JHRSS  Vol.10 No.2 , June 2022
Patients’ Satisfaction with the Quality of Care in the Tunisian Private Hospitals during the Second Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic: Does Human Resource Planning Matter?
Abstract: Human resources need planning to meet the firms’ objectives and help them achieve advantages over their competitors. Therefore, the right management of the right people at the right time has the power and energy to embed sustainability across the organization not only in normal circumstances but also in turbulent and crisis times. As far as we know, no previous research has investigated the value of human resource planning (HRP) during a crisis period/time, like that of COVID-19. For this reason, a new approach is needed to explore the role of HRP in the context of crisis periods or disaster situations. Actually, it is in hospitals that human resource management (HRM) practices take on special meaning. However, the relationship between HRM and healthcare is very complex as the employees’ behavior is directly correlated with the patient’s satisfaction. During the outbreak of COVID-19, it became increasingly important to recognize the patient’s satisfaction criteria regarding how hospitals serve the patients. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the HRP on the patients’ satisfaction during the outbreak of an imminent pandemic, like COVID-19. For this purpose, we developed two contrasting samples: private hospitals’ directors (n = 85) and private hospitals’ patients (n = 858). We used structural equation modeling to assess the links between human resource planning and the patients’ satisfaction with the quality of care. In fact, our careful review of the literature provides us with a deep discussion on the practices of human resource planning. The results showed that some human resource planning practices are positively related to the patients’ satisfaction while others are negatively related.
Cite this paper: Methammem, F. and Anis Ben Abdallah, M. (2022) Patients’ Satisfaction with the Quality of Care in the Tunisian Private Hospitals during the Second Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic: Does Human Resource Planning Matter?. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 10, 262-290. doi: 10.4236/jhrss.2022.102017.

[1]   Aberese-Ako, M., Agyepong, I. A., & van Dijk, H. (2018). Leadership Styles in Two Ghanaian Hospitals in a Challenging Environment. Health Policy and Planning, 33, ii16-ii26.

[2]   Acosta, P. (2010). Promotion Dynamics the Peter Principle: Incumbents vs. External Hires. Labour Economics, 17, 975-986.

[3]   Al Kurdi, B., Alshurideh, M., & Alnaser, A. (2020). The Impact of Employee Satisfaction on Customer Satisfaction: Theoretical and Empirical Underpinning. Management Science Letters, 10, 3561-3570.

[4]   Aljaberi, O. A., Hussain, M., & Drake, P. R. (2017). A Framework for Measuring Sustainability in Healthcare Systems. International Journal of Healthcare Management, 13, 276-285.

[5]   Alt-White, A. C. (1988). Tracing the Evolution of Collective Bargaining in Three State Nurses Associations. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Maryland.

[6]   Andaleeb, S. (1988). Determinants of Customer Satisfaction with Hospitals: A Managerial Model. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 11, 181-187.

[7]   Anyim, F., Mba, S., & Ekwoaba, J. (2012). The Imperative of Integrating Corporate Business Plan with Manpower Planning. International Journal of Business and Management, 7, 56-62.

[8]   Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. Kogan Page.

[9]   Armstrong, M. (2012). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (12th ed.). Kogan Page Publishers.

[10]   Aykan, E. (2017). Gaining a Competitive Advantage through Green Human Resource Management. In Corporate Governance and Strategic Decision Making (pp. 159-175). IntechOpen.

[11]   Bannai, A., & Tamakoshi, A. (2014). The Association between Long Working Hours and Health: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Evidence. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, 40, 5-18.

[12]   Barker, D. T., & Clark, R. L. (1980). Mandatory Retirement and Labor Force Participation of Respondents in the Retirement History Study. Social Security Bulletin, 43, 20-29.

[13]   Beck, A. J., & Boulton, M. L. (2016). The Public Health Nurse Workforce in U.S. State and Local Health Departments, 2012. Public Health Reports, 131, 145-152.

[14]   Booth, M. (1995). Training of Doctors in Hospitals: A Comparison with Teacher Education. Journal of Education for Teaching: International Research and Pedagogy, 21, 145-162.

[15]   Bowers, M. R., Swan, J. E., & Koehler, W. F. (1994). What Attributes Determine Quality and Satisfaction with Health Care Delivery? Health Care Management Review, 19, 49-55.

[16]   Branine, M. (1999). Part-Time Work in the Public Health Service of Denmark, France and the UK. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 10, 411-428.

[17]   Buckman, D., Johnson, A., & Alexander, D. (2018). Internal vs. External Promotion: Advancement of Teachers to Administrators. Journal of Educational Administration, 56, 33-49.

[18]   Campbell, D. (2008). Non Financial Performance Measures and Promotion-Based Incentives. Journal of Accounting Research, 46, 297-332.

[19]   Carnevale, J. B., & Hatak, I. (2020). Employee Adjustment and Well-Being in the Era of COVID-19: Implications for Human Resource Management. Journal of Business Research, 116, 183-187.

[20]   Charles, D., White, R., Reyes, C., & Palmer, D. (2020). A Systematic Review of the Effects of Blood Flow Restriction Training on Quadriceps Muscle Atrophy and Circumference Post ACL Reconstruction. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 15, 882-891.

[21]   Chin, W. W. (1998). The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modeling. In G. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern Methods for Business Research (pp. 295-336). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

[22]   Collins, C., Mahuron, K., Bongiovanni, T., Lancaster, E., Sosa, J. A., & Wick, E. (2020). Stress and the Surgical Resident in the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Surgical Education, 78, 422-430.

[23]   Coyle, J. (1999). Exploring the Meaning of Dissatisfaction with Health Care: The Importance of Personal Identity Threat. Sociology of Health and Illness, 21, 95-125.

[24]   Dal Poz, M. R., Gupta, N., Quain, E., & Soucat, A. L. (2009). Handbook on Monitoring and Evaluation of Human Resources for Health with Special Applications for Low- and Middle-Income Countries (pp. 113-126). World Health Organization.

[25]   DeVaro, J. (2006). Internal Promotion Competitions in Firms. Rand Journal of Economics, 37, 521-542.

[26]   Drazin, R., & Rao, H. (2002). Harnessing Managerial Knowledge to Implement Product-Line Extensions: How Do Mutual Fund Families Allocate Portfolio Managers to Old and New Funds? Academy of Management Journal, 45, 609-619.

[27]   Ehrenberg, R. G., Rosenberg, P., & Li, J. (1988). Part Time Employment in the United States. In R. A. Hart (Ed.), Employment, Unemployment and Labor Utilisation (pp. 256-281). Unwin Hyman.

[28]   Elhanafy, E. Y., & Ahmed Elshazly, E. M. (2020). Impact of Documentation Practice Training Program for Nurses: On the Job versus off the Job. Egyptian Journal of Health Care, 13, 203-214.

[29]   Fairchild, D. G., McLoughlin, K. S., Gharib, S., Horsky, J., Portnow, M., Richter, J., & Bates, D. W. (2001). Productivity, Quality, and Patient Satisfaction. Comparison of Part-Time and Full-Time Primary Care Physicians. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16, 663-667.

[30]   Fein, O. T., & Garfield, R. (1991). Impact of Physicians' Part-Time Status on Inpatients' Use of Medical Care and Their Satisfaction with Physicians in an Academic Group Practice. Academic Medicine, 66, 694-698.

[31]   Gaba, D. M., Howard, S. K., Flanagan, B., Smith, B. E., Fish, K. J., & Botney, R. (1998). Assessment of Clinical Performance during Simulated Crises Using both Technical and Behavioral Ratings. Anesthesiology, 89, 8-18.

[32]   Gabriel, J. M. O., Otaroghene, M. P., & Dinges, D. (2018). Industrial Fatigue: A Workman’s Great Enemy. Journal of Business and Management, 20, 9-14.

[33]   Gile, P. P., Buljac-Samardzic, M., & Klundert, J. V. D. (2018). The Effect of Human Resource Management on Performance in Hospitals in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review. Human Resources for Health, 16, 3-21.

[34]   Griffiths, P., Dall’Ora, C., Simon, M., Ball, J., Lindqvist, R., Rafferty, A.-M., & Aiken, L. H. (2014). Nurses’ Shift Length and Overtime Working in 12 European Countries. Medical Care, 52, 975-981.

[35]   Groysberg, B., Lee, L. E., & Nanda, A. (2008). Can They Take It with Them? The Portability of Star Knowledge Workers’ Performance: Myth or Reality? Management Science, 54, 1213-1230.

[36]   Haas, J. S., Cook, E. F., Puopolo, A. L., Burstin, H. R., Cleary, P. D., & Brennan, T. A. (2000). Is the Professional Satisfaction of General Internists Associated with Patient Satisfaction? Journal of General Internal Medicine, 15, 122-128.

[37]   Hardy, M. A., & Quadagno, J. (1995). Satisfaction with Early Retirement: Making Choices in the Auto Industry. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 50B, S217-S228.

[38]   Harris, R., Willis, P., Simons, M., & Underwood, F. (1998). Learning the Job: Juggling the Messages in On- and Off-the-Job Training. Centre for Research in Education and Work, Adelaide, National Centre for Vocational Education and Research, University of South Australia.

[39]   Harvey, G., & Turnbull, P. (2020). Ricardo Flies Ryanair: Strategic Human Resource Management and Competitive Advantage in a Single European Aviation Market. Human Resource Management Journal, 30, 553-565.

[40]   Havlovic, S. J., Lau, D. C., & Pinfield, L. T. (2002). Repercussions of Work Schedule Congruence among Full-Time, Part-Time, and Contingent Nurses. Health Care Management Review, 27, 30-41.

[41]   Haynes, S. G., McMichael, A. J., & Tyroler, H. A. (1978). Survival after Early and Normal Retirement. Journal of Gerontology, 33, 269-278.

[42]   Herrbach, O., Mignonac, K., Vandenberghe, C., & Negrini, A. (2009). Perceived HRM Practices, Organizational Commitment, and Voluntary Early Retirement among Late-Career Managers. Human Resource Management, 48, 895-915.

[43]   Ibojo, B. O. (2012). Manpower Planning and Organization Objectives Nexus: A Theoretical Approach. Pakistan Journal of Business and Economic Review, 3, 116-124.

[44]   Janet, H. Y. N., & Bronya, H. K. L. (2019). Patient Satisfaction: Concept Analysis in the Healthcare Context. Patient Education and Counseling, 102, 790-796.

[45]   Joos, S. K., Hickam, D. H., Gordon, G. H., & Baker, L. H. (1996). Effects of Physician Communication Intervention on Patient Care Outcomes. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 11, 147-155.

[46]   Josten, E. J. C., Ng-A-Tham, J. E. E., & Thierry, H. (2003). The Effects of Extended Workdays on Fatigue, Health, Performance and Satisfaction in Nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 44, 643-652.

[47]   Joung, H.-W., Choi, E.-K., & Taylor, J. J. (2018). Investigating Differences in Job-Related Attitudes between Full-Time and Part-Time Employees in the Foodservice Industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30, 817-835.

[48]   Keller, R. T. (2001). Cross-Functional Project Groups in Research and New Product Development: Diversity, Communications, Job Stress, and Outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 547-555.

[49]   Ko, Y. J., & Choi, J. N. (2018). Overtime Work as the Antecedent of Employee Satisfaction, Firm Productivity, and Innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 40, 282-295.

[50]   Koike, K. (1988). Understanding Industrial Relations in Modern Japan, Hound Mills Basingstoke. The Macmillan Press Ltd.

[51]   Kotzee, T., & Couper, I. (2006). What Interventions Do South African Qualified Doctors Think Will Retain Them in Rural Hospitals of the Limpopo Province of South Africa? Rural and Remote Health, 6, 581-597.

[52]   Labarere, J., Francois, P., Auquier, P., Robert, C., & Fourny, M. (2001). Development of a French Inpatient Satisfaction Questionnaire. International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 13, 99-108.

[53]   Lacetera, N., Cockburn, I. M., & Henderson, R. (2004). Do Firms Change Capabilities by Hiring New People? A Study of the Adoption of Science-Based Drug Discovery. In J. A. C. Baum, & A. M. McGahan (Eds.), Business Strategy over the Industry Life Cycle: Advances in Strategic Management (Vol. 21, pp. 133-159). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

[54]   Lazear, E. (1979). Why Is There Mandatory Retirement? Journal of Political Economy, 87, 1261-1284.

[55]   Lazear, E. (1989). Pay Equality and Industrial Politics. Journal of Political Economy, 97, 561-580.

[56]   Lazear, E., & Rosen, S. (1981). Rank-Order Tournaments as Optimum Labor Contracts. Journal of Political Economy, 89, 841-864.

[57]   Lebow, J. L. (1983). Research Assessing Consumer Satisfaction with Mental Health Treatment: A Review of Findings. Evaluation and Program Planning, 6, 211-236.

[58]   Lee, C. (2009). Labor Force Participation of Older Males in Korea: 1955-2005. NBER Working Paper Series 14800, National Bureau of Economics Research.

[59]   Liu, L. F., Lee, S., Chia, P. F., Chi, S. C., & Yin, Y. C. (2012). Exploring the Association between Nurse Workload and Nurse-Sensitive Patient Safety Outcome Indicators. Journal of Nursing Research, 20, 300-309.

[60]   Macke, J., & Genari, D. (2018). Systematic Literature Review on Sustainable Human Resource Management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 208, 806-815.

[61]   Maduabum, C. P. (1998). Perspectives on Manpower Planning and Development in Nigeria: Text and Cases. Badagry ASCON Press.

[62]   Manongi, R. N., Marchant, T. C., & Bygbjerg, I. C. (2006). Improving Motivation among Primary Health Care Workers in Tanzania: A Health Worker Perspective. Human Resources for Health, 4, 6.

[63]   Mason, N. A., Perry, W. R., & Ryan, M. L. (1991). Alternative Work Schedules for Female Pharmacists. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 48, 85-91.

[64]   Mathis, R., & Jackson, J. (2012). Human Resource Management. Essential Perspectives (6th ed.). Cengage Learning.

[65]   Maurer, T. J., Wrenn, K. A., & Weiss, E. M. (2001). Toward Understanding and Managing Stereotypical Beliefs about Older Worker’s Ability and Desire for Learning and Development. In J. J. Martocchio, & G. R. Ferris (Eds.), Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management (Vol. 22, pp. 253-285). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. .

[66]   McMurray, J. E., Heiligers, P. J. M., Shugerman, R. P., Douglas, J. A., Gangnon, R. E., Voss, C., & Linzer, M. (2005). Part-Time Medical Practice: Where Is It Headed? The American Journal of Medicine, 118, 87-92.

[67]   McPhail, R., Herington, C., & Guiding, C. (2008). Human Resource Managers’ Perceptions of the Applications and Merit of the Balanced Scorecard in Hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27, 623-631.

[68]   Mechaber, H. F., Levine, R. B., Manwell, L. B., Mundt, M. P., & Linzer, M. (2008). Part-Time Physicians…Prevalent, Connected, and Satisfied. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23, 300-303.

[69]   Milgrom, P., & Roberts, J. (1992). Economics, Organization and Management. Prentice Hall.

[70]   Minbaeva, D. B. (2017). Building Credible Human Capital Analytics for Organizational Competitive Advantage. Human Resource Management, 57, 701-713.

[71]   Mishra, P. (2017). Green Human Resource Management. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 25, 762-788.

[72]   Nguyen, T. Q., Nguyen, A. T., Tran, A. L., Le, H. T., Le, H. H. T., & Vu, L. P. (2020). Do Workers Benefit from On-the-Job Training? New Evidence from Matched Employer-Employee Data. Finance Research Letters, 40, Article ID: 101664.

[73]   Nwankwo, I. N. (2007). Towards Effective Strategies for Human Resources Development in Educational Institutions. Nigeria Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1, 261-270.

[74]   Obi, C. (2012). Manpower Planning and Development as an Effective Tool for Achieving Organizational Goals. A Case Study of Star Paper Mill Ltd., ABA. Research Project.

[75]   Obi, J. N. (2015). Effective Human Resources Management Practices as the Key to Organizational Performance. International Journal of Educational Research, 3, 1-26.

[76]   Opatha, H. H. D. N. P. (2019). Sustainable Human Resource Management: Expanding Horizons of HRM. Department of HRM, University of Sri Jayewardenepura.

[77]   Oppel, E.-M., Winter, V., & Schreyögg, J. (2016). Examining the Relationship between Strategic HRM and Hospital Employees’ Work Attitudes: An Analysis across Occupational Groups in Public and Private Hospitals. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30, 794-814.

[78]   Panattoni, L., Stone, A., Chung, S., & Tai-Seale, M. (2015). Patients Report Better Satisfaction with Part-Time Primary Care Physicians, Despite Less Continuity of Care and Access. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 30, 327-333.

[79]   Pascoe, G. C. (1983). Patient Satisfaction in Primary Health Care: A Literature Review and Analysis. Evaluation and Program Planning, 6, 185-210.

[80]   Pearce, J. (2011). Strategic Management Formulation Implementation and Control (11th ed.). McGraw Hill.

[81]   Petter, S., Straub, D., & Rai, A. (2007). Specifying Formative Constructs in Information Systems Research. MIS Quarterly, 31, 623-656.

[82]   Purwadi, D. (2012). The Role of Japanese Human Resource Planning Practices for Increasing Industrial Competitiveness. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 65, 253-259.

[83]   Ren, S., Tang, G., & Jackson, S. (2017). Green Human Resource Management Research in Emergence: A Review and Future Directions. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 35, 769-768.

[84]   Rogers, A. E., Hwang, W.-T., Scott, L. D., Aiken, L. H., & Dinges, D. F. (2004). The Working Hours of Hospital Staff Nurses and Patient Safety. Health Affairs, 23, 202-212.

[85]   Saad, S. K. (2013). Contemporary Challenges of Human Resource Planning in Tourism and Hospitality Organizations: A Conceptual Model. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 12, 333-354.

[86]   Shirazi, H., Kia, R., & Ghasemi, P. (2020). Ranking of Hospitals in the Case of COVID-19 Outbreak: A New Integrated Approach Using Patient Satisfaction Criteria. International Journal of Healthcare Management, 13, 312-324.

[87]   Tambe, P., Cappelli, P., & Yakubovich, V. (2019). Artificial Intelligence in Human Resources Management: Challenges and a Path Forward. California Management Review, 61, 15-42.

[88]   Tanaka, S., Matsuzuki, M., & Takahira, H. (2008). Pursuing and Practicing Ideal Career Support for Nursing Professions. Kango Kanri, 18, 655-660.

[89]   Tucker, J. L. (2002). The Moderators of Patient Satisfaction. Journal of Management in Medicine, 16, 48-66.

[90]   Tucker, J. L., & Adams, S. R. (2001). Incorporating Patients’ Assessments of Satisfaction and Quality: An Integrative Model of Patients’ Evaluations of Their Care. Managing Service Quality, 11, 272-286.

[91]   Turner, M. R., McIntosh, T., Reid, S. W., & Buckley, M. R. (2018). Corporate Implementation of Socially Controversial CSR Initiatives: Implications for Human Resource Management. Human Resource Management Review, 29, 125-136.

[92]   Turner, P., & Pol, L. (1995). Beyond Patient Satisfaction. Journal of Health Care Marketing, 15, 45-53.

[93]   Ugwuowo, F. I., & McClean, S. I. (2000). Modelling Heterogeneity in a Manpower System: A Review. Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry, 16, 99-110.<99::AID-ASMB385>3.0.CO;2-3

[94]   Van der Klink, M. R., & Streumer, J. N. (2002). Effectiveness of On-the-Job Training. Journal of European Industrial Training, 26, 196-199.

[95]   Vardarlier, P. (2016). Strategic Approach to Human Resources Management during Crisis. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 235, 463-472.

[96]   Walker, J. W. (1980). Human Resource Planning. McGraw-Hill.

[97]   Ware, J. J., Snyder, M., Wright, W., & Davies, A. (1983). Defining and Measuring Patient Satisfaction with Medical Care. Evaluation Program and Planning, 6, 247-263.

[98]   Warr, P. (1992). Age and Occupational Well-Being. Psychology and Aging, 7, 37-45.

[99]   Wheeler, R., Candib, L., & Martin, M. (1990). Part Time Doctors: Reduced Working Hours for Primary Care Physicians. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association, 45, 47-54.