Back
 AE  Vol.10 No.2 , April 2022
Outbreak, Distribution and Damage Characteristics of Cocoa Stem Borer, Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder 1874 (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) in Major Cocoa Producing States in Nigeria
Abstract: This study aims to ascertain the extent of the cocoa stem borer Eulophonotus myrmeleon distribution, outbreak, and damage to the cocoa plantations in six cocoa growing states in Nigeria. Three local government areas were selected from each of the six major cocoa states and three farms from each local government area. In each farm, 100 cocoa trees were randomly selected and inspected for symptoms and damages of E. myrmeleon. The result revealed that E. myrmeleon infestation has increased significantly (p = 0.01, df = 1, F = 41.77) in 2019 by 10% from the 2014 inspection. It also showed that the infestation level was significantly different from state to state. Symptoms of infestation include presence of entry/exit holes, woody exudates around the trees, yellowing and browning of the leaves. Damages caused by E. myrmeleon infestation are, loses of pod on the affected branch and tree and death of tree. Field observations showed clearly that stem borer is now becoming a serious problem and limiting considerably the production of cocoa in the region. It is time to give more attention to the biology and management of the pest. This is the first report detailing the symptoms and damage done by cocoa stem borers in Nigeria.
Cite this paper: Kingsley-Umana, E. , Evarestus Asogwa, U. and Mokwunye, I. (2022) Outbreak, Distribution and Damage Characteristics of Cocoa Stem Borer, Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder 1874 (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) in Major Cocoa Producing States in Nigeria. Advances in Entomology, 10, 175-185. doi: 10.4236/ae.2022.102013.
References

[1]   End, M.J., Daymond, A.J. and Hadley, P. (2021) Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Cacao Germplasm. Revised from the FAO/IPGRI Technical Guidelines No. 20 (Third Update, 2021). Bioversity International, Rome.

[2]   Ntoukam, E.N., Kamgang, J.C., Kamla, V.C., Mualla, Y., Tchappi, I.H., Galland, S. and Wono, Y.E. (2020) Agent-Based Model of Cocoa Mirids at the Scale of a Cocoa Farm. Procedia Computer Science, 170, 1180-1185.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2020.03.032

[3]   Asogwa, E.U., Mokwunye, I.U. and Oyedokun, A.V. (2012) Cocoa Insect Pest Outbreak in Some Parts of Ondo, Oyo, Osun and Edo States of Nigeria. Technical Report, CRIN, Ibadan, 17 p.

[4]   Entwistle, P.F. (1963) A Note on Eulophonotus myrmeleon Fldr. (Lepidoptera, Cossidae), a Stem Borer of Cocoa in West Africa. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 54, 1-3.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300048549

[5]   Entwistle, P.F. (1972) Pest of Cocoa. Longman Group Ltd., London, 778 p.

[6]   Yakovlev, R.V. (2011) Catalogue of the Family Cossidae of the Old World (Lepidoptera). Neue Entomologische Nachrichten, 66, 1-130.

[7]   Adu-Acheampong, R., Padi, B. and Sarfo, J.E. (2004) The Life Cycle of the Cocoa Stem Borer Eulophonotus myrmeleon in Ghana. Tropical Science, 44, 28-30.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ts.127

[8]   Hill, D.S. (2008) Pests of Crops in Warmer Climates and Their Control. Springer, Dordrecht.

[9]   Hill, D.S. and Waller, J.M. (1982) Pests and Diseases of Tropical Crops Volume 2: Handbook of Pests and Diseases. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.

[10]   Caplong, P., Paulin, D, Alauzet, C. and Decazy, B. (1993) Le foreur du tronc du cacaoyer, Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), un ravageur potentiellement dangereux en cacaoculture. Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Yamoussoukro, 18-24 July 1993, 215-221.

[11]   Wegbe, K., Gnakpenou, D., Djekpor, E.K. and Homa, S. (1995) Résultats préliminaires sur l’étude d’ Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), foreur du tronc du cacao: Description des dégats, dispersion, évolution des populations dans le Kloto, sud du Togo. Proceedings of INCOPED 1st International Seminar, Accra, 6-10 November 1995, 15-22.

[12]   Gnakpenou, D., Wegbe, K. and Djekpor, E.K. (1996) études préliminaires sur le foreur du tronc du cacaoyer, Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) au Togo: Repartition et bio-écologie. Proceedings of the 12th International Cocoa Research Conference, Salvador, 17-23 November 1996, 45-49.

[13]   Padi, B. and Adu-Acheampong, R. (2000) Preliminary Measure for the Control of the Cocoa Stem Borer Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder (Lepidoptera: Cossidae). Proceedings of the 13th International Cocoa Research Conference, Kota Kinabalu, 9-14 October 2000, 649-657.

[14]   Anikwe, J.C. (2010) The Seasonal Occurrence and Control of the Cocoa Stem Borer, Eulophonotus Myrmeleon Fldr. (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) on Cocoa in Ibadan, Nigeria. Libyan Agriculture Research Center Journal International, 1, 142-146.

[15]   N’Guessan, A.H., N’Guessan, K.F., Kouamé, N.N., Kouassi, K.P. and N’Guessan, W.P. (2016) Distribution géographique et importance des dégats de foreurs des tiges dans le verger de cacaoyers de Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 27, 4282-4292.

[16]   N’Guessan, K.F., Kébé, I.B. and Adiko, A. (2010) Seasonal Variations of the Population of Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) in the Sud-Bandama Region of Côte d’Ivoire. Journal of Applied Biosciences, 35, 2251-2259.

[17]   David, S. (2005) Learning about Sustainable Cocoa Production: A Guide for Participatory Farmer Training. 1. Integrated Crop and Pest Management. Sustainable Tree Crops Program, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Yaoundé, 188 p.

[18]   Idris, A., Rasaki, K., Folake, T. and Hakeem, B. (2013) Analysis of Pesticide Use in Cocoa Production in Obafemi Owode Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 3, 1-9.

[19]   Aminu, F., Ayinde, I., Sanusi, R. and Olaiya, A. (2019) Determinants of Pesticide Use in Cocoa Production in Nigeria. Canadian Journal of Agriculture and Crops, 4, 101-110.
https://doi.org/10.20448/803.4.2.101.110

[20]   N’Guessan, K.F. (2006) The Cocoa Stem Borer, Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) and Others New Potentially Dangerous Lepidopteran Pests of Cocoa. Actes de la 15ème Conférence Internationale sur la Recherche Cacaoyère, San José, Costa Rica, 9-14 October 2006, 1079-1086.

[21]   Skendžić, S., Zovko, M., Živković, I.P., Lešić, V. and Lemić, D. (2021) The Impact of Climate Change on Agricultural Insect Pests. Insects, 12, Article No. 440.
https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050440

 
 
Top