Back
 JACEN  Vol.10 No.3 , August 2021
Changes in Osmotic Adjustment and Antioxidant Enzyme in Maize (Zea mays L.) Root Exposed to K Deficiency
Abstract: Potassium (K) deficiency damaged membrane stability through irregular reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by K deficiency stress while osmotic adjustment and antioxidant capacities play an essential role in preventing plants from osmotic stress and oxidative damages. To investigate the difference of osmoprotectants and antioxidant enzyme activities in the root, two representative maize varieties, 90-21-3 (K-tolerant) and D937 (K-sensitive), were hydroponically cultivated under normal K (+K) and K deficiency (-K) treatments in Shenyang Agriculture University, China. The results showed that root accumulation, soluble protein in root of 90-21-3 and D937 were decreased under K deficiency stress, but the root to shoot ratio, proline, free amino acid, soluble sugar, reactive oxygen species (ROS) in root for both genotypes were increased. Compared with the root of D937, the root of 90-21-3 was able to swiftly accumulate more proline, free amino acid and soluble sugar in the root when encountering K deficiency. The antioxidant enzyme activity in the root of 90-21-3, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), were significantly increased to counter increased levels of O2·- and H2O2 under K deficiency stress. The presented results indicated that osmotic regulator and antioxidant enzyme were actively responded to K deficiency stress, 90-21-3 (K-tolerant maize) accumulated more osmoprotectants and enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes to degrade ROS, alleviating oxidative stress.
Cite this paper: Du, Q. , Zou, T. , Geng, L. , Zhang, W. , Wang, X. , Yu, H. and Zhao, X. (2021) Changes in Osmotic Adjustment and Antioxidant Enzyme in Maize (Zea mays L.) Root Exposed to K Deficiency. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 10, 359-371. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2021.103023.
References

[1]   Wang, Y., He, L., Li, H.D., Xu, J. and Wu, W.H. (2010) Potassium Channel Alpha-Subunit AtKC1 Negatively Regulates AKT1-Mediated K+ Uptake in Arabidopsis Roots under Low-K+ Stress. Cell Research, 20, 826-837.
https://doi.org/10.1038/cr.2010.74

[2]   Hu. W., Lv, X., Yang, J., Chen, B., Zhao, W., Meng, Y., Wang, Y., Zhou, Z. and Oosterhuis, D.M. (2016) Effects of Potassium Deficiency on Antioxidant Metabolism Related to Leaf Senescence in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Field Crops Research, 191, 139-149.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2016.02.025

[3]   Zorb, C., Senbayram, M. and Peiter, E. (2014) Potassium in Agriculture: Status and Perspectives. Journal of Plant Physiology, 171, 656-669.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2013.08.008

[4]   Cesco, S., Neumann, G., Tomasi, N., Pinton, R. and Weisskopf, L. (2010) Release of Plant-Borne Flavonoids into the Rhizosphere and Their Role in Plant Nutrition. Plant and Soil, 329, 1-25.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0266-9

[5]   Farhangi-Abriz, S. and Torabian, S. (2016) Antioxidant Enzyme and Osmotic Adjustment Changes in Bean Seedlings as Affected by Biochar under Salt Stress. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 137, 64-70.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.11.029

[6]   Hajlaoui. H., Ayeb, N.E., Garrec, J.P. and Denden M. (2010) Differential Effects of Salt Stress on Osmotic Adjustment and Solutes Allocation on the Basis of Root and Leaf Tissue Senescence of Two Silage Maize (Zea mays L.) Varieties. Industrial Crops and Products, 31, 122-130.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.09.007

[7]   Kronzucker, H.J. and Britto, D.T. (2011) Sodium Transport in Plants: A Critical Review. New Phytologist, 189, 54-81.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03540.x

[8]   Roosta, H.R., Estaji, A. and Niknam, F. (2018) Effect of Iron, Zinc and Manganese Shortage-Induced Change on Photosynthetic Pigments, Some Osmoregulators and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters in Lettuce. Photosynthetica, 56, 606-615.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11099-017-0696-1

[9]   Hernandez, M., Fernandez-Garcia, N., Garcia-Garma, J., Rubio-Asensio, J.S., Rubio, F. and Olmos, E. (2012) Potassium Starvation Induces Oxidative Stress in Solanum lycopersicum L. Roots. Journal of Plant Physiology, 169, 1366-1374.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2012.05.015

[10]   Foyer, C.H., Descourvières, P. and Kunert, K.J. (2006) Protection against Oxygen Radicals: An Important Defence Mechanism Studied in Transgenic Plants. Plant, Cell and Environment, 17, 507-523.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.1994.tb00146.x

[11]   Spychalla, J.P. and Desborough, S.L. (1990) Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, and α-Tocopherol Content of Stored Potato Tubers. Plant Physiology, 94, 1214-1218.
https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.94.3.1214

[12]   Shin, R. and Schachtman, D.P. (2004) Hydrogen Peroxide Mediates Plant Root Cell Response to Nutrient Deprivation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 8827-8832.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0401707101

[13]   Min, J.K., Ciani, S. and Schachtman, D.P. (2010) A Peroxidase Contributes to ROS Production during Arabidopsis Root Response to Potassium Deficiency. Molecular Plant, 3, 420-427.
https://doi.org/10.1093/mp/ssp121

[14]   Olmos, E. and Hellin, E. (1996) Mechanisms of Salt Tolerance in a Cell Line of Pisumsativum: Biochemical and Physiological Aspects. Plant Science, 120, 37-45.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(96)04483-4

[15]   Ennajeh, M., Vadel, A.M. and Khemira, H. (2009) Osmoregulation and Osmoprotection in the Leaf Cells of Two Olive Cultivars Subjected to Severe Water Deficit. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 31, 711-721.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-009-0283-6

[16]   Chen, S., Zhao, H., Ding, G. and Xu, F. (2015) Genotypic Differences in Antioxidant Response to Phosphorus Deficiency in Brassica napus. Plant and Soil, 391, 19-32.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-015-2395-7

[17]   Cao, M.J., Yu, H.Q., Yan, H.K. and Jiang, C.J. (2007) Difference in Tolerance to Potassium Deficiency between Two Maize Inbred Lines. Plant Production Science, 10, 42-46.
https://doi.org/10.1626/pps.10.42

[18]   Ashraf, M. and Zafar, Z.U. (1997) Effect of Potassium Deficiency on Growth and Some Biochemical Characteristics in Two Lines of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medic.). Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 19, 9-15.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-997-0016-7

[19]   Wan, Y.Y., Zhang, Y., Zhang, L., Zhou, Z.Q., Li, X., Shi, Q., Wang, X.J. and Bai, J.G. (2015) Caffeic Acid Protects Cucumber against Chilling Stress by Regulating Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Proline and Soluble Sugar Contents. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 37, Article No. 1706.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-014-1706-6

[20]   Bradford, M.M. (1976) A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Quantitation of Microgram Quantities of Protein Utilizing the Principle of Protein-Dye Binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3

[21]   Tian, M., Gu, Q. and Zhu, M. (2003) The Involvement of Hydrogen Peroxide and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Process of Shoot Organogenesis of Strawberry Callus. Plant Science, 165, 701-707.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(03)00224-3

[22]   Tsai, Y.C., Hong, C.Y., Liu, L.F. and Kao, C.H. (2004) Relative Importance of Na+ and Cl- in NaCl-Induced Antioxidant Systems in Roots of Rice Seedlings. Physiologia Plantarum, 122, 86-94.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3054.2004.00387.x

[23]   Mir, B.A., Mir, S.A., Khazir,J., Tonfack, L.B., Cowan, D.A., Vyas, D. and Koul, S. (2015) Cold Stress Affects Antioxidative Response and Accumulation of Medicinally Important Withanolides in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. Industrial Crops and Products, 74, 1008-1016.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.06.012

[24]   Grace, S.C. and Logan, B.A. (1996) Acclimation of Foliar Antioxidant Systems to Growth Irradiance in Three Broad-Leaved Evergreen Species. Plant Physiology, 112, 1631-1640.
https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.112.4.1631

[25]   Neto, A.D.D.A., Prisco, J.T., Enéas-Filho, J., Abreu, C.E.B.D. and Gomes-Filho, E. (2006) Effect of Salt Stress on Antioxidative Enzymes and Lipid Peroxidation in Leaves and Roots of Salt-Tolerant and Salt-Sensitive Maize Genotypes. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 56, 87-94.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2005.01.008

[26]   Gerardeaux, E., Jordan-Meille, L., Constantin, J., Pellerin, S. and Dingkuhn, M. (2010) Changes in Plant Morphology and Dry Matter Partitioning Caused by Potassium Deficiency in Gossypium hirsutum (L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany, 67, 451-459.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.09.008

[27]   Jordan-Meille, L. and Pellerin, S. (2008) Shoot and Root Growth of Hydroponic Maize (Zea mays L.) as Influenced by K Deficiency. Plant and Soil, 304, 157-168.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-007-9534-8

[28]   Tewari, R.K., Kumar, P., Tewari, N., Srivastava, S. and Sharma, P.N. (2004) Macronutrient Deficiencies and Differential Antioxidant Responses Influence on the Activity and Expression of Superoxide Dismutase in Maize. Plant Science, 166, 687-694.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2003.11.004

[29]   Lebaudy, A., Véry, A.A. and Sentenac, H. (2007) K+ Channel Activity in Plants: Genes, Regulations and Functions. FEBS Letters, 581, 2357-2366.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2007.03.058

[30]   Fu, C., Li, M., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y., Yan, Y. and Wang Y.A. (2015) Morphology, Photosynthesis, and Internal Structure Alterations in Field Apple Leaves under Hidden and Acute Zinc Deficiency. Scientia Horticulturae, 193, 47-54.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.06.016

[31]   Trovato, M., Mattioli, R. and Costantino, P. (2008) Multiple Roles of Proline in Plant Stress Tolerance and Development. Rendiconti Lincei, 19, 325-346.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12210-008-0022-8

[32]   Li, R., Volenec, J.J. Joern, B.C. and Cunningham, S.M. (1997) Potassium and Nitrogen Effects on Carbohydrate and Protein Metabolism in Alfalfa Roots. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 20, 511-529.
https://doi.org/10.1080/01904169709365271

[33]   Armengaud, P., Sulpice, R., Miller, A.J., Stitt, M., Amtmann, A. and Gibon, Y. (2009) Multilevel Analysis of Primary Metabolism Provides New Insights into the Role of Potassium Nutrition for Glycolysis and Nitrogen Assimilation in Arabidopsis Roots. Plant Physiology, 150, 772-785.
https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.108.133629

[34]   Tang, Z.H., Zhang, A.J., Wei, M., Chen, X.G., Liu, Z.H., Li, H.M. and Ding, Y.F. (2015) Physiological Response to Potassium Deficiency in Three Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) Genotypes Differing in Potassium Utilization Efficiency. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 37, Article No. 184.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-015-1901-0

[35]   Xu, W., Cui, K., Xu, A., Nie, L., Huang, J. and Peng, S. (2015) Drought Stress Condition Increases Root to Shoot Ratio via Alteration of Carbohydrate Partitioning and Enzymatic Activity in Rice Seedlings. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 37, Article No. 9.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-014-1760-0

[36]   Wang, N., Hua, H., Egrinya, E.A., Li, Z., Duan, L. and Tian, X. (2012) Genotypic Variations in Photosynthetic and Physiological Adjustment to Potassium Deficiency in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, 110, 1-8.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2012.02.002

[37]   Apel, K. and Hirt, H. (2004) Reactive Oxygen Species: Metabolism, Oxidative Stress, and Signal Transduction. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 55, 728-749.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.55.031903.141701

[38]   Scandalios, J.G. (1993) Oxygen Stress and Superoxide Dismutases. Plant Physiology, 101, 7-12.
https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.101.1.7

 
 
Top