ANP  Vol.11 No.1 , February 2022
Synthesis and Stability Studies of 225Actinium Tin Colloid Radiopharmaceutical
Abstract: Synthesis of novel 225Ac-Sn particles was described for the first time. Detailed experimental and stability studies were successfully exhibited. Treatment of excess amount of SnCl2 with 0.2 mCi 225Ac furnished highly stable 225Ac tin colloid with 90% of radiochemical yield (RCY) at optimized reaction condition. R-TLC analyses indicated 95% of radiochemical purity (RCP). Stability studies showed that colloidal structure also retained free daughter radionuclides formed by the 225Ac decay chain. 225Ac tin colloids could be ideal nanocarriers for localized cell killing due to high linear energy transfer and prevention of free radioisotope daughters.

1. Introduction

Radiosynovectomy (RSV) is a kind of local radiotherapy for joint synovitis and synovial processes [1] [2] [3]. Considerable attention has been afforded to RSV application due to the cost effective, lack of surgial risk, low radiation dose, 70% - 80% of response rate and local treatment option without side effects [4] [5]. The main concept of RSV is that colloidal particles supported radionuclides easily undergo in the inflamed synovial membrane by intra-articular process. Recently beta particle emitters such as 90Y [6], 188Re [7] and 169Er [8] have been frequently utilized for the treatment of different types of arthritis approved by European authorities [9]. The administration of those radiactive colloids depends on the size of the joints and amount of inflamation. For example, 90Y colloid is mainly administered to larger size joint such as knee with approximately 5 - 6 mCi, whereas 186Re colloid is suitable for hip, shoulder, elbow, wrist, ankle and subtalar joints with 1 - 5 mCi and 169Er colloid is injected for small joints of fingers and toes with small amount of activity (0.3 - 1.0 mCi). 177Lu tin colloid has also attracted interest for use in RSV due to the ideal decay characteristics and palliative treatment (T1/2 = 6.73 days, max = 497 keV; = 113, 208 keV) [10].

Targeted alpha-particle therapy (TAT) is of great importance for cancer treatment [11] [12] [13] [14]. Alpha particles are more effective than beta particles for elimination of solid tumors due to the sufficient shorter range, greater linear energy transfer and higher cytotoxicity. Those potentials provided more advantageous about destroying of tumor cells with specific target with minimum toxicity. 15 Numerous alpha emitter radionuclides such as 223Ra [16] [17], 211At [18], 212Pb [19], 213Bi [20] and 225Ac [21] have been administered to patients for various cancer treatments with desirable positive response. Nowadays, 225Ac radionuclide has become more popular among them for alpha radiotherapy which emits four alpha particles with sufficient energies (from 5.8 to 8.4 MeV) with a long- lived high life of 9.9 days (Figure 1) [22] [23]. Even 225Ac based radiopharmaceuticals have been frequently employed in various vitro and vivo studies, its chemistry about RSV has not been worked yet.

In this study, detailed chemistry studies of 225Ac tin colloid have been discussed for the first time. Radiochemical yield and labeling efficiency were also examined. The vitro stability of 225Ac-Sn particles has been monitored in synovial fluid up to 5 days after preparation.

Figure 1. Decay chain scheme of 225Ac.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Materials

225Ac (0.2 mCi) was obtained from Polatom, tin(II) chloride dihydrate (purity 98%) and L-ascorbic acid (purity 99.7%) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. di-Sodium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (purity 99.5%) and sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate (purity 99.0%) were supplied from Isolab for preparation of 0.5 M sodium phosphate buffer (PBS) solution. Synovial fluid was obtained from Semical Biosurgery. Other chemicals and materials were obtained from Merck and Waters.

2.2. Synthesis of 225Ac-Tin Colloid

50.0 mg of SnCl2 and 10.0 mg of L-ascorbic acid were dissolved in 1.0 ml of 0.1 M HCI(aq) solution respectively. These solutions were transferred to reaction vial and 200 µCi of 225Ac was added to this solution. The reaction was continued at 98˚C for 100 minutes and reaction vial was removed from the heater and allowed to be cooled for 20 minutes. Then, colloidal structure was successfully obtained by adding 2 mL of PBS solution (pH: 7.8) followed by centrifugation at 3500 rpm for 10 minutes for the precipitation of particles. The supernatant was carefully decanted and residue was washed by ultrapure water with three times. Finally, the colloids were diluted with 1.0 ml of saline for both quality control and stability studies (Table 1).

Table 1. Amount of activity studies on 225Ac-tin colloid.

2.3. Characterization Methods

TLC analyses were performed by Whatman 3 mm, ITLC-SG Agilent TLC plates and Eckert & Ziegler TLC Scan device. The amount of radioactivity of residue and supernatant were measured using a dose calibrator, Capintec Inc., New Jersey, USA.

2.3.1. Quality Control of 225Ac Tin Colloid (Figure 2)

Figure 2. Radio-TLC chromatograms of (a) Free 225Ac (b) 225Ac tin colloid, TLC plate: Whatman 3 mm, mobile phase: 0.9% isotonic saline.

2.3.2. Stability Experiments of 225Ac Tin Colloid

225Ac tin colloid was dissolved in the mixture of 1 ml of synovial fluid and 1 ml of PBS and it was incubated at 37˚C at 5 days (Table 2).

Table 2. Stability studies on 225Ac tin colloid (Entry 4, Table 1) (T0 = end of the synthesis).

3. Results and Discussion

Recently, nanoparticle supported radionuclides have attracted interest as promising alternatives due to the increasing the therapeutic efficacy and reducing undesired side effects with strong multivalent interactions [24] [25] [26]. More recently, Cędrowska et al. [27] has described a highly stable functionalized TiO2- decorated 225Ac nanoparticles for TAT application. Woodward et al. [28] and Kruijff et al. [29] also emphasized that nanoparticles could retain free daughter radionuclides emerged during the 225Ac decay chain in addition to the more efficiency for radiotherapy. McLaughlin et al. [30] showed that multilayered nanoparticles (NPs) {La0.5Gd0.5}PO4@GdPO4@Au supported 225Ac provided to retain 99% of the 225Ac within three weeks. In the light of those previously published articles, we have focused on the chemistry of 225Ac-Sn particles with experimental studies.

Optimization of reaction medium and stability studies are of critical cases for exact synthesis of 225Ac tin colloid. In our experimental studies, temperature was kept constant since the reaction of 225Actinium with various precursors was well performed between 90˚C - 100˚C [15] [21] [31]. Recently, Arora et al. [32] has successfully demonstrated that optimum labeling efficiency of 177Lu tin colloid was obtained within 120 - 150 minutes. Therefore, the reaction of 225Ac tin colloid was carried out in two hours without any different reaction time formulations. The effect of the amount of SnCl2 and ascorbic acid are important for optimization protocol. 0.2 mCi 225AcCl3 was treated with different amount of tin(II) chloride. Table 1 indicated that amount of thin(II) chloride dramatically affected RCY of 225Ac tin colloid. 0.2 mCi 225Actinium and 50.0 mg of thin(II) chloride afforded high RCY of colloidal structure (Entry 4, Table 1). We assume that 0.18 mCi could be quite high amount of activity for the possible applications of further preclinical/clinical trials. However, we wanted to work with high

amount activity to check the stability and product yield. Table 2 also summarized the stability studies of 225Ac tin colloid. Colloid structure was dissolved in synovial fluid and PBS mixture and was exposed to incubation process at 37˚C within 5 days. In the light of the experiments, it was observed that there was no significant loss of activity after five days. Even 225Actinium has more daughter radionuclides 13 as illustrated in Figure 1, stability experiments exhibited that there was no significant deviation from colloidal structure.

4. Conclusion

Synthesis procedure, stability studies of 225Ac tin colloid have been well described for the first time. The colloidal structure was obtained with high RCY with more than 95% RCP. Stability studies at 37˚C in synovial fluid were also discussed in details to demonstrate the formation of highly stable 225Ac tin colloids without any free daughter radionuclides. These promising results could lead to the preclinical/clinical trials in the future for RSV applications and four alpha particles formed by each of 225Ac decay, could lead to very effective towards treatment of arthritis.


Moltek Radiopharmaceutical Company financially contributed to this work. We greatly acknowledge Kurtulus Eryilmaz for valuable discussions concerning stability experiments.

Cite this paper: Cakici, D. and Kilbas, B. (2022) Synthesis and Stability Studies of 225Actinium Tin Colloid Radiopharmaceutical. Advances in Nanoparticles, 11, 23-30. doi: 10.4236/anp.2022.111003.

[1]   Fellinger, K. and Schmid, J. (1952) Local Therapy of Rheumatic Diseases. Wiener Zeitschrift fur innere Medizin, 33, 351-363.

[2]   Schneider, P., Farahati, J. and Reiners, C. (2005) Radiosynovectomy in Rheumatology, Orthopedics, and Hemophilia. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 46, 48-54.

[3]   Szerb, I., Gál, T., Mikó, I. and Hangody, L. (2021) Radiosynoviorthesis in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Joint Bleedings of Hemophilic Patients (Concerning Hip, Knee and Ankle Joints)-Hungarian Experience. Injury, 52, 53-56.

[4]   Bagheri, R., Afarideh, H., Maragheh, M.G., Shirmardi, S.P. and Samanı, A.B. (2015) Study of Bone Surface Absorbed Dose in Treatment of Bone Metastases via Selected Radiopharmaceuticals: Using MCNP4C Code and Available Experimental Data. Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals, 30, 174.

[5]   Knut, L. (2015) Radiosynovectomy in the Therapeutic Management of Arthritis. World Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 14, 10.

[6]   Koc, B., Kılıcoglu, O. and Turkmen, C. (2020) Prognostic Factors of Radiosynovectomy in Haemophilia Patients with Inhibitors: Survival Analysis in a 19-Year Period. Haemophilia, 26, 855-860.

[7]   Lee, E.B., Shin, K.C., Lee, Y.J., Cheon, G.J. Jeong, J.M., Son, M.W. and Song, Y.W. (2003) 188Re-Tin-Colloid as a New Therapeutic Agent for Rheumatoid Arthritis. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 24, 689-696.

[8]   Farahati, J., Kazek, S., Maric, I., Soestwoehner, T., Kalle, P., Costa, P.F., Jentzen, W., Stein, L., Jalilian, A., Kumm, D., Bockisch, A. and Herrmann, K. (2019) Post-Radi- osynovectomy Imaging Utilizing Erbium-169 Citrate. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 154, Article ID: 108853.

[9]   Kampen, W.U., Brenner, W., Czech, N. and Henze, E. (2002) Intraarticular Application of Unsealed Beta-Emitting Radionuclides in the Treatment Course of Inflammatory Joint Diseases. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 1, 77-87.

[10]   Jha, P., Arora, G., Shamim, S.A., Mukherjee, A., Gautam, D., Ballal, S., Kumar, U., Ansari, T.M. and Bal, C. (2018) Lutetium-177 Tin Colloid Radiosynovectomy in Patients with Inflammatory Knee Joint Conditions Intractable to Prevailing Therapy. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 39, 803-808.

[11]   Brechbiel, M.W. (2007) Targeted Alpha-Therapy: Past, Present, Future? Dalton Transactions, 43, 4918-4928.

[12]   Elgqvist, J., Frost, S., Pouget, J.P. and Albertsson, P. (2014) The Potential and Hurdles of Targeted Alpha Therapy—Clinical Trials and Beyond. Frontiers in Oncology, 3, Article No. 324.

[13]   Robertson, A.K.H., Ramogida, C.F., Schaffer, P. and Radchenko, V. (2018) Development of 225Ac Radiopharmaceuticals: TRIUMF Perspectives and Experiences. Current Radiopharmaceuticals, 11, 156-172.

[14]   Wilbur, S.D. (2011) Chemical and Radiochemical Considerations in Radiolabeling with α-Emitting Radionuclides. Current Radiopharmaceuticals, 4, 214-217.

[15]   Nilsson, S., Larsen, R.H., Fosså, S.D., Balteskard, L., Borch, K.W., Westlin, J.E., Salberg, G. and Bruland, O.S. (2005) First Clinical Experience with Alpha-Emitting Radium-223 in the Treatment of Skeletal Metastases. Clinical Cancer Research, 11, 4451-4459.

[16]   Nilsson, S., Cislo, P., Sartor, O., Vogelzang, N.J., Coleman, R.E., O’Sullivan, J.M., Reuning-Scherer, J., Shan, M., Zhan, L. and Parker, C. (2016) Patient-Reported Quality-of-Life Analysis of Radium-223 Dichloride from the Phase III ALSYMPCA Study. Annals of Oncology, 27, 868-874.

[17]   Hallqvist, A., Bergmark, K., Bäck, T. andersson, H., Dahm-Kähler, P., Johansson, M., Lindegren, Jensen, S.H., Jacobsson, L., Hultborn, R., Palm, S. and Albertsson, P. (2019) Intraperitoneal α-Emitting Radioimmunotherapy with 211At in Relapsed Ovarian Cancer: Long-Term Follow-up with Individual Absorbed Dose Estimations. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 60, 1073-1079.

[18]   Delpassand, E., Tworowska, I., Shanoon, F., Nunez, R., Flores, L., Muzammil, A., Stallons, T., Saidi, A. and Torgue, J. (2019) First Clinical Experience Using Targeted Alpha-Emitter Therapy with Pb-212-DOTAMTATE (AlphaMedix TM) in Patients with SSTR(+) Neuroendocrine Tumors. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 60, 559.

[19]   Kratochwil, C., Giesel, F.L., Bruchertseifer, F., Mier, W., Aposdolidis, C., Boll, R., Murphy, K., Haberkorn, U. and Morgestren, A. (2014) 213Bi-DOTATOC Receptor- Targeted Alpha-Radionuclide Therapy Induces Remission in Neuroendocrine Tumours Refractory to Beta Radiation: A First-in-Human Experience. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 41, 2106-2119.

[20]   Kratchowil, C., Bruchertseifer, F., Giesel, F.L., Weis, M., Verburg, F.A., Mottaghy, F., Kopka, K., Apostolidis, C., Haberkorn, U. and Morgenstern, A. (2016) 225Ac- PSMA-617 for PSMA-Targeted-Radiation Therapy of Metastatic Castration-Resis- tant Prostate Cancer. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 57, 1941-1944.

[21]   Eryilmaz, K. and Kilbas, B. (2022) Detailed Chemistry Studies of 225Actinium Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals. Current Radiopharmaceuticals.

[22]   Morgenstern, A., Apostolidis, C., Kratochwil, C., Sathekge, M., Krolicki, L. and Bruchertseifer, F. (2018) An Overview of Targeted Alpha Therapy with 225Actinium and 213Bismuth. Current Radiopharmaceuticals, 11, 200-208.

[23]   Trujillo-Nolasco, M., Morales-Avila, E., Cruz-Nova, P., Katti, K.V. and Ocampo- García, B. (2021) Nanoradiopharmaceuticals Based on Alpha Emitters: Recent Developments for Medical Applications. Pharmaceutics, 13, 1123.

[24]   Enrique, M.-A., Mariana, O.-R., Mirshojaei, S.F. and Ahmadi, A. (2015) Multifunctional Radiolabeled Nanoparticles: Strategies and Novel Classification of Radiopharmaceuticals for Cancer Treatment. Journal of Drug Targeting, 23, 191-201.

[25]   Viana, R.D.S., Costa, L.A.DM., Harmon, A.C., Gomes Filho, M.A., Falcão, E.H.L., Vicente, M.G.H., Junior, S.A. and Mathis, J.M. (2020) 177Lu-Labeled Eu-Doped Mesoporous SiO2 Nanoparticles as a Theranostic Radiopharmaceutical for Colorectal Cancer. ACS Applied Nano Materials, 3, 8691-8701.

[26]   Cędrowska, E., Pruszynski, M., Majkowska-Pilip, A., Męczyńska-Wielgosz, S., Bruchertseifer, F., Morgenstern, A. and Bilewicz, A. (2018) Functionalized TiO2 Nanoparticles Labelled with 225Ac for Targeted Alpha Radionuclide Therapy. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 20, 83.

[27]   Woodward, J., Kennel, S.J., Stuckey, A., Osborne, D., Wall, J., Rondinone, A.J., Standaert, R.F. and Mirzadeh, S. (2011) LaPO4 Nanoparticles Doped with Actinium225 that Partially Sequester Daughter Radionuclides. Bioconjugate Chemistry, 22, 766-776.

[28]   Kruijff, R.M., Raavé, R., Kip, A., Molkenboer-Kuenen, J., Morgenstern, A., Bruchertseifer, F., Heskamp, S. and Denkova, A.G. (2019) The in Vivo Fate of 225Ac Daughter Nuclides Using Polymersomes as a Model Carrier. Scientific Reports, 9, Article No. 11671.

[29]   McLaughlin, M.F., Woodward, J., Boll, R.A., Wall, J.S., Rondinone, A.J., Kennel, S.J., Mirzadeh, S. and Robertson, J.D. (2013) Gold Coated Lanthanide Phosphate Nanoparticles for Targeted Alpha Generator Radiotherapy. PLoS ONE, 8, e54531.

[30]   Kratochwil, C., Haberkorn, U. and Giesel, F.L. (2019) Radionuclide Therapy of Metastatic Prostate Cancer. Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, 49, 313-325.

[31]   Parker, C., Lewington, V., Shore, N., Kratochwil, C., Levy, M., Lindén, O., Noordzij, W., Park, J. and Saad, F. (2018) Targeted Alpha Therapy, an Emerging Class of Cancer Agents: A Review. JAMA Oncology, 4, 1765-1772.

[32]   Arora, G., Singh, M., Jha, P., Tripathy, S., Bal, C., Mukherjee, A. and Shamim, S.A. (2017) Formulation and Characterization of Lutetium-177-Labeled Stannous (Tin) Colloid for Radiosynovectomy. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 38, 587-592.