AJPS  Vol.12 No.7 , July 2021
Biological Methodologies on SDHI Fungicides to Assess Reductions of Sensitivity and Activity on Venturia inaequalis and Cross-Resistance Tests
Abstract: Biological methodologies (in vitro and in vivo) were tested on Venturia inaequalis to assay sensitivity of populations treated with the SDHI penthiopyrad, fluxapyroxad and fluopyram that showed a field poor control in an experimental Centre. In comparison, sensible populations were tested. In vitro trials, the poorly controlled populations presented moderate increases of EC50 and RF values in all three years in which tests were carried out. The in vivo trials in glasshouse showed that the activity of SDHI fungicides on field poorly controlled populations was highly reduced. These populations can be defined as “resistant” as the high loss of sensitivity and activity were repeatedly assessed in field and glasshouse. Trials showed that these reductions were manifested by curative applications and not by preventive ones, as already ascertained for V. inaequalis populations resistant to AP and DMI fungicides. The cross-resistance of resistant populations to the three SDHIs was highly positive among them. In bibliography, there are only researches of cross-resistance among SDHIs starting from isolates resistant to boscalid, with results of different sensitivities and cross-resistance. These results with populations of V. inaequalis resistant to the three SDHI offer practical evaluations in cross-resistance.
Cite this paper: Fiaccadori, R. and Battistini, G. (2021) Biological Methodologies on SDHI Fungicides to Assess Reductions of Sensitivity and Activity on Venturia inaequalis and Cross-Resistance Tests. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 12, 1124-1134. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2021.127078.

[1]   Casagrandi, M. and Marzocchi, L. (2008) Copertura completa del meleto nei trattamenti antiticchiolatura. Terra e Vita, 14, 76-79.

[2]   MacHardy, W. (1996). Apple Scab Biology, Epidemiology and Management. APS Press, Minnesota, 2-3.

[3]   Bencivelli, A., Bernardi, G., Fabiani, G., Massasso, W. and Turchiarelli, W. (1986) Moncut® (Flutolanil): Nuovo fungicida sistemico-scheda tecnica e risultati di quattro anni di prove contro Rhizoctonia Solani su garofano. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche, II, 465-470.

[4]   FRAC (2015)

[5]   FRAC (2020)

[6]   Amiri, A., Heath, M. and Peres, N.A. (2014) Resistance to Fluopyram, Fluxapyrosad, and Penthiopyrad in Botrytis cinerea from Strawberry. Plant Disease, 98, 532-539.

[7]   De Miccolis, A., Angelini, R.M., Habib, W., Rotolo, C., Pollastro, S. and Faretra F. (2010) Selection, Characterization and Genetic Analysis of Laboratory Mutans of Botryotinia fuckeliana (Botrytis cinerea) Resistant to the Fungicide Boscalid. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 128, 185-199.

[8]   Bardas, G.A., Veloukos, T., Koutita, Q. and Karaoglandis, G.S. (2010) Multiple Resistance of Botrytis cinerea from Kiwifruit to SDHIs and QoIs and Fungicides of Other Groups. Pest Management Science, 66, 967-973.

[9]   Gudmestad, N.C., Arabiat, S., Miller, J.S. and Pasche, J.S. (2013) Prevalence and Impact of SDHI Fungicide Resistance in Alternaria solani. Plant Disease, 97, 952-960.

[10]   Myamotoa, T., Ishii, G., Stammler, A., Koch, T. and Ogawara, M. (2009) Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Corynespora cassiicola Isolates Resistant to Boscalid. Plant Pathology, 59, 873-881.

[11]   Toffolatti, S., Venturini, G. and Bianco, P.A. (2016) First Report of SDHI Resistant Strains of Venturia inaequalis from Commercial Orchards in Northern Italy. Plant Disease-Diseases Notes, 100, 2324.

[12]   Brunelli, A., Collina, M. and Fiaccadori, R. (2018) Attività preventiva e curativa di fungicidi SDHI nei confronti di Venturia inaequalis. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche, 2, 457-462.

[13]   Battistini, G., Finestrelli, A., Brunelli, A. and Fiaccadori, R. (2016) Valutazione dell’attivita curativa di vecchi e recenti Fungicidi su Venturia inaequalis. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche, 2, 345-352.

[14]   Bugiani, R., Pradolesi, G. and Donati, G. (2016) Valutazione dei fungicidi ISDH nel contenimento della ticchiolatura del melo (Venturia inaequalis). Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche, II, 353-360.

[15]   Cesari, A., Fiaccadori, R. and Brandolini, V. (1985) Résistance à la dodine chez Venturia inaequalis dans les vergers de pommiers de l’Italie septentrionale. EPPO Bulletin, 15, 473-476.

[16]   Fiaccadori, R., Collina, M. and Brunelli, A. (2013) Reduced Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to Strobilurins and Anilinopyrimidines in Italy. Integrated Protection of Fruit Crops IOBC-WPRS Bulletin, 91, 345-350.

[17]   Fiaccadori, R. (2017) Researches on Methodologies to Verify in Field Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to Difenoconazole and First Indications of a Survey in Italy. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 8, 2056-2068.

[18]   Hu, M., Fernandez-Ortuno, D. and Schnabel, G. (2016) Monitoring Resistance in SDHI Fungicides in Botrtis cinerea from Strawberry Fields. Plant Disease, 100, 959-965.

[19]   Huf, A., Rehfus, A., Teichmann, M., Randall, G.R. and Stammler, G. (2017) Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to Fungicides. Proceedings of the 18th International Reinhardsbruun Symposium: Modern Fungicides and Anti Fungal Compounds, vol. VIII, Friedrichroda, 197-198.

[20]   Fiaccadori, R. (2018) In Vitro, in Vivo and in Field Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis to Anilinopyrimidine Fungicides with Different Types of Scab Management and Degree of Control. Open Access Library Journal, 5, 1-13.