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 CE  Vol.12 No.11 , November 2021
Edmodo-Based Science Module Development on Students’ Mastery of Science Process Skills: Need Analysis
Abstract: Intensive use of online learning is required in the age of COVID-19 pandemic as all teaching and learning activities had to be done at home. The use of educational social sites such as Edmodo can meet this need, where it has been proven to increase student interest, motivation, collaboration and student achievement. However, not many Edmodo-based module development studies have been conducted, let alone modules that emphasize students’ science process skills (SPS), essential in producing science-literate individuals. This study was conducted to identify the need for module development to facilitate teachers to plan activities that implement SPS among students using Edmodo. Difficult themes in form 2 science were also identified. To achieve these objectives, a survey was conducted, and questionnaires were distributed to 51 form two students and 33 science teachers in secondary schools in Negeri Sembilan. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics such as percentage and frequency. Form 2 science themes that are difficult for the students are Force and Motion, followed by Heat and then Electricity and Magnetism. The findings also show that teachers and students think that online modules can help improve students’ SPS mastery. The analysis also shows that both teachers and students frequently use information and communication technology, the internet and social media for learning purposes or to communicate online. The findings indicate a need for the development of Edmodo-based Science Modules to implement student SPS. With this study, it is hoped that it will help researchers develop Edmodo-based modules based on the needs of teachers and students, thereby helping teachers implement SPS better online.

1. Introduction

One of the goals in science education is to acquire Science Process Skills (SPS), a skill required by a person to solve problems and issues faced in daily life (Yang & Tsai, 2010). In the construction of scientific knowledge and conceptual change, most science curriculum makers acknowledged science process skills as an important tool (Ongowo, 2017). According to Edy Hafizan et al., (2012), a science curriculum that emphasizes SPS will enable students to improve their mastery of critical thinking skills, creative thinking skills and problem-solving skills, which are the skills needed to fulfill future jobs requirements. Moreover, with the acquisition of this SPS, students can use these skills in self-directed learning (Rose Amnah et al., 2013). According to Harlen (1999), mastery of SPS enables students to have a more profound knowledge of learning concepts and content and equips them to acquire meaningful learning in the future.

Students’ SPS are not improved if laboratories are not used efficiently (Hofstein & Naaman, 2007). This is because SPS is most effectively used when designing and conducting scientific investigations (Fazilah et al., 2016). However, the COVID-19 pandemic that has hit the whole world since 2019 does not allow the application of SPS to be done face-to-face in the laboratory. During this pandemic period, educational institutions, especially schools, need to be closed to reduce the spread of the virus that caused the pandemic (Radha et al., 2020). This situation causes drastic changes in the education system from face-to-face learning to web-based or online learning. This also demands science teachers’ competence in applying the necessary science skills to students (Heni & Ghina, 2021). This is not an easy thing to do given the various challenges in implementing this online learning; in addition to teachers also need time to adjust to this new normal. Furthermore, the lack of online teaching resources and materials teachers can use hinders them to apply science skills effectively (Anderman et al., 2012).

This problem can be overcome if teachers are provided with resources and teaching materials such as online modules that facilitate teachers to implement SPS among students. Module-based learning is in line with the constructivist approach in which students actively build their knowledge through group discussions, interacting and acquiring information (Hamidah, 2019). Module-based learning has been widely conducted in various fields such as physics (Suprianto et al., 2018), chemistry (Lee & Kamisah, 2014), mathematics (Azizah et al., 2020), and science (Candra et al., 2020); however, the use of existing modules is mostly printed modules. The printed module is more focused on providing information but less attractive where it cannot display sound, video, animation and images that clearly explain the concept to be conveyed (Astalini et al., 2019).

Modules developed online to make it easy for teachers and students to access teaching materials anywhere and anytime. According to Hopson et al., (2001), technology-based learning can help students build high-level thinking skills such as analyzing, synthesizing and analyzing, which are directly related to SPS. Online modules using learning social networking (SLN) mediums such as Edmodo can also attract the alpha generation closer to social media than adults. Educators can use this advantage to apply abstract science skills concepts using SLN. Thus, the objectives of this study are as follows:

1) To identify the difficult themes of Science form 2 Secondary School.

2) To identify the need for module development to implement SPS among students by using Edmodo.

2. Literature Review

This need analysis study was conducted to obtain information from students and science teachers about the needs of the modules that will be developed to solve the existing problems faced by them. The strength of a module design and development lies in the module’s ability to solve problems in a particular context (Richey & Klein, 2005). The analysis phase is the initial phase in design and development studies where information is gathered from the context and environment under study (DeWitt et al., 2014). This phase also provides essential information in determining the design and development of teaching materials for the next step (Shanmugam & Balakrishnan, 2019). In the context of this study, a needs analysis study was conducted at the beginning of the module development study to determine the appropriate type of teaching method to apply science process skills (SPS) among students. Thus, this study was conducted to determine teachers and students’ needs in using online learning approaches to teach science in schools.

Science process skills are an essential component of scientific skills in science learning. It is a thinking skill used to obtain information, solve problems and formulate results (Safaah et al., 2017). These skills consist of two parts, namely Basic Science Process Skills (BSPS) and Integrated Science Process Skills (ISPS) (Duda & Susilo, 2019; Özgelen, 2012). The skills of observing, classifying, measuring and using numbers, making inferences, predicting and communicating are BSPS. In contrast, the skills of using space and time, interpreting data, defining operationally, controlling variables, making hypotheses and experimenting are included in ISPS.

To acquire meaningful learning, SPS is vital because learning takes place continuously throughout life. Each individual constantly searches for, interprets, and evaluates the phenomena and problems they face daily in different situations (Karamustafaoğlu, 2011). In addition, SPS helps students develop as individuals who can access knowledge and know how to acquire it (Hikmah et al., 2018). Several previous studies have found a positive relationship between the level of SPS mastery and student achievement in science (Abungu et al., 2014). Due to that, science teachers need to be aware of the importance of improving students’ SPS and positive attitudes towards science, as both are among the determinants to student achievement in science.

Conventional teaching approaches are no longer relevant to help develop and strengthen students’ abilities. Educators need to know how to use a variety of learning and facilitation (L & F) approaches that are appropriate for the 21st-century generation that is more towards technology assimilation. Furthermore, with the issue of the Covid-19 pandemic hitting the whole world starting 2019, educational institutions need to be closed to prevent the spread of the epidemic. This caused the learning approach to be changed following the new normals of online learning and self-directed learning (Radha et al., 2020). Nowadays, access to extensive knowledge allows students to learn independently and use online resources (Clark & Berge, 2005). The current revolution of communication technology and social networks has opened up new opportunities to develop the education system in line with this new normal. The use of technology in education can help students and teachers deal with learning problems that arise due to the current situation. Students can access their classes from different places and at any time. Information technology has become an essential component in any education system (Tarun, 2019).

Edmodo’s Learning Social Network (SLN) is one of the top options to be adapted in this online learning. It is an academic social site that allows teachers to teach online and connect teachers with students and their parents (Cheong, 2010). Edmodo was selected in this study due to several factors. Edmodo, developed by Jeff O’Hara and Nick Borg in 2008, is a free online learning medium for various communities such as teachers, students, parents and schools. It is similar to Facebook, which values privacy and security. It only allows teachers to create and manage accounts for their students, where they will get a group code to register in the group, access and join the group (Hamad, 2016). It was also developed solely for academic purposes. Moreover, it is equipped with several functions that help teachers plan their lessons, such as Library, Messages, Progress, Notifications, and ‘To-Do’ options (Alqahtani, 2019). Edmodo provides educational advantages in enhancing student-teacher interaction, honing writing skills, increasing student engagement in the learning process (Ajjan & Hartshorne, 2008), and enhancing community spirit among students (Brady et al., 2010).

Learning using SLN with the support of appropriate learning materials can stimulate students’ self-learning (Almoeather, 2020). Teaching materials are made to transfer knowledge from teachers to students to promote students’ thoughts, feelings, interests and readiness to learn. Digital modules are among the teaching materials suitable for this learning method where they are effective for use in abstract subjects or skills (Serevina et al., 2018).

Among the digital or online module development studies that have been conducted is a study conducted by Lamb & Annetta (2013), who had found that the online modules they developed can improve students’ understanding and attitude towards chemistry subjects. Electronic module development studies had also been conducted by Johari et al. (2016) in Hydrological engineering, Lee & Kamisah (2010) in electrochemistry and Mulyana & Sumarmin (2019) in Biology. There were also electronic module design and development which studied SPS mastery (Perdana et al., 2017; Pratono et al., 2018), yet not many SPS module development studies use social media such as Edmodo. Thus, there is a gap of online module design and development studies conducted to study students’ SPS mastery of using Edmodo in science subjects for form two students. Furthermore, with the Covid-19 pandemic situation plaguing the entire world right now, the development of online modules is much needed by teachers in implementing SPS among students.

3. Methodology

3.1. Research Design

A module’s design and development strength lie in the module’s ability to solve problems in a particular context (Richey & Klein, 2005). The first phase, the analytical phase in design and development studies gathers information from the context and environment under study (Saedah et al., 2013). This phase also provides essential information in determining the design and development of teaching materials for the next phase (Shanmugam & Balakrishnan, 2019). In the context of this study, this needs analysis study is a survey study to obtain feedback from teachers and students related to online teaching methods to apply SPS among students. This study was also conducted to identify difficult science themes from form 2 to help researchers determine the topics to be used in the module.

3.2. Respondents

Two types of samples were used by the researcher; science teachers and form 2 secondary school students. A total of 33 science teachers and 51 students were randomly selected in this study. Anderson (2007) said that the minimum limit of study participants for a survey study is 30 people based on the normal distribution. Only form 2 students and secondary school science teachers were selected for this study because the topic of developing this module is from science form 2.

3.3. Data Collections Method

The instrument used in this study is questionnaires where the questionnaires were answered online in the form of google form. Questionnaires were chosen because this type of data collection requires a short answering time, which makes it easier for respondents to answer. There were two instruments used, namely questionnaires for teachers and questionnaires for students. All the items in the questionnaires were 4-point Likert type scale questions and binary questions. Table 1 shows the dimensions, types and number of items for both questionnaires.

3.4. Data Analysis Method

A university lecturer and two experienced science teachers verified all the research instruments to obtain content validity. The researcher analyzed the data using SPSS software version 24, where descriptive analysis of frequency and percentage was used. Internal reliability was also conducted to determine the validity and reliability of scores from measurement scales (Chua, 2014). According to Noraini, (2013), the higher the alpha value, the higher the internal reliability. This study set a value of Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of 0.7 to be accepted, as suggested by Babbie (2007). It is found that the Cronbach’s Alpha value for all items in this instrument is above 0.7. This indicates that the reliability of the items constructed in the questionnaire is acceptable.

4. Findings and Discussion

4.1. What is the Difficult Theme of Science Form 2?

Findings of the study showed that the form two science themes was found difficult by students, as shown in Table 2. Based on the table, most students found that the three science themes were easy (Ecosystem = 90.2%, Nutrition = 80.4%, Acid and Base = 78.5%). Meanwhile, students found the other three themes to be difficult, namely Force and Motion (78.7%), followed by Heat (69.7%) and finally, Electricity and magnetism (60.5%).

Table 1. Questionnaire’s dimension, types and number of items.

Table 2. Science form 2’s difficult themes.

VD = Very difficult, D = Difficult, E = Easy, VE = Very easy.

From the findings, it is clear that the students found that three of the six topics presented were difficult, namely the topics of Electricity and magnetism, Force and motion and Heat. These findings helped the researcher to select topics to use in developing this module. This coincides with the results of previous studies that found that students failed to understand the concept of Force and Motion (Ahmad Tarmimi & Shahrul Kadri, 2016). In a study conducted by Irwan Shah (2013), the topic of Heat is difficult to master by students in physics because the title contains abstract science concepts. Students have difficulty understanding abstract concepts of physics (Streveler et al., 2003). The relationship between one concept and another can be confusing and make it difficult for students to understand a new and varied concept.

4.2. Is There a Need for Online Module Development to Apply Science Process Skills?

Table 3 shows the purpose of the use of ICT by students. The analysis showed that more than 50%of students use ICT to find information related to learning (90.2%), download learning materials (72.5%) and type school assignments (58.8%). However, less than half use other purposes of using ICT, namely using email (43.1%), online chat (39.2%) and social media (41.2%).

The above analysis shows that students often use online applications for learning purposes, communicate online such as WhatsApp and WeChat, or socialize in social media like Facebook and Instagram. According to Bennett & Segerberg (2012), the highest number of social media users worldwide is adolescents. There are various learning-based social media sites like Edmodo that teachers and students can take advantage of. Therefore, social media-based online learning modules such as Edmodo are suitable to be developed as the target users of these modules are adolescents.

Findings in Table 4 show a high percentage of all items in the dimension of ICT use in science subjects. Only 11.8% of students had ever undergone teaching and facilitating (T & F) using Edmodo. The table also shows that almost all students know how to use the internet to find information related to learning(94.1%), and 90.2% of them think that android applications in teaching can attract their interest in this subject.

Table 3. The purpose of the use of ICT among students.

Table 4. The use of ICT in science learning.

The low percentage of use of Edmodo during the T & F of science indicates that the use of Edmodo is still not widely used compared to its use in western countries. However, the above analysis clearly shows that students often use ICT during science T & F activities and think that ICT facilitates students to understand complex science concepts and attract students to learn science. Apart from that, students also feel that online modules can help students master the elements of SPS better.

For the dimension of students’ SPS mastery, the concept of SPS that was found most easily by students is communication skills which are 88.2%, followed by skills to identify variables, observation skills, inference skills, hypothesis making skills and prediction skills. Only 21.6% of the students thought that SPS operationally defining skills were easy, as shown in Table 5.

The above findings show that students have problems mastering integrated SPS (ISPS), such as generating hypotheses, making inferences and making predictions. Although most teachers were found not to have difficulties applying the elements of SPS, as shown in Table 6, but it is not the case to some students. This coincides with the findings of a study conducted on secondary school students showed that the mastery of ISPS, namely identifying variables, defining operationally, identifying hypotheses, interpreting data and graphs and designing experiments, are at a moderate level with elements of operationally defining skills are in the lowest level (Ong & Johairi, 2010; Ongowo, 2017; Yew & Sunita, 2015). These findings are also supported by a study conducted by Lue (2020). Utami et al. (2017) found that students are weak in mastering the skills of observing and recording data, experimenting and analyzing data. Students could not apply these skills while conducting practical work in the laboratory

Table 5. Science process skills level of difficulty.

Table 6. Science teaching strategy.

SD = Strongly disagree, D = Disagree, A = Agree, SA = Strongly agree.

(Feyzioǧlu, 2009; Lue, 2020).

Data analysis for teachers was also conducted. There were two dimensions studied: teachers’ methods in applying SPS in science teaching and ICT in teaching (see Table 6 and Table 7). It was found that more than half of the teacher used a textbook every time their T & F session (87.9%) and used the Daily Teaching Plan (DTP) as their T & F guide (93.8%). 75.8% of these teachers included the SPS element in their DTP. Half of the respondents were found to have no problem applying SPS elements in their teaching (51.5%). However, all respondents agreed that this SPS element is applied when they do experiments or practical work. Teachers also agreed SPS could be applied better if media and graphics were used in T & F.

As for the dimension of the use of ICT elements in T & F, teachers often use ICT in T & F (87.8%) and think that ICT helps students understand science’s

Table 7. Use of ICT in teaching.

SD = Strongly disagree, D = Disagree, A = Agree, SA = Strongly agree.

concepts and processes (96.9%). They also encouraged students to use the internet as an additional learning material (87.7%). In terms of online learning medium, both teacher respondents (100%) and students (90.2%) agreed that android applications could help students understand difficult science concepts such as the concept of SPS. Furthermore, both teachers (100%) and students (70.6%) agreed that SPS could be better implemented if online modules using android applications were developed. However, most of them (Teachers = 78.8%, Students = 88.2%) have never used the Edmodo online learning platform, which has been widely used in foreign countries.

Edmodo has proven effective as a learning medium that supports collaboration among teachers and students (Nurhazirah & Zaidatul Shakila, 2017) and increases student motivation (Susanti & Prasetyo, 2020). However, the findings from this study found that the use of Edmodo is not widely used in the respondent schools, although this learning medium has been commonly used in foreign countries. Therefore, with this opportunity, researchers can encourage more extensive use of Edmodo with the development of this module. Edmodo is also available in the form of an android app. According to Zainudin & Pambudi (2019), learning materials developed using the Edmodo android platform can improve critical thinking skills among students. Therefore, researchers can take this opportunity to establish this online module using this application as both teachers and students think that android applications can attract students ‘interest in science learning. They also agreed that the development of modules with this android application could help students master SPS better.

The needs analysis study requires the researcher to collect information about the context and situation of the study from teachers and students who are also targeting users of the module. In the context of this study, the researcher collects information about teachers’ existing practices and teachers’ needs so that the information obtained can help the researcher produce modules that are able to solve teachers’ existing problems. The needs analysis results found that online modules based on android applications should be developed to help teachers apply SPS better. The study’s findings show that most teachers agree with the importance of online modules, especially in Covid-19 pandemic situations that require self-directed learning to occur. This module can provide teachers with resources and materials that make it easier to implement SPS online. Apart from that, this study can also identify form 2 science themes that students find difficult. This makes it easier for the researcher to determine the title to be used in developing this module.

5. Conclusion

A need analysis study is essential in obtaining information on the content and specifications required in developing a module. However, this study has some limitations, which cause that the study’s findings do not represent a larger population. This study is limited to form two students because the modules to be developed are for Form two science teachers and students. This population was selected as they did not undergo a public examination. Therefore, further studies can be conducted using target users in primary schools. Apart from that, this study was also conducted specifically to apply SPS in core science subjects. Therefore, other studies can also be done using pure science subjects such as Biology, Physics and Chemistry. The researcher will use the findings of this need analysis as a guide to design and develop modules in the next phase of module development. The needs analysis findings indicate that Edmodo-based science modules for applying Science Process Skills should be developed.

Acknowledgements

This research was partially supported by the grant STEM and MINDA: GG-2021-001.

Cite this paper: Ahmad, N. and Iksan, Z. (2021) Edmodo-Based Science Module Development on Students’ Mastery of Science Process Skills: Need Analysis. Creative Education, 12, 2609-2623. doi: 10.4236/ce.2021.1211195.
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