Back
 ABCR  Vol.10 No.3 , July 2021
Epidemiological, Diagnosis, Therapeutic and Evolving Profile of Triple Negative Breast Cancer in Senegal
Abstract: Objective: Describe the epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary profile of triple negative breast cancer at the Dakar Cancer Institute in Senegal. Patients and Methods: This was a retrospective study between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2014. All patients with a triple negative molecular profile were included. The data were collected from the medical records of the patients. The data were entered and analyzed with SPSS edition 16 software under Windows 7. Results: Two hundred and twenty-five patients were selected. The mean age was 47.9 ± 12.5 years with extremes of 25 and 90 years. The main reason for consultation was dominated by the finding of a breast lump. The mean clinical tumor size was 8, 54 cm with a large majority of T3-T4 tumors 26% and 63% respectively, lymph node involvement in one hundred and seventy-two cases (76.4%); twenty eight patients (12.4%) were metastatic from the outset. Non-specific invasive carcinoma was the most common histologic type (78.2%), and more than half of the patients (53.3%) had an aggressive tumor (Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading III). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed in 65.78% of cases. We noted 27.7% total response and 41.7% partial response in patients who have received this neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The surgery was radical in 77% of cases, conservative in 14% and cleanliness surgery for palliative purposes in 9% of cases. Adjuvant radiotherapy is performed in 58.6% of operated patients. The mean time to follow-up was 20.63 months with extremes of 1 and 53 months. Overall survival was 69.8% at one year, 41.6% at two years and 25.6% at three years. Conclusion: The descriptive analysis of these results confirms the high frequency of triple-negative breast cancer in Senegal and its poor prognosis.
Cite this paper: Gaye, P. , Diouf, M. , Ba, M. , Diouf, D. , Sarr, F. , Mané, M. , Sarr, M. , Dieng, M. , Ka, S. and Dem, A. (2021) Epidemiological, Diagnosis, Therapeutic and Evolving Profile of Triple Negative Breast Cancer in Senegal. Advances in Breast Cancer Research, 10, 100-109. doi: 10.4236/abcr.2021.103008.
References

[1]   Sung, H., Ferlay, J., Siegel, R.L., Laversanne, M., Soerjomataram, I., Jemal, A., et al. (2021) Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 71, 209-249.
https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21660

[2]   Ji, P., Gong, Y., Jin, M.L., Hu, X., Di, G.H. and Shao, Z.M. (2020) The Burden and Trends of Breast Cancer from 1990 to 2017 at the Global, Regional, and National Levels: Results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Frontiers in Oncology, 10, 650.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00650

[3]   Globocan 2020 Senegal—Google Search [Internet].
https://www.google.com/search?q=globocan+2020+s%C3%A9n%C3%A9gal&rlz=1C1CHBD_frGB878TN878&oq=globocan+2020+s%C3%A9n%C3%A9gal&aqs=chrome..69i57.17373j0j15&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

[4]   Nagini, S. (2017) Breast Cancer: Current Molecular Therapeutic Targets and New Players. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 17, 152-163.
https://doi.org/10.2174/1871520616666160502122724

[5]   Lehmann, B.D., Bauer, J.A., Chen, X., Sanders, M.E., Chakravarthy, A.B., Shyr, Y., et al. (2011) Identification of Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Subtypes and Preclinical Models for Selection of Targeted Therapies. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 121, 2750-2767.
https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI45014

[6]   Taieb, S., Penel, N., Bonodeau, F. and Ceugnart, L. (2009) New Version of the Criteria Recist: Practical Aspects and Limits of Morphological Imagery. Journal de Radiologie, 90, 1210-1211.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0221-0363(09)74864-4

[7]   Boyle, P. (2012) Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Epidemiological Considerations and Recommendations. Annals of Oncology, 23, vi7-vi12.
https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mds187

[8]   Ly, M. (2011) Study of the Epidemiological and Biological Characteristics of Breast Cancer in the Bamako Region (Mali). PhD Thesis, Paris, 6.

[9]   Huo, D., Ikpatt, F., Khramtsov, A., Dangou, J.M., Nanda, R., Dignam, J., et al. (2009) Population Differences in Breast Cancer: Survey in Indigenous African Women Reveals Over-Representation of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27, 4515-4521.
https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2008.19.6873

[10]   Bauer, K.R., Brown, M., Cress, R.D., Parise, C.A. and Caggiano, V. (2007) Descriptive Analysis of Estrogen Receptor (ER)-Negative, Progesterone Receptor (PR)-Negative, and HER2-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer, the So-Called Triple-Negative Phenotype: A Population-Based Study from the California Cancer Registry. Cancer, 109, 1721-1728.
https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22618

[11]   Rakha, E.A., Putti, T.C., Abd El-Rehim, D.M., Paish, C., Green, A.R., Powe, D.G., et al. (2006) Morphological and Immunophenotypic Analysis of Breast Carcinomas with Basal and Myoepithelial Differentiation. The Journal of Pathology, 208, 495-506.
https://doi.org/10.1002/path.1916

[12]   Dent, R., Trudeau, M., Pritchard, K.I., Hanna, W.M., Kahn, H.K., Sawka, C.A., et al. (2007) Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Features and Patterns of Recurrence. Clinical Cancer Research, 13, 4429-4434.
https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-3045

[13]   Hasan, A. and Youssef, A. (2021) Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma of the Breast; Histological Difference between the Primary and the Axillary Nodal Metastasis. Revista de Senología y Patología Mamaria, 34, 17-22.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.senol.2020.09.003

[14]   Boisserie-Lacroix, M., MacGrogan, G., Debled, M., Ferron, S., Lippa, N. and Hurtevent-Labrot, G. (2014) Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. The Triple-Negative Is Frequent in Mutated Patients: How Not to Miss It? How to Characterize It? More Generally, Can Imaging Guide Histological Diagnosis? Imag Woman, 24, 105-112.

[15]   Irvin Jr., W.J. and Carey, L.A. (2008) What Is Triple-Negative Breast Cancer? European Journal of Cancer, 44, 2799-2805.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2008.09.034

[16]   Schneider, B.P., Winer, E.P., Foulkes, W.D., Garber, J., Peru, C.M., Richardson, A., et al. (2008) Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Risk Factors to Potential Targets. Clinical Cancer Research, 14, 8010-8018.
https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-1208

[17]   Liedtke, C., Mazouni, C., Hess, K.R., André, F., Tordai, A., Mejia, J.A., et al. (2008) Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy and Long-Term Survival in Patients with Triple Negative Breast Cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26, 1275-1281.
https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.14.4147

[18]   Kumar, P. and Aggarwal, R. (2016) An Overview of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 293, 247-269.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00404-015-3859-y

[19]   Mittendorf, E.A., Philips, A.V., Meric-Bernstam, F., Qiao, N., Wu, Y., Harrington, S., et al. (2014) PD-L1 Expression in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Cancer Immunology Research, 2, 361-370.
https://doi.org/10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0127

[20]   Chauvet, M.P. (2019) New Breast Cancer Surgery. La Presse Médicale, 48, 1123-1130.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2019.08.020

[21]   Hennequin, C., Barillot, I., Azria, D., Belkacémi, Y., Bollet, M., Chauvet, B., et al. (2016) Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer. Cancer/Radiotherapy, 20, S139-S146.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canrad.2016.07.025

[22]   Dieras, V., Tresca, P., Le Tourneau, C., Salomon, A.V. and Pierga, J.Y. (2010) Triple Negative Breast Cancers. Lett Oncologist, 19, 349-354.

 
 
Top