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 OJPC  Vol.11 No.3 , August 2021
Ultrasonic, Volumetric and Isentropic Compressibility of Binary Mixtures of 1,4-Dioxane with Primary Alcohols at 303.15 K
Abstract: Density, viscosity and sound velocity of six binary liquid mixtures of methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol and octanol with 1,4-dioxane have been measured over the entire range of composition at temperature 303.15K. From the experimental densities, viscosities and sound velocity, the excess molar volume (VE), deviation in viscosity (Δη) and deviation in isentropic compressibility (ΔKS) have been calculated. The results have been used to discuss the nature and strength of intermolecular interactions in these mixtures.

1. Introduction

The present paper is part of our ongoing research on the thermodynamic properties of binary liquid mixtures [1] containing 1,4-dioxane with 1-alkanol at 303.15 K. Therefore their binary mixture properties are needed as a useful database in a variety of industrial applications [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]. Therefore, their interactions with different types of liquids such as 1,4-dioxane, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol and octanol are important from a fundamental viewpoint. A wide range of important binary mixtures containing the above liquids have been studied by different authors [7] [8] [9] [10]. More over, to the best of our knowledge, no physical property data on the mixtures in the present study are available. This prompted us to undertake a study on the measurement of physical properties such as density (ρ), viscosity (η) and sound velocity (u) at 303.15 K. Using these data, the excess molar volume (VE), deviations in viscosity (Δη) and deviation in isentropic compressibility (ΔKs) were calculated. The results are graphically presented. The excess properties values have been interpreted in terms of the nature of intermolecular interactions between constituent molecules of mixtures [11] - [19].

2. Experimental

Materials and Method

The chemicals (AR grade) employed were supplied by Merck. Chem. Ltd. India, Their purities (in mass percent) were 1,4-dioxane 99%, methanol 99.27%, ethanol 99.2%, propanol 99.2%, butanol 99.5%, hexanol 99.3% and octanol 99%. All the chemicals were purified by a method given in the literature [20]. The purity of the liquids was also checked by measuring their densities, viscosities and sound velocities at 303.15 K and were in agreement with the literature values [21] - [29] are depicted in Table 1.

All six binary liquid mixtures Viz. 1,4-dioxane + methanol, 1,4-dioxane + ethanol, 1,4-dioxane + propanol, 1,4-dioxane + butanol, 1,4-dioxane + hexanol and 1,4-dioxane + octanol were studied. Binary mixtures were prepared by weight covering the entire mole fraction range. The components of binary mixtures were injected by means of syringe in to the glass vials of sealed with rubber stopper in order to check evaporation losses during sample preparation. The weight of the sample was measured using electrical single pan analytical balance (K-roy instruments Pvt. Ltd. Varanasi (U.P.) India. The densities of pure liquids and their binary mixtures were measured (303.15 K) using a single-capillary pycnometer, made of borosil glass, having a bulb capacity of 30 cm3. The capillary, with graduated marks, had a uniform pore and could be closed by a well-fitted glass cap. The marks on the capillary were calibrated by using double-distilled water at 303.15 K. The pycnometer was kept for about 30 minute in an electronically controlled thermostate water bath (MSI Goyal Scientific Meerut) 303.15 ± 0.02 K and the position of the liquid level on the capillary was noted. The volume of the pycnometer at each mark was calculated by using the literature [30] value of the density of

Table 1. Physical properties of pure components at 303.15 K.

pure water at 303.15 K. The volume these obtained is used to determine the density of the unknown liquid. The observed values of densities of pure 1,4-dioxane, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol and octanol at 303.15 K were 1.0108, 0.7840, 0.7720, 0.8070, 0.8040, 0.8128 and 0.8242 g∙m−3 which compare well with corresponding literature values of respectively. The ultrasonic velocities were measured using a multifrequency ultrasonic interferometer (Model F-80D, Mittal Enterprise, New Delhi) working at 3 MHz. The meter was calibrated with water and benzene at 303.15 K. The measured values of ultrasonic velocities of pure 1,4-dioxane, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol and octanol at 303.15 K were 1348, 1084, 1141, 1182, 1196,1298 and 1327 m ∙s−1 respectively, which compare well with the corresponding literature values. The viscosity was measured by means of a suspended Ubbelohde type viscometer [31] calibrate was done at 303.15K with double distilled water and purified methanol. An electronic digital stop watch with readability of ±0.01 was used for the flow time measurements. The measured values of viscosities of pure 1,4-dioxane, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol and octanol at 303.15 K were 1.0303, 0.4949, 1.1399, 1.5477, 2.2045, 4.5642 and 7.8512 C .P. which compare well with the corresponding literature values. The mixtures were prepared by mixing known volumes of the pure liquids in air tight stoppered bottles. The weights were taken on a single pan electronic balance (Mittal Enterprises New Patel Nagar, New Delhi, India) accurate to 0.01 mg.

3. Results and Discussion

The experimental values of density, viscosity, and sound velocity data for mixtures of 1,4-dioxane 1) and primary alcohols 2) such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol and octanol were used to calculate the excess molar volume, viscosity deviations and isentropic compressibility. The results are presented in Table 2.

The excess molar volume is calculated using the equation ( [32] [33] )

V E = ( M 1 x 1 + M 2 x 2 ) / ρ m i x .

where ρmix. is the density of the mixture and M1, M2, x1, x2, ρ1 and ρ2 are the molecular weights, mole fraction and densities of pure components 1 and 2 respectively.

Quantitatively as per the absolute reaction rate theory [34] [35] the deviation of the viscosities (Δη) from the ideal mixture values are calculated as [36]

Δ η = η m i x . [ x 1 η 1 + x 2 η 2 ]

whereηmix. are the viscosity of the mixture and η1, η2 are the viscosity of pure components (1) and (2) respectively.

Isentropic compressibility (KS) and excess isentropic compressibility ( K S E ) are calculated from the experiment density (ρ) and sound velocity (u) using the following equations [37] [38] [39] [40] [41]

K S = 1 / u 2 ρ

Δ K S = K S x 1 K S 1 x 2 K S 2

where KS, KS1 and KS2 are the isentropic compressibility of the mixture, pure component 1 and pure component 2 respectively.

We have calculated excess viscosity, excess molar volume and excess isentropic compressibility at 303.15 K for the binary mixture of 1,4-dioxane (1) with the primary alcohols (2). The variation of the excess properties over the entire range of compositions for the binary mixtures is depicted in Figures 1-3.

The value of excess molar volume was found to be negative value for 1,4-dioxane with methanol, ethanol and the positive value increase with increasing chain

Figure 1. Plots of excess molar volume (VE) versus mole fraction of 1,4-dioxane (x1) at 303.15 K for binary mixtures of 1,4-dioxane with methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol and octanol.

Figure 2. Plots of viscosity deviation (Δη) versus mole fraction of 1,4-dioxane (x1) at 303.15 K for binary mixtures of 1,4-dioxane with methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol and octanol.

Figure 3. Plots of excess isentropic compressibility ( K S E ) versus mole fraction of 1,4-dioxane at 303.15 K for binary mixtures of 1,4-dioxane with methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol and octanol.

length of the alcohols in Figure 1.

The trend it follows is CH3OH < C2H5OH < C3H7OH < C4H9OH < C5H11OH < C6H13OH < C7H15OH < C8H17OH.

The negative molar volume values indicate the pressure of strong molecular interactions between the components of the mixtures. So many effects may contribute to the value of VE, such as [42] [43] [44] (I) dipolar-interaction (II) interstitial accommodation of one component in to the other (III) possible hydrogen bond interactions between unlike molecules. The observed positive trends in (VE) values indicate that the effect due to the breaking up of self-associated structure of the components of the mixtures is dominant over the effect of H-bonding and dipole-dipole interaction between unlike molecule. The VE values increase in the sequence butanol < hexanol < octanol which also reflects the decreasing strength of interaction between unlike molecules in the mixture. As the size of the alkyl group increases from propanol to octanol, the steric hindrance also increases. Thus the extent of positive deviation (Figure 1) supports our view [45].

A correlation between the sign of Δη and VE has been observed for a number of binary solvent system ( [46] [47] ) i.e. Δη is negative when VE is positive and vice-versa. In general for systems where dispersion and dipolar interactions are operating, Δη values are found to be negative, whereas charge transfer and hydrogen bonding interactions lead to the formation of complex species between unlike molecules.

The calculated ΔKS values for the binary liquid mixture listed in Table 3. The change of this property has been shown in Figure 3. The ΔKS values are negative over the entire mole fraction range and become more negative with increasing the mole fraction of second component for all binary mixtures. These results can be explained in term of molecular interactions and structured effects.

The variation of ΔKS with volume fraction of 1,4-dioxane x1 is represent in

Table 2. Experimental Results for the binary Liquid Mixtures of 1,4-Dioxane (1) + Primary alcohols (2) at 303.15 K.

Table 3. Speeds of sound (u), Isentropic Compressibility (KS) and Excess Isentropic Compressibility ( K S E ) of Binary Mixtures of Various Composition (Mole Fraction) at 303.15 K.

Figure 3. Kiyohara and Benson [48] have suggested that ΔKS is the result of several opposing effects. Strong molecular interactions occur through charge transfer, dipole-induced dipole and dipole-dipole interaction [49], interstitial accommodation and orientation ordering all lead to a more compact structure making ΔKS negative, whereas breakup of the alkanol structure trends to make ΔKS positive. The magnitudes of the various contributions depend mainly on the relative molecular size of the components.

4. Conclusion

Thus paper reported the densities, viscosities and sound velocity of six pure methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol and octanol and mixture at 303.15 K over the entire range of mole fraction. After a thorough study of the behavior of primary alcohols and 1,4-dioxane we get a clear idea about the type and amount of molecular interactions between the components. The study of excess properties along with the speed of sound has been found to very useful in understanding the nature of the interactions within binary liquid mixtures. These excess properties obtained from the correlating equations have also provided the very important and useful information.

Acknowledgments

The authors are very much thankful to the Dean Science, Head of the Department of Chemistry, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi for proving the facilities for Research work.

Cite this paper: Agarwal, S. and Sharma, D. (2021) Ultrasonic, Volumetric and Isentropic Compressibility of Binary Mixtures of 1,4-Dioxane with Primary Alcohols at 303.15 K. Open Journal of Physical Chemistry, 11, 168-181. doi: 10.4236/ojpc.2021.113010.
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