AS  Vol.12 No.7 , July 2021
Combining Agronomic and Pest Studies to Identify Vegetable Soybean Genotypes Suitable for Commercial Edamame Production in the Mid-Atlantic U.S.
Abstract: Currently, domestic production of vegetable soybean (aka “edamame”) lags well behind consumer demand, with approximately 70% of U.S.-consumed edamame imported each year. A major barrier for growth of the U.S. edamame industry is an overall lack of varieties with adequate consumer acceptability and adaption to the U.S. climate and environment. In this study, we evaluated eleven vegetable soybean genotypes (including one commercial check) for differences in yield, pod size, and resistance to local insect, bacterial, and fungal pressures in order to identify genotypes with the greatest potential for use in commercial edamame production. Although there were variations in average pod length (42.1 - 53.6 mm), width (10.9 - 12.7 mm), and thickness (6.29 - 7.34 mm) among the genotypes, only pod length showed statistical significance. In addition, genotype significantly affected fresh pod yield. The prevalence of specific insect pests varied by location and year and included soybean aphid, potato leafhopper, Mexican bean beetle, as well as a complex of stink bugs and lepidopteran larvae. For each of these insect pests, significant differences were observed. Some plant diseases observed on the edamame genotypes included: downy mildew, bacterial pustule, Fusarium pod rot, Cercospora blight and purple seed stain, and damping off. In 2018, in Whitethorne, VA, soybean downy mildew was quite prevalent and disease symptoms varied considerably. Overall, genotypes V16-0524 and R15-10280 showed particularly favorable yield, and resilience to native pests compared to the commercial check, UA-Kirksey. The genotypes V16-0524 and R15-10280 showed strong potential to increase the availability of varieties that can be used for commercial edamame production in the Mid-Atlantic region.
Cite this paper: Lord, N. , Kuhar, T. , Rideout, S. , Sutton, K. , Alford, A. , Li, X. , Wu, X. , Reiter, M. , Doughty, H. and Zhang, B. (2021) Combining Agronomic and Pest Studies to Identify Vegetable Soybean Genotypes Suitable for Commercial Edamame Production in the Mid-Atlantic U.S.. Agricultural Sciences, 12, 738-754. doi: 10.4236/as.2021.127048.

[1]   Shurtleff, W. and Aoyagi, A. (2014) History of Edamame, Green Vegetable Soybeans, and Vegetable-Type Soybeans (1275-2009): Extensively Annotated Bibliography and Sourcebook. Soyinfo Center, Lafayette.

[2]   Shurtleff, W., Huang, H. and Aoyagi, A. (2014) History of Soybeans and Soyfoods in China and Taiwan, and in Chinese Cookbooks, Restaurants, and Chinese Work with Soyfoods outside China (1024 BCE to 2014): Extensively Annotated Bibliography and Sourcebook, Including Manchuria, Hong Kong and Tibet. Soyinfo Center, Lafayette.

[3]   Born, H. (2006) Edamame: Vegetable Soybean. A Publication of ATTRA—National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service.

[4]   Mentreddy, S.R., Mohamed, A.I., Joshee, N. and Yadav, A.K. (2002) Edamame: A Nutritious Vegetable Crop. In: Janick, J. and Whipkey, A., Eds., Trends in New Crops and New Uses, ASHS Press, Alexandria, 432-438.

[5]   Masuda, R. and Harada, K. (2000) Carbohydrate Accumulation in Developing Soybean Seeds; Sucrose and Starch Levels in 30 Cultivars for Soyfoods. The Third International Soybean Processing and Utilization Conferences: Japanese Food Science and Technology, Tsukuba, 15-20 October 2000, 15-20.

[6]   Young, G., Mebrahtu, T. and Johnson, J. (2000) Acceptability of Green Soybeans as a Vegetable Entity. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 55, 323-333.

[7]   Ruiz-Larrea, M.B., Mohan, A.R., Paganga, G., Miller, N.J., Bolwell, G.P. and Rice-Evans, C.A. (1997) Antioxidant Activity of Phytoestrogenic Isoflavones. Free Radical Research, 26, 63-70.

[8]   Sarkar, F.H. and Li, Y. (2002) Mechanisms of Cancer Chemoprevention by Soy Isoflavone Genistein. Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, 21, 265-280.

[9]   Taku, K., Umegaki, K., Sato, Y., Taki, Y., Endoh, K. and Watanabe, S. (2007) Soy Isoflavones Lower Serum Total and LDL Cholesterol in Humans: A Meta-Analysis of 11 Randomized Controlled Trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85, 1148-1156.

[10]   Rao, M., Bhagsari, A.S. and Mohamed, A.I. (2002) Fresh Green Seed Yield and Seed Nutritional Traits of Vegetable Soybean Genotypes. Crop Science, 42, 1950-1958.

[11]   Garber, B. and Neill, C.L. (2019) Edamame: Costs, Revenues, and Profitability. Virginia Cooperative Extension Publications No. AAEC-189P.

[12]   Mebrahtu, T. and Mohamed, A. (2006) Genetic Variation for Green Pod Yield and Quality among Vegetable Soybean Genotypes. Journal of Crop Improvement, 16, 113-130.

[13]   Mozzoni, L. and Chen, P. (2019) Correlations of Yield and Quality Traits between Immature and Mature Seed Stages of Edamame Soybean. Journal of Crop Improvement, 33, 67-82.

[14]   Zhang, Q.Y., Hashemi, M., Hebert, S.J. and Li, Y.S. (2013) Different Responses of Preemergence and Early Seedling Growth to Planting Depth between Vegetable Soybean and Grain Soybeans. Legume Research, 36, 515-521.

[15]   Masuda, R. (1991) Quality Requirement and Improvement of Vegetable Soybean. Proceedings of the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center Workshop, Kenting, 29 April-2 May 1991, 92-102.

[16]   Cui, Z., James, A., Miyazaki, S., Wilson, R.F. and Carter, T. (2004) Breeding Specialty Soybeans for Traditional and New Soyfoods. In: Liu, K., Ed., Soybeans as a Functional Food. AOCS Press, Champaign, Illinois, 264-322.

[17]   Konovsky, J., Lumpkin, T.A. and McClary, D. (1994) Chapter 15: Edamame: The Vegetable Soybean. In: O’Rourke, A.D., Ed., Understanding the Japanese Food and Agrimarket: A Multifaceted Opportunity, Taylor and Francis Group, London, 173-181.

[18]   Wszelaki, A.L., Delwiche, J.F., Walker, S.D., Liggett, R.E., Miller, S.A. and Kleinhenz, M.D. (2005) Consumer Liking and Descriptive Analysis of Six Varieties of Organically Grown Edamame-Type Soybean. Food Quality and Preference, 16, 651-658.

[19]   Wilcox, J.R. and Shibles, R.M. (2001) Interrelationships among Seed Quality Attributes in Soybean. Crop Science, 41, 11-14.

[20]   Carneiro, R.C.V., Duncan, S.E., O’Keefe, S.F., Yin, Y., Neill, C.L. and Zhang, B. (2020) Sensory and Consumer Studies in Plant Breeding: A Guidance for Edamame Development in the U.S. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 4, 124.

[21]   Chen, P., Scaboo, A.M., Dombek, D.G. and Robbins, R.T. (2014) Soybean Cultivar UA Kirksey. U.S. Patent No. US20140026250A1. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington DC.

[22]   Fehr, W.R., Caviness, C.E., Burmood, D.T. and Pennington, J.S. (1971) Stage of Development Descriptions for Soybeans, Glycine-max (L.) Merrill. Crop Science, 11, 929.

[23]   Carlson, J.B. and Lersten, N.R. (2004) Reproductive Morphology. In: Soybeans: Improvement, Production, and Uses, Agronomy Monograph No. 16, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 59-95.

[24]   Kuhar, T.P., Hoffmann, M.P., Stivers-Young, L.J., Marini, M. and Sterrett, S.B. (2003) Potato Leafhopper Economic Injury Levels on Early-Stage Snap and Kidney Beans. HortTechnology, 13, 647-649.

[25]   Kuhar, T.P., Doughty, H. and Jenrette, J. (2015) Evaluation of Insecticides for the Control of Pod-Damaging Insects in Snap Beans in Virginia, 2014. Arthropod Management Tests, 40, E11.

[26]   Nottingham, L.B. and Kuhar, T.P. (2016) Natural History, Ecology and Management of Mexican Bean Beetle on Bean Crops in the U.S. Journal of Integrated Pest Management, 7, 1-12.

[27]   Owens, D.R., Herbert, D.A., Dively, G.P., Reisig, D.R. and Kuhar, T.P. (2013) Does Feeding by Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Reduce Soybean Seed Quality and Yield? Journal of Economic Entomology, 106, 1317-1323.

[28]   Venette, R.C. and Ragsdale, D.W. (2004) Assessing the Invasion by Soybean Aphid (Homoptera Aphididae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 97, 219-226.

[29]   Delate, K., Friedrich, H., Burcham, R., Fehr, W.R. and Wilson, L.A. (2003) Edamame (Vegetable Soybean) Variety Trial at Neely-Kinyon Farm, 2002. Iowa State University Research and Demonstration Farms Progress Reports, 3.

[30]   Nolen, S., Zhang, B. and Kering, M. (2016) Increasing Fresh Edamame Bean Supply through Season Extension Techniques. Journal of Horticulture, 3, 1-5.

[31]   Sharma, K.P. and Kshattry, I. (2013) Varietal Adaptation Study to Initiate Edamame Production in Richmond, BC. Nature’s Path Foods, Richmond, 29 p.

[32]   Zhang, L. and Kyei-Boahen, S. (2007) Growth and Yield of Vegetable Soybean (Edamame) in Mississippi. HortTechnology, 17, 26-31.

[33]   Jiang, G.L., Rutto, L.K. and Ren, X.S. (2018) Evaluation of Soybean Lines for Edamame Yield Traits and Trait Genetic Correlation. Hortscience, 53, 1732-1736.