptoms were cough (85.1% vs 66%; p < 0.0001), dyspnea (48.7% vs 17.9%; p < 0.0001), ageusia (48.8% vs 24%; p < 0.0001), diarrhea (8.3% vs 3.3%; p = 0.013), impaired consciousness (4.1% vs 1.2%; p = 0.041) and insomnia (2.5 vs 0.3; p = 0.011). Younger patients were hemodynamically more stable unlike elderly patients (p < 0.0001). The therapeutic modalities were different in the two groups (p < 0.0001). The duration of confinement or hospitalization did not differ statistically according to the two groups (p = 0.551). The evolution was favourable in 92.9%. A total of 55 patients died, including 23 (3.6%) younger patients and 32 (23.7%) elderly patients with a significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.0001). Mortality risk factors were age (p < 0.001), dyspnea (p = 0.001), impaired consciousness (p = 0.020) and fever (p = 0.009). Conclusion: Elderly people with COVID-19 have a different clinical presentation from younger, characterized by more atypical symptoms. Mortality risk factors are age, dyspnoea, impaired consciousness and fever. It is therefore necessary to act on its various factors to improve the prognosis of COVID-19 in this age group.
Cite this paper: Djakaridja, K. , Juliette, K. , Alamun, A. , Tatiana, Y. , Renaud, K. , Marie, K. , Romeo, A. , Famoussa, K. , Akanbi, S. , Junior, S. , Thomas, A. and Ouffoue, K. (2022) COVID-19 in Bouake (Côte D’Ivoire): Comparative Study of the Epidemiological, Clinical, Therapeutic, Evolutionary and Prognostic Aspects in Younger and Elderly Patients. Advances in Infectious Diseases, 12, 312-327. doi: 10.4236/aid.2022.122025.
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