AS  Vol.13 No.2 , February 2022
Combine Harvester: Small Machine Solves Big Rice Harvesting Problem of Bangladesh
Abstract: Bangladesh, a country with 87% of rural households that depend on agriculture and rice dominated diets (70%), engages the country’s food security. Therefore, there is strong advocacy for a mechanized paddy harvesting system for food security in South Asia, mainly Bangladesh. Some harvesting machinery is available; however, the precise roles of a combine harvester during this process are little. This study attempts to understand the consequences of combining harvesters for paddy harvesting and compare them with hand harvesting. For comparison of field performance of combine harvester with traditional harvesting, the experiment was conducted at Gazipur District, Bangladesh, in 2016. Results showed that the labor required for harvesting unit area 283, 15 and 9.87 man-h∙ha−1 for T1 (Sickle + Head carry + Beating + Kula), T2 (Reaper + Trolley carry + Close drum thresher + winnower), T3 (Combine harvester) system, respectively. Likewise, the harvesting costs were 1.84 (T2) and 2.5 (T1) times higher than the combine harvester (T3). Also, the postharvest loss can be saved 1.84%, to use combine harvester over manual harvesting of paddy. The above result revealed that the semi-mechanized and mechanized harvesting system is a time, labor and cost-saving system; however, the manual reaping system is concerned with more postharvest losses (3.09%). This study highlights the importance of combine harvester; however, further research is required in other places with large and mini-combine harvesters under diverse cropping areas and to test a combine harvester’s detailed potentiality.
Cite this paper: Nath, B. , Paul, S. , Huda, M. , Hossen, M. , Bhuiyan, M. and Islam, A. (2022) Combine Harvester: Small Machine Solves Big Rice Harvesting Problem of Bangladesh. Agricultural Sciences, 13, 201-220. doi: 10.4236/as.2022.132015.

[1]   United Nations (2020) World Population Projected to Reach 9.8 Billion in 2050, and 11.2 Billion in 2100.

[2]   Godfray, H.C.J. and Garnett, T. (2014) Food Security and Sustainable Intensification. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369, Article ID: 20120273.

[3]   Tilman, D., Balzer, C., Hill, J. and Befort, B.L. (2011) Global Food Demand and the Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 20260-20264.

[4]   Asian Development Bank (2019) Poverty Data: Bangladesh.

[5]   The Global Economy (2020) Bangladesh: Employment in Agriculture.

[6]   World Bank (2016, October 9) Bangladesh: Growing the Economy through Advances in Agriculture.

[7]   BBS (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics) (2017) Statistical Pocketbook of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bureau of statistics, Dhaka, Ministry of Planning, Government of Bangladesh, Dhaka.

[8]   Mainuddin, M. and Kirby, M. (2015) National Food Security in Bangladesh to 2050. Food Security, 7, 633-646.

[9]   Kabir, M.S., Salam, M.U., Chowdhury, A., Rahman, N.M.F., Iftekharuddaula, K.M., Rahman, M.S., et al. (2015) Rice Vision for Bangladesh: 2050 and Beyond. Bangladesh Rice Journal, 19, 1-18.

[10]   Nath, B.C., Hossen, M.A., Islam, A.K.M.S., Huda, M.D., Paul, S. and Rahman, M.A. (2016) Postharvest Loss Assessment of Rice at Selected Areas of Gazipur District. Bangladesh Rice Journal, 20, 23-32.

[11]   Abedin, M.Z., Rahman, M.Z., Mia, M.I.A. and Rahman, K.M.M. (2012) In-store Losses of Rice and Ways of Reducing Such Losses at Farmers’ Level: An Assessment in Selected Regions of Bangladesh. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, 10, 133-144.

[12]   Nath, B.C., Nam, Y.S., Huda, M.D., Rahman, M.M., Ali, P. and Paul, S. (2017) Status and Constrain for Mechanization of Rice Harvesting System in Bangladesh. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 492-506.

[13]   Brolley, M. (2015) Rice Security Is Food Security for Much of the World. Rice Today. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Metro Manila, 30-32.

[14]   Hasan, M.K., Ali, M.R., Saha, C.K., Alam, M.M. and Hossain, M.M. (2019) Assessment of Paddy Harvesting Practices of Southern Delta Region in Bangladesh. Progressive Agriculture, 30, 57-64.

[15]   Mottaleb, K.A., Krupnik, T.J. and Erenstein, O. (2016) Factors Associated with Small-Scale Agricultural Machinery Adoption in Bangladesh: Census Findings. Journal of Rural Studies, 46, 155-168.

[16]   Paul, S., Hossen, M., Nath, B., Rahman, M. and Hosen, S. (2016) Effect of Soil Settling Period on Performance of Rice Transplanter. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Technology, 12, 14-20.

[17]   Hossen, M., Talukder, M., Amin, R., Al Mamun, M.R., Rahaman, H., Paul, S., et al. (2020) Mechanization Status, Promotional Activities and Government Strategies of Thailand and Vietnam in Comparison to Bangladesh. AgriEngineering, 2, 489-510.

[18]   Ahmed, S. (2014, November) Country Paper Presentation, Bangladesh. The 10th Session of the Technical Committee of CSAM and Regional Workshop on Establishing a Regional Database of Agricultural Mechanization in Asia and the Pacific, Siem Reap, 17-19 November 2014, 17-19.

[19]   Tiwari, P.S., Gurung, T.R., Sahni, R.K. and Kumar, V. (2017) Agricultural Mechanization Trends in SAARC Region. Mechanization for Sustainable Agricultural Intensification in SAARC Agriculture Centre, Dhaka, 302.

[20]   Hasan, M.K., Ali, M.R., Saha, C.K., Alam, M.M. and Haque, M.E. (2019) Combine Harvester: Impact on Paddy Production in Bangladesh. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, 17, 583-591.

[21]   Alam, M.M., Kabir, W. and Khan, I.N. (2008) Booklet on Mechanization—Its Trend and Opportunities in the Agricultural Production System in SAARC Countries. SAARC Agriculture Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC), Dhaka.




[25]   Hasan, K., Tanaka, T.S., Alam, M., Ali, R. and Saha, C.K. (2020) Impact of Modern Rice Harvesting Practices over Traditional Ones. Reviews in Agricultural Science, 8, 89-108.

[26]   Zhang, X., Rashid, S., Ahmad, K. and Ahmed, A. (2014) Escalation of Real Wages in Bangladesh: Is It the Beginning of Structural Transformation? World Development, 64, 273-285.

[27]   MOA (Ministry of Agriculture) (2020).

[28]   Nath, B.C. and Nam, Yo-So. (2014) Improvement of Paddy Harvesting Mechanization System for Bangladesh. In: KOICA, Harvesting Mechanization of Bangladesh, Korea International Cooperation Agency, Seongnam, 48.

[29]   Alizadeh, M.R. and Allameh, A. (2013) Evaluating Rice Losses in Various Harvesting Practices. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 4, 894-901.

[30]   Constable, G. and Somerville, B. (Eds.). (2003) A Century of Innovation: Twenty Engineering Achievements That Transformed Our Lives. Joseph Henry Press, Washington DC.

[31]   Morad, M.M. (1995) Optimizing the Rotary Mower Kinematic Parameter for Minimum Mowing Cost. Misr Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 12, 353-363.

[32]   Ali, M.R., Hasan, M.K., Saha, C.K., Alam, M.M., Hossain, M.M., Kalita, P.K. and Hansen, A.C. (2018) Role of Mechanical Rice Harvesting in Socio-Economic Development of Bangladesh. 2018 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Detroit, 29 July-1 August 2018, Article ID: 1800751.

[33]   Kannan, E., Kumar, P., Vishnu, K. and Abraham, H. (2013) Assessment of Pre and Post-Harvest Losses of Rice and Red Gram in Karnataka. Agricultural Development and Rural Transformation Centre, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore.

[34]   Amponsah, S.K., Addo, A., Dzisi, K.A., Moreira, J. and Ndindeng, S.A. (2017) Performance Evaluation and Field Characterization of the Sifang Mini Rice Combine Harvester. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 33, 479-489.

[35]   Islam, S., Rahman, S.M.M., Rahman, M.A., Quasem, M.A., Huda, M.D., Islam, A.K.M.S., et al. (2009) Mechanized Rice Cultivation in Bangladesh: Past Experiences and Future Potentials. AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa & Latin America, 40, 36-40.

[36]   Fouad, H.A., Tayel, S.A., El-Hadad, Z. and Abdel-Mawla, H. (1990) Performance of Two Different Types of Combines in Harvesting Rice in Egypt. AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America, 21, 17-22.