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 AS  Vol.12 No.12 , December 2021
Nutrient Management in Fragrant Rice: A Review
Abstract: Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the most important cereal food grain crop and is consumed by the majority of the world’s human population. Among all cultivars, fragrant/aromatic rice is preferred by the better part of the human population because of its aroma, taste and cooking quality. But most of the fragrant rice varieties are low yielding and easily sensitive to the surrounding environmental condition. Among different agronomic performances, proper nutrient management can improve the yield of fragrant rice not only by giving the required amount of nutrients but also by maintaining the health of the soil and the quality of the produce. In most cases, traditional agricultural practices degraded soil health and increased environmental pollution which leads to inferior grain quality. On the other hand, excessive application of chemical fertilizers reduced the nutrient status of the soil and badly affected the soil productivity and environmental stability. Therefore, a suitable approach of nutrient management is required to keep the production of fragrant rice to a notable amount and increase the nutrient use efficiency of soil. Application of manures and fertilizers in an appropriate dose which is the main object of nutrient management is required for its utmost importance in the growth and development of the crop that finally results in better yield and grain quality. Therefore, nutrient management is an important aspect in aromatic rice production to attain sustainable grain yield and high economic return with better quality of produce.

1. Introduction

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the second most important field crop after wheat consumed as a staple food and an indispensable source of calories for almost half of the population due to its everyday consumption in Asia [1]. Depending on the presence of aroma on the grain, rice is classified into aromatic and non-aromatic rice worldwide. In recent years, fragrant/aromatic rice varieties have occupied a prime position in national and international markets because of their excellent taste, deliciousness, milling and eating quality to attract rice consumers and the high price which boosts the economic condition of the rice growers [2]. Due to the change of the consumer’s preference for better quality rice, the demand for aromatic rice varieties has increased globally to a great extent over the past few years [3]. But the productivity of the scented rice cultivars is rather low compared to coarse and medium rice varieties [4]. In the modern era, the high yielding potential and quality advantage of the scented rice varieties over conventional rice varieties may open a new chapter for the export of high-quality scented rice [5]. So, it is important to obtain a higher yield with maintaining its quality too from scented rice varieties [3]. Therefore, there is a need to adopt modern farming practices and cultivate scented rice varieties with intensive nutrient management to increase the growth and produce crops in line with the observed global standards of quantity and quality. In modern farming, use of chemical fertilizer is an essential component of rice production [6] but extensive and improper use of chemical fertilizers in the soil was found to increase yield only for a few years but the long-term causes soil degradation at an alarming level [7]. Organic manures enhanced rice production by accelerating plant growth, increasing yield and quality of agricultural produce and at the same time by maintaining soil health that keeps the field more fertile [8]. On the other hand, low N and K content was observed at the mid-tillering stage of rice plants due to continuous application of injudicious organic fertilizer alone on rice fields resulting in lower yield [9]. In addition, the combined application of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers in rice field provides favorable soil physical conditions and increases the efficiency of applied nutrients that helps to maintain yield stability through correction of marginal deficiencies of secondary and micronutrients [10]. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to ample review the literature and find out the best dose of fertilizers and manures for sustainable fragrant rice production and soil properties enhancement.

2. Influence of Nutrient Management in Fragrant/Aromatic Rice Production

2.1. Role on Growth Traits

Vegetative growth is a vital factor that determines the productivity of rice. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) are considered as primary nutrients and are very important for the growth and development of rice [11]. Nitrogen is responsible for vegetative growth, improving the leaf area index, chlorophyll synthesis, increasing photosynthesis and assimilating production in plants [12]. Phosphorus is known for its role in root growth, root development, and reproduction [13]. P is also known to improve tillering and promote early flowering. Potassium, though not a constituent of organic structures of plants, is very important for plant strength, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and stomatal activity [14]. According to Kundu et al. [15] 50% N through urea (N @ 40 kg ha−1) + 50% N through vermicompost (N @ 40 kg ha−1) + P @ 20 kg ha−1 + K @ 20 kg ha−1 recorded the tallest plant (Figure 1), the highest values of total dry matter (TDM) and leaf area index (LAI) at all crop growth stages. In a study, Nila et al. [16] reported that incorporation of poultry manure (PM) @ 2.5 t ha−1 with curtailed 25% from recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers (RDF) of N-P-K-S-Zn @ 115-25-60-18-3.5 kg ha−1 produced the tallest plant, the highest number of tillers hill−1 (Figure 2), LAI and TDM of aromatic Boro rice BRRI dhan50. Whereas application of 75% of RDF of urea-TSP-MoP-gypsum-zinc-sulphate @ 150-97-70-60-12 kg ha−1, respectively + 50% cowdung @ 5 t ha−1 produced the tallest plant, the highest number of tillers hill−1, LAI (Figure 3), TDM and crop growth rate (CGR) [17]. On the other hand, Roy et al. [18] opined that application of manure with inorganic fertilizers which regulated the exuberant vegetative growth produced the tallest plant, the highest number of tillers hill−1 and LAI of BRRI dhan38 when fertilized with 75% of RDF of urea-TSP-MoP-gypsum-ZnSO4 @ 150-97-70-60-12 kg ha−1, respectively + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1. While, the treatment 75% of RDF of urea-TSP-MoP-gypsum-ZnSO4

Figure 1. Effect of integrated nitrogen management on plant height (cm) aromatic Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan50) at different days after transplanting. N1 = Control, N2 = RDF (40:20:20 NPK kg ha−1), N3 = 100% N through vermicompost + P + K, N4 = 50% N through vermicompost + 50% N through FYM + P + K, N5 = 100% N through FYM + P + K, N6 = 50% N through urea + 50% N through vermicompost + P + K, N7 = 50% N through urea + 25% N through vermicompost + 25% N through FYM + P + K and N8 = 50% N through urea + 50% N through FYM + P + K in subplots. Source: Kundu et al. [15].

Figure 2. Effect of nutrient management on number of tillers hill−1 of aromatic Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan50) at different days after transplanting. F1 = RDF (N, P, K, S and Zn at the rate of 115, 25, 60, 18, 3.5 kg ha−1 respectively), F2 = PM 5 t ha−1, F3 = 25% less than RDF + 2.5 t ha−1 PM, F4 = 50% less than RDF + 2.5 t ha−1 PM. Source: Nila et al. [16].

Figure 3. Effect of nutrient management on leaf area index (LAI) of aromatic fine rice at different days after transplanting. T1 = control (no manures and fertilizers), T2 = RDF (i.e. 150, 97, 70, 60 and 12 kg urea, TSP, MoP, gypsum and Zn respectively ha−1, T3 = cowdung @ 10 t ha−1, T4 = PM @ 5 t ha−1, T5 = 50% of RDF + 50% cowdung, T6 = 50% of RDF + 50% PM, T7 = 75% of RDF + 50% cowdung, T8 = 75% of RDF + 50% PM. Source: Sarkar et al. [17].

@ 150-97-70-60-12 kg ha−1, respectively + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1 increased the nutrient availability in the soil and their uptake by plants recorded the tallest plant, the highest number of tillers hill−1, TDM (Figure 4) and CGR of BRRI dhan38 [19]. Similar results were found by Roy et al. [20] who revealed that 75% of RDF of urea-TSP-MoP-gypsum-ZnSO4 @ 250-120-120-100-10 kg ha−1, respectively + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1 influenced plant growth resulted the tallest plant, the highest number of tillers hill−1, LAI, TDM and CGR (Figure 5) of BRRI dhan50. In

Figure 4. Effect of nutrient management on total dry matter hill−1 of aromatic rice (cv. BRRI dhan38) at different days after transplanting. F0 = Control (no manures and fertilizers), F1 = RDF, F2 = 50% of RDF + cowdung @ 5 t ha−1, F3 = 75% of RDF + cowdung @ 5 t ha−1, F4 = 50% of RDF + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1, F5 = 75% of RDF + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1. Source: Roy et al. [19].

another study, Paul et al. [21] revealed that application of 150 kg N ha−1 along with 90 kg K ha−1 performed best in terms of leaf dry matter, culm dry matter, panicle dry matter and TDM production hill−1 of BRRI dhan50 at all the growth stages. Sharma et al. [22] stated that higher levels of nitrogen availability improved growth components viz. the tallest plant, the highest number of tillers and TDM of basmati rice when fertilized with 160 kg N ha−1 over other doses of N. The favorable synthesis of growth promoting constituents in plant system owing to better supply of nutrients resulted in the tallest plant, the highest number of tillers, LAI and TDM at all the stages from the treatment received 50% recommended N-P-K @120-60-60 kg ha−1 + 50% recommended N through farmyard manure (FYM) + 5 kg zinc ha−1 [23].

2.2. Role on Yield Components

The yield components of rice are the number of panicles per unit area, number of spikelet per panicle, weight of spikelet and spikelet sterility or filled spikelet. In addition, shoot dry weight, grain harvest index, and nitrogen (N) harvest index are also positively associated with grain yield [24]. In a study, Hossain et al. [25] conducted an experiment to optimize the nitrogen rate for aromatic rice, where the maximum number of effective tillers hill−1, the longest panicle (Figure 6), the highest number of grains panicle−1 and 1000-grain weight were found when fertilized with 45 kg N ha−1. While Jahan et al. [26] reported that the maximum number of effective tillers hill−1, panicle length and 1000-grain weight were observed from 60 kg N ha−1 which increases the nitrogen availability in soil. The highest number of effective tillers hill−1, panicle length and number of grains panicle−1 (Figure 7) were found from 50% less than RDF of urea-TSP-MoP-

Figure 5. Effect of integrated fertilizer management on crop growth rate (g·m−2·day−1) at different days after transplanting of aromatic Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan50). F0 = Control (no fertilizer and no manure), F1 = RDF (urea, TSP, MoP, gypsum, ZnSO4 @ 250, 120, 120, 100, 10 kg ha−1, respectively), F2 = 50% of RDF + cowdung @ 5 t ha−1, F3 = 75% of RDF + cowdung @ 5 t ha−1, F4 = 50% of RDF + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1, F5 = 75% of RDF + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1. Source: Roy et al. [20].

Figure 6. Effect of nitrogen levels on panicle length (cm) of aromatic rice. Source: Hossain et al. [25].

gypsum-zinc sulphate @ 150-95-70-60-12 kg ha−1, respectively + vermicompost @ 3 t ha−1 due to the enhanced and continuous supply of nutrients by the combination of vermicompost and inorganic fertilizer [27]. In addition, application of USG (urea super granule) @ 1.8 g 4 hills−1 produced the highest number of effective tillers hill−1, panicle length, number of grains panicle−1 and 1000-grain weight compared to other doses [28]. Again, the highest number of effective tillers hill−1, panicle length, number of grains panicle−1 and 1000-grain weight (Figure 8) of BRRI dhan50 were recorded when the crop was fertilized with 25% less than RDF of N-P-K-S-Zn @ 115-25-60-18-3.5 kg ha−1, respectively + PM @ 2.5 t

Figure 7. Effect of nutrient management on number of grains panicle−1 of aromatic fine rice. F1 = Control (no manures and fertilizers), F2 = RDF (i.e. 150, 95, 70, 60 and 12 kg ha−1 of urea, TSP, MoP, gypsum and zinc sulphate, respectively), F3 = vermicompost @ 3 t ha−1, F4 = 25% less than RDF + vermicompost @ 1.5 t ha−1, F5 = 50% less than RDF + vermicompost @ 3 t ha−1. Source: Laila et al. [27].

Figure 8. Effect of nutrient management on 1000-grain weight of aromatic Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan50). F1 = RDF (N, P, K, S and Zn at the rate of 115, 25, 60, 18, 3.5 kg ha−1, respectively), F2 = PM @ 5 t ha−1, F3 = 25% less than RDF + 2.5 t ha−1 PM, F4 = 50% less than RDF + 2.5 t ha−1 PM. Source: Paul et al. [29].

ha−1 by improving soil aeration, water holding capacity and microbial activity [29]. Application of 150% N (i.e. N @ 60 kg ha−1) + FYM @ 10 t ha−1 resulted in the longest panicle, the highest number of grains panicle−1 and 1000-grain weight due to increasing levels of nitrogen in combination with organic manures [30]. In another study, the highest number of effective tillers hill−1, panicle length and number of grains panicle−1 were observed from integrated (fertilizer + FYM) treatment 50% recommended N-P-K @ 120-60-60 kg ha−1 and 50% recommended N through FYM and 5 kg zinc ha−1 due to increase in photosynthesis activity of leaves, translocation of photosynthates from source to sink and nutrients uptake under higher nutrients availability [31]. In addition, Thakuria and Thakuria, [32] documented that green manuring with dhaincha @ 40 kg ha−1 and organic sources with enriched compost @ 10 t ha−1 produced the longest panicle, maximum number of filled grains panicle−1 and 1000-grain weight of scented rice variety joha.

2.3. Role of Nutrient Management on Grain and Straw Yield

Yield is one of the most important and complex traits in rice. Yield is determined by indirect traits like plant height, growth period, tillering ability, panicle length, seed length, seed setting rate, and grains per panicle as well as direct traits like panicle number per unit area and/or per plant, filled grains panicle−1 and 1000-grain-weight [33] [34] [35]. In a study, Paul et al. [21] documented that 100 kg N ha−1 along with 90 kg K ha−1 produced the highest grain (Figure 9) and straw yield of aromatic rice (cv. BRRI dhan50). Curtailed 25% from the RDF of N-P-K-S-Zn @ 250-126-120-100-10 kg, respectively along with PM @ 2.5 t ha−1 produced higher straw yield of aromatic rice [36] (Figure 10). As a source of nitrogen, application of USG 1.8 g 4 hills−1 increased grain and straw yield of aromatic rice [37]. Similar result was reported by Ferdush et al. [38] who revealed that the highest grain and straw yield of BRRI dhan34 were found in the treatment where 40 kg N ha−1 was applied. While, the application of cowdung @ 5 t ha−1 + RDF of N-P-K-S-Zn @ 150, 60, 50, 30, 2.25 kg ha−1, respectively showed a positive response on the yield components and finally led to the highest grain yield of BRRI dhan50 [39]. In a different study, Hossain et al. [40] stated that poultry litter @ 3 t ha−1 gave the highest grain and straw yield of aromatic rice compared to other treatments. On the other hand, the highest grain yield was recorded from USG 1.8 g 4 hills−1 (100 kg ha−1) and other inorganic fertilizer (i.e. 60, 40, 10 and 5 kg ha−1 of P2O5, K2O, S and ZnSO4, respectively)

Figure 9. Interaction effects of level of nitrogen and level of potassium on grain yield of fine aromatic Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan50). N = 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha−1, K = 0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha−1. Source: Paul et al. [21].

Figure 10. Effects of nutrient management on straw yield of aromatic Boro rice. N1 = PM @ 5 t ha−1, N2 = N-P-K-S-Zn @ 250, 126, 120, 100, 10 kg ha−1 (RDF), N3 = 25% less than RDF + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1, N4 = 50% less than RDF + PM @ 5 t ha−1, N5 = vermicompost @ 10 t ha−1, N6 = 25% less than RDF + vermicompost @ 5 t ha−1, N7 = 50% less than RDF + vermicompost @ 10 t ha−1. Source: Adhikari et al. [36].

full dose for T. aman + PM @ 3.5 t ha−1 [41]. In addition, Islam et al. [42] documented that in case of silicon rates, 600 kg ha−1 silicon produced the highest grain yield of aromatic rice. While, application of N (150 kg ha−1) at three equal splits, 1/3 at 15 days after transplanting + 1/3 at 30 days after transplanting + 1/3 at 45 days after transplanting gave the highest grain yield as split of nitrogen met up of appropriate quantity of nitrogen for the crop demand [43]. Again, Basmati PNR gave higher grain yield when crops were grown in continuous standing water condition using the appropriate amount of nitrogen (105 - 140 kg ha−1) [44]. On the other hand, Marzia et al. [45] revealed that the highest grain and straw yield of aromatic rice were obtained when the crop was fertilized with 75% of RDF of urea-TSP-MoP, gypsum-ZnSO4 @ 150-100-70-60-10 kg, respectively ha−1 + cowdung @ 5 t ha−1 due to adequate availability and absorption of more nutrients. In addition, the treatment 50% from the RDF of N-P2O5-K2O @ 50-25-25 kg ha−1, respectively + 50% FYM @ 5 t ha−1 producing significantly higher grain yield due to well decomposition of FYM, which favoured better nutrient availability coupled with higher assimilation of nutrients [46]. While, from a field experiment the grain and straw yield of basmati increased significantly in treatment where FYM @ 19.76 t ha−1 and 50% of recommended nitrogen (i.e. 40 kg N ha−1) was applied [47]. On the other hand, application of 75% organic + 25% inorganic nutrient management FYM @ 8.2 t ha−1 + vermicompost @ 3.7 t ha−1 + urea @ 65 kg ha−1 recorded the highest grain yield of basmati rice due to quick release of nutrients in available form from decomposition of soil organic matter and applied manures [48]. Application of 100% N-P-K @ 100-50-50 kg ha−1, respectively + 5 t ha−1 FYM increased grain yield was reported by Kumar et al. [49]. In a study, application of green manuring @ 5 t ha−1 + FYM @ 10 t ha−1 produced higher grain and straw yield of Birsamati than all other sources due to enhanced nutrient uptake by making linkage with a part of nutrient elements preventing the leaching and other losses [50]. On the other hand, Rehman et al. [51] reported that maximum grain and straw yield were recorded from foliage application of 0.32 M Boron. While, Saquib et al. [52] stated that the grain yield of Pusa Basmati 1121 was maximized with the application of organic sources neem cake @ 3 t ha−1 along with RDF of N-P-K ha−1 @100-40-30 kg, respectively due to higher availability of both the native and applied nutrients and better source and sink relationship. Again, the treatment receiving 1.0 t ha−1 mustard cake and inorganic fertilizer @ N40P20K20 kg ha−1 improved soil productivity and increased fertilizer use efficiency, which registered the highest grain and straw yield of Gobindobhog rice [53]. Meanwhile, Sharma et al. [54] revealed that application of N90P45 kg ha−1 increased the grain and straw yield of basmati cultivars over rest of the treatments. In addition, application of boron-coated urea at 0.5% (1.40 kg B ha−1), sulfur-coated urea at 5.0% (14.13 kg S ha−1) and zinc-coated urea (zinc sulfate heptahydrate-ZnSHH) @ 2.5% (7.05 kg Zn ha−1) resulted in maximum grain and straw yield [55]. Another experiment revealed that the highest grain and straw yield were obtained from the highest level of N nutrition (180 kg ha–1) over the other doses [56]. While, a study was conducted in north western plain zone of India, where, the maximum grain yield of fine rice Navya was recorded from the application of N-P-K @ 150-80-40 kg ha−1, respectively + two Zn spray 0.5% [1]. Again, application of RDF of N-P2O5-K2O @ 60-40-20 kg ha−1 + FYM @ 5 t ha−1 + vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha−1 produced significantly the highest grain and straw yield due to slow release of major and micro nutrients which have catalytic role in photosynthate assimilation and translocation of metabolites [2]. Meanwhile, Bezbaruha et al. [57] stated that application of RDF of N-P2O5-K2O @ 140-60-60 kg ha−1 recorded the maximum grain yield of CNRH 3 due to quick release and availability of nutrients in the crop field.

2.4. Role of Nutrient Management on Grain Protein Content

The highest grain protein content of BRRI dhan50 was found from USG 2.7 g 4 hills−1 (80 kg N ha−1) + PM @ 5 t ha−1, which indicated that combined application of manures with inorganic fertilizers enhanced grain protein content compared to sole application in aromatic Boro rice [58]. In a study, Islam et al. [59] reported that due to an adequate supply of nitrogen, the highest grain protein content was obtained from 50% of RDF + 50% cowdung (5 t ha−1). On the other hand, 75% of RDF of urea-TSP-MoP-gypsum-ZnSO4 @ 150-120-80-60-10 kg ha−1, respectively) + cowdung @ 10 t ha−1 gave the highest grain protein content [60]. Application of 25% less than RDF from urea-TSP-MoP-gypsum-ZnSO4 @ 250-120-120-100-10 kg ha−1, respectively + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1 gave the highest grain protein content of BRRI dhan50 due to integration of PM with chemical fertilizer [61]. In addition, Roy et al. [62] reported that due to availability and uptake of adequate nitrogen from the soil, application of 75% of RDF (urea-TSP-MoP-gypsum-ZnSO4 @ 250-120-120-100-10 kg ha−1, respectively) + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1 showed the highest grain protein content of BRRI dhan50 (Figure 11). While, a pot experiment was conducted in the farm shade house of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, where application of 10 kg ZnSO4 ha−1 along with 4 kg ZnSO4 ha−1 (supplementation) produced the highest grain protein content [63]. On the other hand, according to Sarkar et al. [64] the highest grain protein content was found from 75% of RDF (i.e. urea-TSP-MoP-gypsum-zinc sulphate @ 150-97-70-60-12 kg ha−1, respectively) + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1. In a study Sumon et al. [65] observed that green manure @ 17.5 t ha−1 gave the highest grain protein content than other treatments in the experiment. Meanwhile, Bora et al. [66] recorded that the highest grain protein content of Keteki joha was found higher with application of enriched compost @ 2.5 t ha−1 due to differential release of nutrients from organic sources. In addition, application of 150 kg N ha−1 in three splits increased kernel protein content in comparison to the basal application of N [67]. Another field experiment revealed that with N application, the highest protein content of fine rice was recorded from 60 kg N ha−1 compared to other N doses [68]. Again, NPK application @ 100% of RDF (80-40-20 kg ha−1) and combined application of FYM @ 10 t ha−1 + blue green algae (BGA) @ 10 kg ha−1 produced the highest grain protein content of aromatic rice variety HUR-917 as integration of bio-organic sources increased the availability of nitrogen and other nutrients to the plant [3]. While, Mahata et al. [69] stated that the integrated nutrient management dose of FYM @ 5 t ha−1 + N40P20K20 kg ha−1 adopted for Gobindabhog rice for higher grain protein content.

Figure 11. Effect of integrated fertilizer management on grain protein content of aromatic Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan50). F0 = Control (no fertilizer and no manure), F1 = RDF (Urea, TSP, MoP, gypsum, ZnSO4 @ 250, 120, 120, 100, 10 kg ha−1, respectively), F2 = 50% of RDF + cowdung @ 5 t ha−1, F3 = 75% of RDF + cowdung @ 5 t ha−1, F4 = 50% of RDF + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1, F5 = 75% of RDF + PM @ 2.5 t ha−1. Source: Roy et al. [62].

3. Conclusion

Fragrant rice productivity is a serious concern to the world for cooking qualities and high market price. Proper nutrient management maintained soil physical condition and increased crop production which is the basic need for the cultivation of sustainable agriculture. Application of an optimum dose of chemical fertilizers increases fertility status of soil, maintains adequate soil available nutrients, saves environmental contamination and ensures farmer’s profit. Whereas, an injudicious application of chemical fertilizers decreases soil productivity, increases farmer’s cost and impedes the environment. The application of organic manures is also important for maximizing rice productivity. In the rice field, addition of organic manures can compensate for the negative effects on soil health due to excessive application of chemical fertilizers. Combined application of manure and chemical fertilizer exerted significant influence on growth, yield contributing characters, yield and grain quality of rice by making the field favorable for production. The rate of manure and fertilizer application differed with soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Practicing any nutrient management model with target yield is helpful for the better utilization of the available resources of the poor farmer. In addition, efficient nutrient management for sustainable rice production ensures better soil fertility with higher crop productivity and promises least environmental pollution. Therefore, nutrient management is the single most important factor in context of growth, yield and grain quality of fragrant rice that should be given the highest priority for profitable rice production.

Cite this paper: Paul, N. , Tasmim, M. , Imran, S. , Mahamud, M. , Chakrobortty, J. , Rabbi, R. , Sarkar, S. and Paul, S. (2021) Nutrient Management in Fragrant Rice: A Review. Agricultural Sciences, 12, 1538-1554. doi: 10.4236/as.2021.1212098.
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