JACEN  Vol.11 No.2 , May 2022
Alectra vogelii: A Threat to Bambara Groundnut Production under Climate Change: A Review Paper
Abstract: Bambara groundnut (BGN) is a protein-rich pulse with the ability to lead to more climate-resilient agriculture. The objective of this study was to review Alectra vogelii as a potential threat to BGN production as a result of climate change. However, the crop faces biotic and abiotic stresses. Alectra vogelii is a major biotic constraint to BGN production, especially in Africa’s non-fertile semi-arid regions. Alectra vogelii (L.) Benth is a parasitic weed in the Orobanchaceae family that causes major damage by forming haustoria attached to roots to enable absorption of nutrients from the BGN. Alectra vogelii produces a large number of minute seeds that can live in the soil for up to 20 years. Based on the reviewed literature, various control mechanisms for dealing with the harmful effects of Alectra vogelii have been proposed. The aim of this research was to reveal the effect of Alectra vogelii on BGN and possible control strategies. We discuss the different control methods such as cultural and mechanical management procedures, phosphorus fertilizers and resistant host crops, herbicide use, and integrated Alectra vogelii control methods. In adaptive methods, however, new techniques remain important. The life cycle of root parasitic weeds is inextricably linked to that of their host, making it an ideal target for such new control techniques, especially when aimed at the early stages of the host-parasite relationship. This review reveals additional information on the function of parasitic seed, strigolactones and how they can be used in breeding to management parasitic weeds.
Cite this paper: Musango, R. , Pasipanodya, J. , Tamado, T. , Mabasa, S. and Makaza, W. (2022) Alectra vogelii: A Threat to Bambara Groundnut Production under Climate Change: A Review Paper. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 11, 83-105. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2022.112006.

[1]   Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)/World Food Programme (WFP) (2010) The State of Food Insecurity in the World: Addressing food insecurity in protracted crises. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome.

[2]   Harlan, J.R. (1992) Crops and Man. American Society of Agronomy, Madison.

[3]   Pingali, P.L. (2012) Green Revolution: Impacts, Limits, and the Path Ahead. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109, 12302-12308.

[4]   Mayes, S., Massawe, F.J., Alderson, P.G., Roberts, J.A., Azam-Ali, S.N. and Hermann, M. (2011) The Potential for Underutilized Crops to Improve Security of Food Production. Journal of Experimental Botany, 63, 1075-1079.

[5]   Bamshaiye, O.M., Adegbola, J.A. and Bamishaiye, E.I. (2011) Bambara Groundnut: An Under-Utilized Nut in Africa. Advances in Agricultural Biotechnology, 1, 60-72.

[6]   Sprent, J.L., Odee, D.W. and Dakora, F.D. (2010) African Legumes: A Vital but Underutilized Resource. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61, 1257-1256.

[7]   Halimi, A.R., Mayes, S., Barkla, B. and King, G. (2019) The Potential of the Underutilized Pulse Bambara Groundnut (Vign subterranean (L.) Verdc.) for Nutritional Food Security. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 77, 47-59.

[8]   Mayes, S., Ho, W.K., Chai, H.H., Gao, X., Kundy, A.C., Mateva, K.I., Zahrulakmal, M., Hahiree M.K.I.M., Kendabie, P., Licea, L.C.S., Massawe, F., Mabhaudhi, T., Modi, A.T., Berchie J.N., Amosh, S., Falpyes, B., Abberton, M., Olaniyi, O. and Azam-Ali, S.N. (2019) Bambara Groundnut: An Exemplar Underutilized Legume for Resilience under Climate Change. Planta, 250, 803-820.

[9]   Feldman, A., Ho, W.K., Massawe, F. and Mayes, S. (2019) Climate-Resilient Crop: Bambara Groundnut: How Could a Drought-Tolerant and Nutritious Legume Improve Community Resilience in the Face of Climate Change? In: Sarkar, A., Sensarma, S. and van Loon, G., Eds., Sustainable Solutions for Security: Combating Climate Change by Adaptation, Springer, 150-167.

[10]   Olukolu, B.A., Mayes, S., Stadler, F., Ng, Q.N., Fawole, I., Dominique, D., Azam-Ali, S.N., Abott, G.A. and Kole, C. (2012) Genetic Diversity in Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) as Revealed by Phenotypic Descriptors and DArT Marker Analysis. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 59, 347-358.

[11]   Berchie, J.N, Amelie, G., McClymont, S., Raizada, M., Adu-Dapaah, H. and Sarkodie-Addo, J. (2013) Performance of 13 Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) Landraces under 12 h and 14 h Photoperiod. Journal of Agronomy, 12, 20-28

[12]   IPCC (2014) Chapter 7: Food Security and Food Production Systems.

[13]   Mwaipopo, B.V. (2014) Characterization of Alectra vogelii (Witch Weed) Strains Using Molecular Markers in Selected Parts of Malawi and Tanzania. PhD Dissertation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Mogororo.

[14]   Mohamed, K.I., Papes, M., Williams, R., Benz, B.W. and Peterson, A.T. (2006) Global Invasive Potential of 10 Parasitic Witchweeds and Related Orobanchaceae. Ambio, 35, 281-288.

[15]   Olmstead, R.G., DePamphilis, C.W., Wolfe, A.D., Young, N.D., Elisons, W.J. and Reeves, P.A. (2001) Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae. American Journal of Botany, 88, 348-361.

[16]   Ally, M. (2015) Inheritance of Resistance to A.vogelii in Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L)Walp.). Doctoral Dissertation, University of Zambia, Lusaka.

[17]   Parker, C. and Riches, C.R. (1993) Parasitic Weeds of the World: Biology and Controls. CAB International, Wallingford, 332 p.

[18]   Phiri, C.K., Kabambe, V.H., Bokosi, J. and Mumba, P. (2018) Screening for Resistance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes on A. vogelii. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 9, 1362-1379.

[19]   Riches, C. (2002) Witchweeds of Pulse Crops in Africa. Grain Legumes, 35, 25-26.

[20]   Yadav, S.S., McNeil, D.C., Redden, R. and Patil, S.A. (2010) Climate Change of Cool Season Grain Legume Crops. Springer, Dordrecht, 245-249.

[21]   Karanja, S., Nguluu, S.N., Wambua, J. and Gatcheru, M. (2013) Response of Cowpea Genotypes to Alectra vogelii Parasitism in Kenya. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12, 6591-6598.

[22]   Kabambe, V.H., Katunga, L., Kapewa, T. and Ngwira, A. (2008) Screening Legumes for Integrated Management of Witchweeds (Alectra vogelii and Striga asiatica) in Malawi. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 3, 706-713.

[23]   Ejeta, G. (2007) The Striga Scourge in Africa: A Growing Pandemic. In: Ejeta, G. and Gressel, J., Eds., Integrating New Technologies for Striga Control: Towards Ending the Witch-Hunt, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd., Singapore, 3-16.

[24]   Teka, H.B. (2014) Advance Research on Striga Control: Review. Africa Journal of Plant Science, 8, 492-506

[25]   CABI (CAB International) (2017) Invasive Species Compendium. Alectra vogelii (Yellow witchweed). CAB International, Wellingford.

[26]   Mandumbu, R., Mutengwa, C., Mabasa, S., Mwenje, E., Gotosa, J. and Munyati, V. (2017) The Parasitic Weeds Scourge in Northern Zimbabwe: Effects of Soil Degradation, Hosts and Food Security Implications to Rural Farmers. Scientia, 20, 86-91.

[27]   Rodenburg, J., Riches, C.R. and Kayeke, J.M. (2010) Addressing Current and Future Problems of Parasitic Weeds in Rice. Crop Protection Journal, 29, 210-221.

[28]   IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2014) Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[29]   Phoenix, G.K. and Press, M.C. (2005) Linking Physiological Traits to Impacts on Community Structure and Function: The Role of Root Hemiparasitic Orobanchaceae (ex-Scrophulariaceae). Journal of Ecology, 93, 67-78.

[30]   Korres, N.E. (2017) Agronomic Weed Control: A Trustworthy Approach for Sustainable Weed Management Systems. In: Jabran, K. and Chauhan, B.S., Eds., Non-Chemical Weed Control, Academic Press, Cambridge, 97-114.

[31]   Hellmann, J.J., Byers, J.E., Bierwagen, B.G. and Dukes, J.S. (2008) Five Potential Consequences of Climate Change for Invasive Species. Conservation Biology, 22, 534-543.

[32]   Dawoud, D. and Sauerborn, J. (1994) Impact of Drought Stress and Temperature on Striga hermonthica and A. vogelii at Early Growth Stages. Experimental Agriculture, 30, 249-257.

[33]   IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2019) Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security, and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[34]   Parker, C. (1988) Review of Striga Studies in Ethiopia up to 1986. In: Fessehaie, R. and Parker, C., Eds., Proceedings (Problems and Control of Parasitic Weeds in Ethiopia) of the Second Ethiopian Weed Science Workshop, 29-30 September 1988, Ethiopian Weed Science Committee Addis Abeba, 22-34.

[35]   Watling, J.R. and Press, M.C. (1997) How Is the Relationship between the C4 Cereal Sorghum Bicolor and the C3 Root Hemi-Parasites Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica Affected by Elevated CO2? Plant, Cell and Environment, 20, 1292-1300.

[36]   Graves, J.D., Press, M.C. and Stewart, G.R. (1989) A Carbon Balance Model of the Sorghum-Striga hernionthica Host-Parasite Association. Plant, Cell and Environment, 12, 101-107.

[37]   Fernández-Aparicio, M., Delavault, P. and Timko, M.P. (2020) Management of Infection by Parasitic Weeds: A Review. Plant, 9, Article No. 1184.

[38]   Frost, D.L., Gumey, A.L., Press, M.C. and Scholes, J.D. (1997) Striga hermonthica Reduces Photosynthesis in Sorghum: The Importance of Stomatal Limitations and a Potential Role for ABA? Plant Cell and Environment, 20, 483-492.

[39]   Riches, C.R. (1989) The Biology and Control of A. vogelii Benth. (Scrophulariaceae) in Botswana. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Reading, Reading.

[40]   Jamil, M., Kanampiu, F.K., Karaya, H., Charnikhova, T. and Bouwmeester, H.J. (2012) Striga hermonthica Parasitism in Maize in Response to N and P Fertilizers. Field Crops Research, 134, 1-10.

[41]   Bouwmeester, H., Changsheng, L., Thiombiano, B., Rahimi, M. and Dong, L. (2021) Adaptation of the Parasitic Plant Lifecycle; Germination Is Controlled by Essential Host Signaling Molecules. Plant Physiology, 185, 1292-1308.

[42]   Kebede, M. and Ayana, B. (2018) Economically Important Parasitic Weeds and Their Management Practices in Crops. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 8, 104-115.

[43]   Marzec, M., Muszynska, A. and Gruszka, D. (2013) The Role of Strigolactones in Nutrient-Stress Responses in Plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 9286-9304.

[44]   Kroschel, J. (2001) A Technical Manual for Parasitic Weed Research and Extension. Springer, Dordrecht, 256.

[45]   Rubiales, D. and Fernadez-Aparicio, M. (2012) Innovations in Parasitic Weeds Management in Legume Crops: A Review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 32, 433-449.

[46]   Grenz, J.H. and Sauerborn, J. (2007) Mechanisms Limiting the Geographical Range of the Parasitic Weed Orobanche crenata. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 122, 275-281

[47]   Nweze, A.C., Nweze, J.A. and Nweze, J.E. (2015) The Witchweed (Striga asiatica): A Destructive Crop Plant Parasitic. University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

[48]   Fernandez-Aparicio, M., Garcia-Garrido, J.M. and Ocampo, J.A. (2010) Colonisation of Field Pea Roots by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Reduces Orobanche and Phelipanche Species Seed Germination. Weed Research, 50, 262-268.

[49]   Rodenburg, J., Kayeke, J., Bastiaans, L., Menza, M., Onyuka, E., Cissoko, M., et al. (2013) Timing as a Parasitic Weed Management Strategy for Smallholder Rice Farmers. 12th World Congress on Parasitic Plants, Sheffield, 15-20 July 2013.

[50]   Lopez-Raez, J.A., Charnikhova, T. and Fernandez, I. (2011) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Decreases Strigolactone Production in Tomato. Journal of Plant Physiology, 168, 294-297.

[51]   Smith, S.M. and Li, J. (2014) Signalling and Responses to Strigolactones and Karrikins. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 21, 23-29.

[52]   Yoneyama, K., Awad, A.A., Xie, X., Yoneyama, K. and Takeuchi, Y. (2010) Strigolactones as Germination Stimulants for Root Parasitic Plants. Plant Cell Physiology, 51, 1095-1103.

[53]   López-Ráez, J.A., Charnikhova, T. and Gómez-Roldán, V. (2008) Tomato Strigolactones Are Derived from Carotenoids and Their Biosynthesis Is Promoted by Phosphate Starvation. New Phytologist, 178, 863-874.

[54]   Mrema, E., Shimelis, H. and Laing, M. (2020) Combining Ability of Yield and Yield Components among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Strigae-Compatible and Striga-Resistant Sorghum Genotypes. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B: Soil and Plant Science, 70, 95-108.

[55]   Rambakudzibga, A.M (2000) Aspects of the Host-Parasite Association between the Grain Legume Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) and the Parasitic Angiosperm Alectra vogelii Benth. Ph.D Thesis, Der Justus-Liebig-Universitat Gieben, Gieben.

[56]   Magani, I.E. and Lagoke, S.T.O. (2009) Mechanism of Reaction of Cowpea Varieties to Alectra vogelii (Benth) and Its Control. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 14, 775-781.

[57]   Emechebe, A.M., Singh, B.B., Leleji, O.I., Atokple, I.D. K. and Adu, J.K. (1991) Cowpea Striga Problems and Research in Nigeria. In: Kim, S.K. Ed., Combating Striga in Africa: Proceedings of an International Workshop, Ibadan, 22-24 August 1988, 18-28.

[58]   Makoko (2008) Assessment of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) Cultivars against Alectra vogelii (Benth) (Witchweed) Collected from Dodoma, Tanzania.

[59]   Kwaga, Y.M. (2010) Phosphorus Reduces the Virulence of Alectra vogelii (Benth) on Groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea L.). New York Science Journal, 3, 1-7.

[60]   Kabambe, V. and Bokosi, J. (2020) Role of Variety and Fertilizer Practices on Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) Yield and Field Incidence of the Parasitic Weed Alectra vogelii (Benth) in Central Malawi. Journal of Agricultural Science, 12, 200-208.

[61]   Akande, M.O., Oluwatoyimbo, F.I., Koyade, C.O. and Olowokere, F.A. (2008) Response of Maize (Zea mays) and Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Intercrop Relayed with Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to Different Levels of Cow Dung Amended Rock Phosphate. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7, 3039-3043.

[62]   Karanja, S., Nguluu, S.N. and Gatcheru, M. (2012) Farm Yard Manure Reduces the Virulence of Alectra vogelii (Benth) on Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). African Journal of Plant Science, 6, 130-136.

[63]   Makaza, W., Rugare, J.T., Mabasa, S., Gasura, E., Gwatidzo, O.V. and Mandumbu, R. (2021) In Vivo and in Vitro Performance Studies on Groundnut (Acharis hypogea L.) Genotypes for Yellow Witchweed (Alectra vogelii Benth.) Resistance. Journal of Current Opinion in Crop Science, 2, 165-177.

[64]   Kureh, I. and Alabi, S. (2003) The Parasitic Angiosperm Alectra vogelii (Benth.) Can Influence the Growth and Nodulation of Host Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). Crop Protection, 22, 361-367.

[65]   Rugare, J.T. and Mabasa, S. (2013) Response of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) Genotypes to Wicth Weed (Alectra vogelii Benth) Infection. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 3, 667-673.

[66]   Jamil, M., Rodenburg, J., Charnikhova, T. and Bouwmeester, H.J. (2011) Pre-Attachment Striga hermonthica Resistance of New Rice for Africa (NERICA) Cultivars Based on Low Strigolactone Production. New Phytologist, 192, 964-975.

[67]   Ejeta, G., Mohammed, P., Rich, A., Merlake-Berhan, T.L., Housely, T.L. and Hess, D.E. (2000) Selection for Specific Mechanisms of Resistance to Striga in Sorghum. In: Haussmann, B.I.G., Koyama, M.L., Grivet, L., Rattunde, H.F. and Hess, D.E., Eds., Breeding for Striga Resistance in Cereals: Proceedings of a Workshop, IITA, Ibadan, 29-37.

[68]   Ter Borg, S. (1999) Broomrape Resistance in Faba Bean: What Dowe Know? In: Cubero, J.I., Moreno, M.T., Rubiales, D. and Sillero, J., Eds., Resistance to Orobanche: The State of the Art, Consejería de Agricultura, Pesca y Desarrollo Rural de la Junta de Andalucía, Sevilla, 25-41.

[69]   Koga, C. (2020) Genetic Characterization of Cowpea witch Weed (Striga gesnerioides Willd) and Its Control Strategies in Tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum L). PhD Thesis, Crop Science University of Zimbabwe.

[70]   Ejeta, G., Butler, L.G., Hess, D.E., Obilana, T. and Reddy, B.V. (1997) Breeding for Striga Resistance in Sorghum. Proceedings of International Conference on Genetic Improvement of Sorghum and Pearl Millet, Lubbock, 22-27 September 1997, 504-516.

[71]   Heller, R. and Wegmann, K. (2000) Mechanisms of Resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Proceedings of Breeding for Striga Resistance in Cereals Workshop, Ibadan, 18-20 August 1999, 29-37.

[72]   Rubiales, D.,Perez de Luque, A., Fernandez-Aparica, M., Sillero, J.C., Roman, B., Kharrat, M., Khalil, S., Joel, D.M. and Riches, C.R (2006) Screening Techniques and Sources of Resistance to Parasitic Weeds in Grain Legumes. Euphytica, 147, 187-199.

[73]   Timko, M.P. (2008) Molecular Genetics of Race-Specific Resistance of Cowpeas to Striga gesnerioides. In: Ejeta, G. and Gressel, J., Eds., Integrating New Technologies for Striga Control: Towards Ending the Witch Hunt, World Scientific Publishing Company. Pte Ltd., Singapore, 115-128.

[74]   Rodenburg, J. and Johnson, D.E. (2009) Weed Management in Rice-Based Cropping Systems in Africa. Advances in Agronomy, 103, 149-218.

[75]   Pérez-de-Luque, A., Sillero, J.C., Cubero, J.I. and Rubiales, D. (2004) Effect of Sowing Date and Host Resistance on the Establishment and Development of Orobanche crenata on Faba Bean and Common Vetch. Weed Research, 44, 282-288.

[76]   Rubiales, D., Alcántara, C., Pérez-de-Luque, A., Gil, J. and Sillero, J.C. (2003) Infection of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) by Crenate Broomrape (Orobanche crenata) as Influenced by Sowing Date and Weather Conditions. Agronomies, 23, 359-362.

[77]   Habimana, S., Murthy, K., Hatti, V. and Nduwumuremyi, A. (2014) Management of Orobanche in Field Crops. A Review. Science Journal of Crop Science, 2, 144-158.

[78]   Brachmann, A. and Parniske, M. (2006) The Most Widespread Symbiosis on Earth. PLoS Biology, 4, Article No. e239.

[79]   Smith, S.E. and Read, D.J. (2008) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. 3rd Edition, Academic Press, London.

[80]   Lendzemo, V.W. and Kuyper, T.W. (2001) Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Damage by Striga hermonthica on Two Contrasting Cultivars of Sorghum, Sorghum Bicolor. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 87, 29-35.

[81]   Louarn, J., Carbonne, F., Delavault, P., Bécard, G. and Rochange, S. (2012) Reduced Germination of Orobanche cumana Seeds in the Presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi or Their Exudates. PLoS ONE, 7, e49273.

[82]   Pérez-de-Luque, A., Hizenberg, H., Grenz, J.H., Sillero, J.C., ávila, C., Sauerborn, J. and Diego Rubiales, D. (2010) Broomrape Management in Faba Bean. Field Crops Research, 115, 319-328.

[83]   Glodwasser, Y. and Rodenburg, J. (2013) Integrated Agronomic Management of Parasitic Weed Seed Banks. In: Joel, D., Gressel, J. and Musselman, L., Eds., Parasitic Orobanchaceae, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 393-413.