AS  Vol.13 No.2 , February 2022
Greenhouse Gas Emission from Inland Open Water Bodies and Their Estimation Process—An Emerging Issue in the Era of Climate Change
Abstract: The persistent rise in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the earth’s atmosphere is responsible for global warming and climate change. Besides the known source of GHGs emissions like energy, industry, and agriculture, intrinsic emissions from natural inland water bodies like wetland, rivers, reservoirs, estuaries, etc. have also been identified as other hotspots of GHGs emission and gaining the attention of the scientific communities in recent times. Inland fisheries in India are threatened by climate changes such as a change in temperature, precipitation, droughts, storm, sea-level rise, saltwater intrusion, floods that affect mostly the production, productivity and ultimately affect the fishers’ livelihood. There are, however, different mitigation and adaptation strategies to cope with the effects of climate change. Carbon sequestration and other related management interventions are one of the options available minimizing GHGs emissions from inland open waters, particularly the wetlands and coastal mangroves which are well known worldwide for their significant role in the storage of carbon. Assessment of C efflux from exposed sediments in dry streams, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, and ponds into the atmosphere can be considered imperative for a better understanding of their role as a C-sink or as a C-source to the atmosphere.
Cite this paper: Chanu, T. , Nag, S. , Koushlesh, S. , Devi, M. and Das, B. (2022) Greenhouse Gas Emission from Inland Open Water Bodies and Their Estimation Process—An Emerging Issue in the Era of Climate Change. Agricultural Sciences, 13, 290-306. doi: 10.4236/as.2022.132020.

[1]   Solomon, S., Manning, M., Marquis, M. and Qin, D. (2007) Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis: Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC (Vol. 4). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[2]   Llovel, W., Purkey, S., Meyssignac, B., Blazquez, A., Kolodziejczyk, N. and Bamber, J. (2019) Global Ocean Freshening, Ocean Mass Increase and Global Mean Sea Level Rise over 2005-2015. Scientific Reports, 9, Article No. 17717.

[3]   World Meteorological Organization (2017) WMO Statement on the State of the Global Climate in 2016.

[4]   Abril, G. and Borges, A.V. (2005) Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions from Estuaries. In: Greenhouse Gas Emissions—Fluxes and Processes, Springer, Berlin, 187-207.

[5]   Deemer, B.R., Harrison, J.A., Li, S., Beaulieu, J.J., DelSontro, T., Barros, N., Bezerra-Neto, J.F., Powers, S.M., Dos Santos, M.A. and Vonk, J.A. (2016) Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoir Water Surfaces: A New Global Synthesis. BioScience, 66, 949-964.

[6]   Fearnside, P.M. and Pueyo, S. (2012) Underestimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Tropical Dams. Nature Climate Change, 2, 382-384.

[7]   Kawade, S., Kumar, A. and Sharma, M.P. (2018) Carbon Dioxide Emission from a Reservoir in India. International Journal of Lakes and Rivers, 11, 29-46.

[8]   Rodriguez, M. and Casper, P. (2018) Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Semi-Arid Tropical Reservoir in Northeastern Brazil. Regional Environmental Change, 18, 1901-1912.

[9]   Gruca-Rokosz, R. (2020) Quantitative Fluxes of the Greenhouse Gases CH4 and CO2 from the Surfaces of Selected Polish Reservoirs. Atmosphere, 11, 286.

[10]   Pachauri, R.K. and Reisinger, A. (2007) IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. IPCC, Geneva.

[11]   Ravishankara, A.R., Daniel, J.S. and Portmann, R.W. (2009) Nitrous Oxide (N2O): The Dominant Ozone-Depleting Substance Emitted in the 21st Century. Science, 326, 123-125.

[12]   World Meteorological Organization (2020) WMO Statement on the State of the Global Climate in 2019. World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Geneva.

[13]   Global Warming Potentials (IPCC Second Assessment Report).

[14]   Drake, T.W., Raymond, P.A. and Spencer, R.G.M. (2018) Terrestrial Carbon Inputs to Inland Waters: A Current Synthesis of Estimates and Uncertainty. Limnology and Oceanography Letters, 3, 132-142.

[15]   Cole, J.J., Prairie, Y.T., Caraco, N.F., McDowell, W.H., Tranvik, L.J., Striegl, R.G., Duarte, C.M., Kortelainen, P., Downing, J.A., Middelburg, J.J. and Melack, J. (2007) Plumbing the Global Carbon Cycle: Integrating Inland Waters into the Terrestrial Carbon Budget. Ecosystems, 10, 172-185.

[16]   Bastviken, D., Santoro, A.L., Marotta, H., Pinho, L.Q., Calheiros D.F., Crill, P. and Enrich-Prast, A. (2010) Methane Emissions from Pantanal, South America, during the Low Water Season: Toward More Comprehensive Sampling. Environmental Science & Technology, 44, 5450-5455.

[17]   Soued, C., del Giorgio, P.A. and Maranger, R. (2016) Nitrous Oxide Sinks and Emissions in Boreal Aquatic Networks in Québec. Nature Geoscience, 9, 116-123.

[18]   Butman, D. and Raymond, P.A. (2011) Significant Efflux of Carbon Dioxide from Streams and Rivers in the United States. Nature Geoscience, 4, 839-842.

[19]   Cole, J.J., Caraco, N.E., Kling, G.W. and Kratz, T.K. (1994) Carbon-Dioxide Supersaturation in the Surface Waters of Lakes. Science, 265, 1568-1570.

[20]   Raymond, P.A., Hartmann, J., Lauerwald, R., Sobek, S., McDonald, C., Hoover, M., Butman, D., Striegl, R., Mayorga, E., Humborg, C. and Kortelainen, P. (2013) Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Inland Waters. Nature, 503, 355-359.

[21]   Stanley, E.H., Casson, N.J., Christel, S.T., Crawford, J.T., Loken, L.C. and Oliver, S.K. (2016) The Ecology of Methane in Streams and Rivers: Patterns, Controls, and Global Significance. Ecological Monographs, 86, 146-171.

[22]   DelSontro, T., Beaulieu, J.J. and Downing, J.A. (2018) Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Lakes and Impoundments: Upscaling in the Face of Global Change. Limnology and Oceanography Letters, 3, 64-75.

[23]   Natchimuthu, S., Selvam, B.P. and Bastviken, D. (2014) Influence of Weather Variables on Methane and Carbon Dioxide Flux from a Shallow Pond. Biogeochemistry, 119, 403-413.

[24]   Yang, P., He, Q., Huang, J. and Tong, C. (2015) Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases at Two Different Aquaculture Ponds in the Coastal Zone of Southeastern China. Atmospheric Environment, 115, 269-277.

[25]   Marce, R., Obrador, B., Gomez-Gener, L., Catalan, N., Koschorreck, M., Arce, M.I., Singer, G. and von Schiller, D. (2019) Emissions from Dry Inland Waters Are a Blind Spot in the Global Carbon Cycle. Earth-Science Reviews, 188, 240-248.

[26]   ICAR (2011) Handbook of Fisheries and Aquaculture.

[27]   Department of Fisheries, Government of India, Inland Fisheries.

[28]   Dusek, J., Darenova, E., Pavelka, M. and Marek, M.V. (2020) Methane and Carbon Dioxide Release from Wetland Ecosystems. In: Climate Change and Soil Interactions, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 509-553.

[29]   Foster, J., Evans, L., Curtin, A. and Hill, B. (2012) The Role of Wetlands in the Carbon Cycle. Issues Paper the Role of Wetlands in the Carbon Cycle. Department of Environment. Australian Government.

[30]   Dignac, M.F., Derrien, D., Barre, P., Barot, S., Cécillon, L., Chenu, C., Chevallier, T., Freschet, G.T., Garnier, P., Guenet, B. and Hedde, M. (2017) Increasing Soil Carbon Storage: Mechanisms, Effects of Agricultural Practices and Proxies. A Review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 37, 14.

[31]   Nag, S.K. (2016) Wetlands: Gaseous Emissions. In: Lal, R., Ed., Encyclopedia of Soil Science, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, Vol. 3, 2589-2595.

[32]   Bastviken, D., Cole, J., Pace, M. and Tranvik, L. (2004) Methane Emissions from Lakes: Dependence of Lake Characteristics, Two Regional Assessments, and a Global Estimate. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 18, GB4009.

[33]   Lapierre, J.F. and Del Giorgio, P.A. (2014) Partial Coupling and Differential Regulation of Biologically and Photochemically Labile Dissolved Organic Carbon across Boreal Aquatic Networks. Biogeosciences, 11, 5969-5985.

[34]   Holgerson, M.A. and Raymond, P.A. (2016) Large Contribution to Inland Water CO2 and CH4 Emissions from Very Small Ponds. Nature Geoscience, 9, 222-226.

[35]   Seitzinger, S.P. and Kroeze, C. (1998) Global Distribution of Nitrous Oxide Production and N Inputs in Freshwater and Coastal Marine Ecosystems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 93-113.

[36]   Gattuso, J.P., Frankignoulle, M. and Wollast, R. (1998) Carbon and Carbonate Metabolism in Coastal Aquatic Ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 29, 405-434.

[37]   DeLaune, R.D. and Pezeshki, S.R. (2003) The Role of Soil Organic Carbon in Maintaining Surface Elevation in Rapidly Subsiding US Gulf of Mexico Coastal Marshes. Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus, 3, 167-179.

[38]   Kelley, C.A., Martens, C.S. and Ussler III, W. (1995) Methane Dynamics across a Tidally Flooded Riverbank Margin. Limnology and Oceanography, 40, 1112-1129.

[39]   Magenheimer, J.F., Moore T.R., Chmura, G.L. and Daoust, R.J. (1996) Methane and Carbon Dioxide Flux from a Macrotidal Salt Marsh, Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick. Estuaries, 19, 139-145.

[40]   Chmura, G.L., Kellman, L. and Guntenspergen, G.R. (2011) The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Potential Global Warming Feedbacks of a Northern Macrotidal and Microtidal Salt Marsh. Environmental Research Letters, 6, Article ID: 044016.

[41]   Hu, B., Wang, D., Zhou, J., Meng, W., Li, C., Sun, Z., Guo, X. and Wang, Z. (2018) Greenhouse Gases Emission from the Sewage Draining Rivers. Science of the Total Environment, 612, 1454-1462.

[42]   Gonzalez-Valencia, R., Magana-Rodriguez, F., Gerardo-Nieto, O., Sepulveda-Jauregui, A., Martinez-Cruz, K., Anthony, K.W., Baer, D. and Thalasso, F. (2014) In Situ Measurement of Dissolved Methane and Carbon Dioxide in Freshwater Ecosystems by Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy-Supporting Information. Environmental Science and Technology, 48, 11421-11428.

[43]   Myhre, G., Shindell, D. and Pongratz, J. (2014) Anthropogenic and Natural Radioactive Forcing, In: Stocker, T., et al., Eds., Climate Change: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge, 659-740.

[44]   Richards, B. and Craft, C.B. (2015) Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Restored Agricultural Wetlands and Natural Wetlands, Northwestern Indiana. In: The Role of Natural and Constructed Wetlands in Nutrient Cycling and Retention on the Landscape, Springer, Cham, 17-32.

[45]   Ghosh, S., Jana. T.K., Singh, B.N. and Choudhury, A. (1987) Comparative Study of Carbon Dioxide System in Virgin and Reclaimed Mangrove Waters of Sundarbans during Freshet. Mahasagar Bulletin, National Institute of Oceanography, 20, 155-161.

[46]   Biswas, H., Mukhopadhyay, S.K., Sen, S. and Jana, T.K. (2007) Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Methane Dynamics in the Tropical Mangrove-Dominated Estuary, NE Coast of Bay of Bengal, India. Journal of Marine Systems, 68, 55-64.

[47]   Rajkumar, A.N., Barnes, J., Ramesh, R., Purvaja, R. and Upstill-Goddard, R.C. (2008) Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in the Polluted Adyar River and Estuary, SE India. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56, 2043-2051.

[48]   Datta, A., Nayak, D.R., Sinhababu, D.P. and Adhya, T.K. (2009) Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from an Integrated Rain-Fed Rice-Fish Farming System of Eastern India. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 129, 228-237.

[49]   Panneer Selvam, B., Natchimuthu, S., Arunachalam, L. and Bastviken, D. (2014) Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Inland Waters in India-Implications for Large Scale Greenhouse Gas Balances. Global Change Biology, 20, 3397-3407.

[50]   Linto, N., Barnes, J., Ramachandran, R., Divia, J., Ramachandran, P. and Upstill-Goddard, R.C. (2014) Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions from Mangrove-Associated Waters of the Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal. Estuaries and Coasts, 37, 381-398.

[51]   Attermeyer, K., Flury, S., Jayakumar, R., Fiener, P., Steger, K., Arya, V., Wilken, F., Van Geldern, R. and Premke, K. (2016) Invasive Floating Macrophytes Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Small Tropical Lake. Scientific Reports, 6, Article No. 20424.

[52]   Shaher, S., Chanda, A., Das, S., Das, I., Giri, S., Samanta, S., Hazra, S. and Mukherjee, A.D. (2020) Summer Methane Emissions from Sewage Water-Fed Tropical Shallow Aquaculture Ponds Characterized by Different Water Depths. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 18182-18195.

[53]   Donato D.C., Kauffman, J.B., Murdiyarso, D., Kurnianto, S., Stidham, M. and Kanninen, M. (2011) Mangroves among the Most Carbon-Rich Forests in the Tropics. Nature Geoscience, 4, 293-297.

[54]   USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station (2011) Mangroves among the Most Carbon-Rich Forests in the Tropics; Coastal Trees Key to Lowering Greenhouse Gases. Science Daily.

[55]   McGinnis, D.F., Kirillin, G., Tang, K.W., Flury, S., Bodmer, P., Engelhardt, C., Casper, P. and Grossart, H.P. (2015) Enhancing Surface Methane Fluxes from an Oligotrophic Lake: Exploring the Microbubble Hypothesis. Environmental Science & Technology, 49, 873-880.

[56]   Qu, B., Aho, K.S., Li, C., Kang, S., Sillanpää, M., Yan, F. and Raymond, P.A. (2017) Greenhouse Gases Emissions in Rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. Scientific Reports, 7, Article No. 16573.

[57]   Upstill-Goddard, R.C., Rees, A.P. and Owens, N.J.P. (1996) Simultaneous High-Precision Measurements of Methane and Nitrous Oxide in Water and Seawater by Single-Phase Equilibration Gas Chromatography. Deep-Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 430, 1669-1682.

[58]   Beaulieu, J.J., McManus, M.G. and Nietch, C.T. (2016) Estimates of Reservoir Methane Emissions Based on a Spatially Balanced Probabilistic Survey. Limnology and Oceanography, 61, S27-S40.

[59]   Wik, M., Thornton, B.F., Bastviken, D., Uhlbäck, J. and Crill, P.M. (2016) Biased Sampling of Methane Release from Northern Lakes: A Problem for Extrapolation. Geophysical Research Letters, 43, 1256-1262.

[60]   Eugster, W., DelSontro, T. and Sobek, S. (2011) Eddy Covariance Flux Measurements Confirm Extreme CH4 Emissions from a Swiss Hydropower Reservoir and Resolve Their Short-Term Variability. Biogeosciences, 8, 5019-5055.

[61]   Maeck, A., Hofmann, H. and Lorke, A. (2014) Pumping Methane out of Aquatic Sediments—Ebullition Forcing Mechanisms in an Impounded River. Biogeosciences, 11, 2925-2938.

[62]   Delwiche, K., Senft-Grupp, S. and Hemond, H. (2015) A Novel Optical Sensor Designed to Measure Methane Bubble Sizes in Situ. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 13, 712-721.

[63]   Kumar, A., Bhatia, A, Fagodiya, R.K., Malyan, S.K. and Meena, B.L. (2017) Eddy Covariance Flux Tower: A Promising Technique for Greenhouse Gases Measurement. Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research, 7, 337-340.

[64]   Jha, C.S., Rodda, S.R., Thumaty, K.C., Raha, A.K. and Dadhwal, V.K. (2014) Eddy Covariance-Based Methane Flux in Sundarbans Mangroves, India. Journal of Earth System Science, 123, 1089-1096.

[65]   Schubert, M., Paschke, A., Lieberman, E. and Burnett, W.C. (2012) Air-Water Partitioning of 222Rn and Its Dependence on Water Temperature and Salinity. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 3905-3911.

[66]   Podgrajsek, E., Sahlée, E., Bastviken, D., Holst, J., Lindroth, A., Tranvik, L. and Rutgersson, A. (2014) Comparison of Floating Chamber and Eddy Covariance Measurements of Lake Greenhouse Gas Fluxes. Biogeosciences, 11, 4225-4233.

[67]   Erkkila, K.M., Ojala, A., Bastviken, D., Biermann, T., Heiskanen, J.J., Lindroth, A., Peltola, O., Rantakari, M., Vesala, T. and Mammarella, I. (2018) Methane and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes over a Lake: Comparison between Eddy Covariance, Floating Chambers and Boundary Layer Method. Biogeosciences, 15, 429-445.