AE  Vol.10 No.1 , January 2022
Analysis of Feed Preference of Edible Termites (Isoptera) on Selected Plants and Their Crude Extract Phytochemistry
Abstract: Termites are social insects that inhabit colonies in the soil. Termites feed on a wide range of plants found within diverse habitats of Luanda Sub-County. This study aimed at assessing feed preference of edible termites and analyzing their phytochemical composition. Termites were exposed to ten different test plants in their natural habitats to assess feed preference. Forty-seven study sites were selected as they had high termite abundance from previous studies. The test plants were Grevillea robusta, sugarcane, maize, blue citronella grass, Eucalyptus, mango, avocado, neem, bamboo and a mixture of all the ten plants. Small pits were dug in the ground where the ten treatments were placed and replicated four times each. The test plants were placed in the evening then covered with soil block. The number of termites feeding on the test plants was counted after 12 hours the following day. There were separate trials for crushed and uncrushed feed substrates. The feed substrates that showed high feed preference was selected for phytochemical analysis. The plants whose crude extract was obtained were Grevillea robusta, bamboo, Eucalyptus, cypress, maize and sugarcane. The results for this study were analysed using one-way ANOVA. The study revealed that crushed feed substrates had a high level of feed preference by termites p < 0.05. The mixture of all the feed substrates also showed high termite preference and a mean and SE of 676.500 ± 41.7a. Phytochemical analysis of the crude plant extracts revealed that Eucalyptus had the highest number of phytochemicals present 9 out of 12. The identified phytochemicals were saponins, tannins, alkaloids, resins, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrates, phenols and flavones.
Cite this paper: Ameka, C. , Muok, B. and Oyieke, H. (2022) Analysis of Feed Preference of Edible Termites (Isoptera) on Selected Plants and Their Crude Extract Phytochemistry. Advances in Entomology, 10, 52-62. doi: 10.4236/ae.2022.101004.

[1]   Kenis, M., Koné, N., Chrysostome, C.A.A.M., Devic, E., Koko, G.K.D., Clottey, V.A., Nacambo, S. and Mensah, G.A. (2014) Insects Used for Animal Feed in West Africa. Entomologia, 2, 107-114.

[2]   Ayieko, M., Ndong’a, F. and Tamale, A. (2010) Climate Change and the Abundance of Edible Insects in the Lake Victoria Region. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology, 4, 112-118.

[3]   Pranesh, M.K. and Harini, B.P. (2015) Diversity and Distribution Pattern of Termites in Relation with Human Interference: A Study at Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore, India. The Ecoscan, 9, 671-676.

[4]   Fraga-Corral, M., García-Oliveira, P., Pereira, A.G., Lourenço-Lopes, C., Jimenez-Lopez, C., Prieto, M.A. and Simal-Gandara, J. (2020) Technological Application of Tannin-Based Extracts. Molecules, 25, Article No. 614.

[5]   James, S., Ndakidemi, P.A. and Mbega, E.R. (2020) Effects of Selected Pesticidal Plants on Termites Affecting Maize Production in Arusha, Tanzania. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 11, 510-527.

[6]   Materu, C., Yarro, J., Nyundo, B., Materu, C.L. and Nyundo, B.A. (2013) Seasonal Changes on Termite Foraging Behaviour under Different Habitats in Rufiji District Tanzania. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare, 3, 6-12.

[7]   Korb, J., Kasseney, B.D., Cakpo, Y.T., Casalla Daza, R.H., Gbenyedji, J.N.K.B., Ilboudo, M.E., Josens, G., Koné, N.A., Meusemann, K., Ndiaye, A.B., Okweche, S.I., Poulsen, M., Roisin, Y. and Sankara, F. (2019) Termite Taxonomy, Challenges and Prospects: West Africa, A Case Example. Insects, 10, Article No. 32.

[8]   Rao, A.N., Samatha, C. and Sammaiah, C. (2012) Bio-Diversity of Termites in Bhadrachalam Forest Region, Khammam District, Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Biodiversity, 3, 55-59.

[9]   Ravan, S., Khan, I.A. and Manzoor, F. (2015) Feeding Habitats and Wood Preferences of Termites in Iran. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 3, 20-23.

[10]   Poissonnier, L.A., Arganda, S., Simpson, S.J., Dussutour, A. and Buhl, J. (2018) Nutrition in Extreme Food Specialists: An Illustration Using Termites. Functional Ecology, 32, 2531-2541.

[11]   Murthy, K.S.S., Banu, Y.L. and Ramakrishna, P. (2017) Diversity of Subterranean Termites in South India Based on COI Gene. Journal of Biodiversity, Bioprospecting and Development, 4, Article No. 161.

[12]   Altemimi, A., Lakhssassi, N., Baharlouei, A., Watson, D.G. and Lightfoot, D.A. (2017) Phytochemicals: Extraction, Isolation, and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Plant Extracts. Plants, 6, Article No. 42.

[13]   Abubakar, A.R. and Haque, M. (2020) Preparation of Medicinal Plants: Basic Extraction and Fractionation Procedures for Experimental Purposes. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, 12, 1-10.

[14]   Brunni, A., De Castro, C., William, A. and De Sousa, J.C. (2019) Knowledge Management for Agricultural Development. Agricultural Research & Technology Open Access Journal, 22, 109-112.

[15]   Schoefied, P., Mbugua, D. and Pell, A.N. (2016) Analysis of Condensed Tannins: A Review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 91, 21-40.

[16]   Evans, T.A., Lai, J.C.S., Toledano, E., McDowall, L., Rakotonarivo, S. and Lenz, M. (2005) Termites Assess Wood Size by Using Vibration Signals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 3732-3737.

[17]   Fajar, A., Himmi, S.K., Latif, A., Tarmadi, D., Kartika, T., Guswenrivo, I., Yusuf, S. and Yoshimura, T. (2021) Termite Assemblage and Damage on Tree Trunks in Fast-Growing Teak Plantations of Different Age: A Case Study in West Java, Indonesia. Insects, 12, Article No. 295.

[18]   Nakabonge, G. and Matovu, B. (2021) Variation in Susceptibility of Eucalyptus grandis and Selected Hybrid Clones to Two Termite Species Macrotermes bellicosus and M. subhyalinus in Uganda. All Life, 14, 120-126.

[19]   Wang, M., Buček, A., Šobotník, J., Sillam-Dussès, D., Evans, T.A., Roisin, Y., Lo, N. and Bourguignon, T. (2019) Historical Biogeography of the Termite Clade Rhinotermitinae (Blattodea: Isoptera). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 132, 100-104.

[20]   Tarayre, C., Bauwens, J., Mattéotti, C., Brasseur, C., Millet, C., Massart, S., Destain, J., Vandenbol, M., De Pauw, E., Haubruge, E., Francis, F., Thonart, P., Portetelle, D. and Delvigne, F. (2015) Multiple Analyses of Microbial Communities Applied to the Gut of the Wood-Feeding Termite Reticulitermes flavipes Fed on Artificial Diets. Symbiosis, 65, 143-155.

[21]   Negri, G. and Tabach, R. (2013) Saponins, Tannins and Flavonols Found in Hydroethanolic Extract from Periandra dulcis Roots. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 23, 851-860.

[22]   Ukoha, P.O., Cemaluk, E.A.C., Nnamdi, O.L. and Madus, E.P. (2011) Tannins and Other Phytochemical of the Samanaea saman Pods and Their Antimicrobial Activities. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 5, 237-244.

[23]   Matsuura, H.N. and Fett-Neto, A.G. (2015) Plant Alkaloids: Main Features, Toxicity, and Mechanisms of Action. In: Gopalakrishnakone, P., Carlini, C. and Ligabue-Braun, R., Eds., Plant Toxins, Springer, Dordrecht, 1-15.

[24]   Azzaz, N., Hamed, S. and Kenawy, T. (2019) Chemical Studies on Cypress Leaves (Cupressus sempervirens) and Their Activity as Antimicrobial Agents. Al-Azhar Journal of Agricultural Research, 44, 100-109.

[25]   Takahashi, T., Kokubo, R. and Sakaino, M. (2004) Antimicrobial Activities of Eucalyptus Leaf Extracts and Flavonoids from Eucalyptus maculata. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 39, 60-64.

[26]   Simoneit, B.R.T., Otto, A., Oros, D.R. and Kusumoto, N. (2019) Terpenoids of the Swamp Cypress Subfamily (Taxodioideae), Cupressaceae, an Overview by GC-MS. Molecules, 24, Article No. 3036.

[27]   Sandjo, L.P. and Kuete, V. (2013) Triterpenes and Steroids from the Medicinal Plants of Africa. In: Kuete, V., Ed., Medicinal Plant Research in Africa: Pharmacology and Chemistry, Elsevier Inc., Amsterdam, 135-202.

[28]   Alves, E.F., Bose, S.K., Francis, R.C., Colodette, J.L., Iakovlev, M. and Van Heiningen, A. (2010) Carbohydrate Composition of Eucalyptus, Bagasse and Bamboo by a Combination of Methods. Carbohydrate Polymers, 82, 1097-1101.

[29]   Pereira, L.F.M., Ferreira, V.M., de Oliveira, N.G., Sarmento, P.L.V.S., Endres, L. and Teodoro, I. (2017) Sugars Levels of Four Sugarcane Genotypes in Different Stem Portions during the Maturation Phase. Anais Da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 89, 1231-1242.

[30]   Mierziak, J., Kostyn, K. and Kulma, A. (2014) Flavonoids as Important Molecules of Plant Interactions with the Environment. Molecules, 19, 16240-16265.

[31]   Jeyasankar, A., Premalatha, S. and Elumalai, K. (2014) Antifeedant and Insecticidal Activities of Selected Plant Extracts against Epilachna Beetle, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Advances in Entomology, 2, 14-19.