Back
 ENG  Vol.13 No.7 , July 2021
Clothing Thermal Insulation for Typical Seasonal Clothing of Infant with Infant Thermal Manikin
Abstract: Infants are less thermally adapted to their environment and can be considered as needing protective measures against thermal environments. It is not ethical to conduct subject experiments on infants. Thermal insulation in clothing is an essential control coefficient for the evaluation of the thermal environment of an infant. A thermal manikin can be used as an alternative method for carrying out experiments and to control the thermal manikin based on heat balance. The purpose of this study was to clarify the thermal insulation of infants’ clothing. An infant thermal manikin was used to clarify the thermal insulation (Icl) of typical summer, mid-season, and winter clothing combinations for infants. The thermal insulation of typical seasonal clothing combinations was 0.30 clo for summer clothing, 0.57 clo for mid-season clothing and 1.02 clo for winter clothing. It was clarified that it is essential to consider clothing conditions by taking into account differences in posture and to define the clothing thermal insulation (Icl) when designing and evaluating thermal environments. When designing and evaluating an infant’s thermal environment, it is essential to investigate using data from infants.
Cite this paper: Kurazumi, Y. , Fukagawa, K. , Sakoi, T. , Naito, A. , Imai, M. , Hashimoto, R. , Kondo, E. and Tsuchikawa, T. (2021) Clothing Thermal Insulation for Typical Seasonal Clothing of Infant with Infant Thermal Manikin. Engineering, 13, 372-387. doi: 10.4236/eng.2021.137027.
References

[1]   Hanada, K. (1979) Studies on the Regional Thermal Resistance of Clothing System Part 1: On Sportswear. Journal of the Japan Research Association for Textile End-Use, 20, 273-279.

[2]   Hanada, K. (1979) Studies on the Regional Thermal Resistance of Clothing System Part 2: One-Piece Dresses. Journal of the Japan Research Association for Textile End-Use, 20, 305-310.

[3]   Olesen, B.W., Silwinska, E., Madsen, T.L. and Fanger, P.O. (1982) Effect of Body Posture and Activity on the Thermal Insulation of Clothing; Measurements by a Movable Thermal Manikin. ASHRAE Transactions, 88, 791-805.

[4]   Nishimura, M., Tanabe, S. and Hasebe, Y. (1994) Thermal Insulation of Clothing for Seated and Standing Postures. The Annals of Physiological Anthropology, 13, 337-343.
https://doi.org/10.2114/ahs1983.13.337

[5]   Yamato, Y., Kurazumi, Y., Hashida, M., Torii, T. and Matsubara, N. (2003) Difference of Postures on Thermal Insulation of Clothing Ensembles. Journal of Human and Living Environment, 10, 108-116.

[6]   Yamato, Y., Kurazumi, Y., Ishii, J., Fukagawa, K., Tobita, K., Matsubara, N. and Shibata, Y. (2010) The Influence of Extra Space of Clothing for Human Body on Thermal Insulation of Clothing Ensembles, Experimental Study on Woman’s Clothes. Journal of the Japan Research Association for Textile End-Uses, 51, 281-292.

[7]   Kurazumi, Y., Horiguchi, A., Sakamoto, H. and Matsubara, N. (2006) The Influence of Postures on Thermal Insulation of Clothing. Journal of Environmental Engineering (Transactions of AIJ), 605, 63-70.
https://doi.org/10.3130/aije.71.63_3

[8]   Kurazumi, Y., Matsubara, N., Narumi, D., Nagano, K., Tsuchikawa, T. and Horikoshi, T. (1998) The Influence of Posture upon Sensible Temperature. Japanese Journal of Biometeorology, 35, 35-44.

[9]   Kurazumi, Y., Matsubara, N., Nagai, H., Furukawa, N., Fujiwara, M., Ue, A., Ueki, Y. and Yamamoto, S. (1999) The Effect of Conductive Heat Exchange for Evaluation of the Thermal Environment on the Human Body. Transactions of the Society of Heationg, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, 72, 25-36.

[10]   Kurazumi, Y., Matsubara, N., Ueki, Y., Ue, A., Nagai, H., Yamamoto, S., Furukawa, N. and Fujiwara, M. (1999) Influence of the Difference of Postures upon the Human Physiological and Phychological Responses in a Heated Floor Room. Japanese Journal of Biometeorology, 36, 3-19.

[11]   Yamato, Y., Kurazumi, Y., Fukagawa, K. and Tobita, K. (2015) Measuring Thermal Insulation Value of Clothing Using Heat Flux Sensor. The 15th Science Council of Asia Conference and International Symposium (SCA2015), Siem Reap City, 15-16 May 2015, 149-153.

[12]   Yamato, Y., Kurazumi, Y., Fukagawa, K., Tobita, K. and Kondo, E. (2019) Assessment of Method for Measuring Clo Value Using Human Body, Assessment of Method for Measuring Clo Value That Assumes Human Body Temperature Adjustment. Proceedings of the 13th REHVA World Congress, Bucharest, 26-29 May 2019, 1-4.
https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/201911106050

[13]   Seppanen, O., McNall, P.E. and Munson, D.M. (1972) Thermal Insulating for Typical Indoor Clothing Ensembles. ASHRAE Transactions, 78, 120-130.

[14]   Sprague, C.H. and Munson, D.M. (1974) A Composite Ensemble Method for Estimating Thermal Insulating Values of Clothing. ASHRAE Transactions, 80, 20-129.

[15]   Mihira, K. and Ohno, S. (1977) Measuring on the Clo Value of a Clothed Thermal Manikin. Journal of Home Economics of Japan, 28, 216-222.

[16]   Hanada, K., Mihira, K. and Ohhata, K. (1981) Studies on the Thermal Resistance of Women’s Underweares. Journal of the Japan Research Association for Textile End-Use, 22, 430-437.

[17]   Hanada, K., Mihira, K. and Sato, Y. (1983) Studies on the Thermal Resistance of Men’s Underweares. Journal of the Japan Research Association for Textile End-Use, 24, 363-369.

[18]   Mcllough, E.A., Jones, B.W. and Zbikowski, P.J. (1983) The Effect of Garment Design on the Thermal Insulation Values of Clothing. ASHRAE Transactions, 89, 327-353.

[19]   Mcllough, E.A., Jones, B.W. and Huck, J. (1985) A Comprehensive Data Base for Estimating Clothing Insulation. ASHRAE Transactions, 91, 29-47.

[20]   Olesen, B.W. (1985) A New Simpler Method for Estimating the Thermal Insulation of a Clothing Ensemble. ASHRAE Transactions, 91, 478-492.

[21]   Mihira, K. and Hanada, K. (1991) A Study of Clo Values Measurement Using Thermal Manikin. Nippon Ifuku Gakkaishi, 34, 16-23.

[22]   Tanabe, S., Hasebe, Y. and Tanaka, T. (1994) Reduction of Clo Value with Increased Air Velocity. Journal of Human and Living Environment, 1, 64-67.

[23]   Nishimura, M., Tanabe, S. and Hasebe, Y. (1994) Effects of Skin Surface Temperature Distribution of Thermal Manikin on Clothing Thermal Insulation. Journal of Applied Human Science, 16, 181-189.
https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa.16.181

[24]   Sakoi, T., Mochida, T., Nagano, K. and Shimakura, K. (2000) Fundamental Study on Evaluation of Clothing Thermal Insulation. Transactions of the Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan, 77, 95-107.

[25]   Fukazawa, T., Ikeda, S., Kim, S. and Tochihara, Y. (2009) Seasonal Clothing Variation and Thermal Resistance of Clothing Ensembles of Infants Living in Kyushu. Journal of Home Economics of Japan, 60, 635-643.

[26]   ASHRAE (2017) 2017 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals, Chapter 8 Thermal Comfort. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta.

[27]   ISO (2007) ISO 9920:2007 Ergonomics of Thermal Environment-Estimation of the Thermal Insulation and Evaporative Resistance of a Clothing Ensemble. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.

[28]   Iriki, M. (1995) Taion cyosetu no shikumi. Bunkodo Co., Ltd., Tokyo. (In Japanese)

[29]   Nakayama, A. and Iriki, M. (1987) Shin seirikagaku taikei 22, Enerugi taisya Taion cyosetu no seirigaku. Igaku-Shoin Ltd., Tokyo. (In Japanese)

[30]   Kurazumi, Y., Sakoi, T., Yamashita, K., Fukagawa, K., Kondo, E. and Tsuchikawa, T. (2019) Thermal Manikin of Infant. Engineering, 11, 735-754.
https://doi.org/10.4236/eng.2019.1111048

[31]   Meeh, K. (1879) Ober flächenmessungen des menschlichen körpers. Zeitschrift für Biologie, 15, 425-458.

[32]   Lissauer, W. (1903) Ueber oberflächenmessungen un säuglingen und ihre bedeutung für den nahrungsbedarf. Jahrbuch für Kinderheilkunde und Physische Erziehung. N.F., 58, 392-411.

[33]   Otani, K. (1907) Nihon syoni no taihyo menseki sokutei. Tokyo igakkai zasshi, 21, 89-117. (In Japanese)

[34]   Lassabliére, P. (1910) Evaluation de la surface cutanée chez le jeune enfant. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances et mémoires de la société de biologie, 59, 339-341.

[35]   Klein, A.D. and Scammon, R.E. (1930) The Regional Growth in Surface Area of the Human Body in Prenatal Life. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 27, 463-466.
https://doi.org/10.3181/00379727-27-4809

[36]   Oshiro, C. and Tagawa, T. (1936) Nihon nyuji no taihyo menseki sokutei seiseki. Nika zasshi, 43, 604-616. (In Japanese)

[37]   Ochi, T. and Higuchi, T. (1935) On the Body Surface Measurements and Normal Standard of Basal Metabolism of New Born Infants. Keio igaku, 15, 709-725. (In Japanese)

[38]   Kawabata, M. (1940) Isshin taihyo menseki keisan shiki. Nihon seiri gakkai zasshi, 5, 245-254. (In Japanese)

[39]   Miyajima, T. (1960) Nihon jin no taihyo menseki ni kansuru kenkyu, Dai 13 nyuji no taihyo menseki oyobi sono sansyutu shiki. Nagasaki sogo kosyu eiseigaku zasshi, 9, 484-499. (In Japanese)

[40]   Tsuchikawa, T., Kondo, E. and Kurazumi, Y. (2019) Solar Radiation Area Factors of the Infant on Buggy. Journal of Human and Living Environment, 26, 87-92.

[41]   Kurazumi, Y., Fukagawa, K., Sakoi, T., Naito, A., Hashimoto, R., Kondo, E. and Tsuchikawa, T. (2021) Clothing Area Factor for Typical Seasonal Clothing of Infant. Health, 13, 378-392.
https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2021.134031

[42]   Nihon 3B Scientific Inc. (2021) Nurse Training Baby, Asian Body Care Model Male, W17002.
https://www.3bs.jp/simulator/child/w17002-w17003.htm

[43]   Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan (2021) National Growth Survey on Preschool Children.
https://www.mhlw.go.jp/toukei/list/dl/73-22-01.pdf

[44]   Boyd, E. and Scammon, R.E. (1930) The Relation of Surface Area Body Weight in Postnatal Life. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 27, 449-453.
https://doi.org/10.3181/00379727-27-4804

[45]   Kobayashi, O., Washio, S., Kodama, T., Sakaguchi, S. and Hayashi, I. (1952) Honpo syoni no taihyo menseki ni tuite. Nihon syonika gakkai zasshi, 56, 217-221. (In Japanese)

[46]   Fujimoto, S., Watanabe, T., Sakamoto, A., Yukawa, K. and Morimoto, K. (1968) Studies on the Physical Surface Area of Japanese, Part 18 Calculation Formulas in Three Stages over All Age. Japanese Journal of Hygiene, 23, 443-450.
https://doi.org/10.1265/jjh.23.443

[47]   Oketani, Y. and Tokura, H. (1979) Circadian Rhythms of Rectal and Skin Temperatures in an Infant. Journal of Home Economics of Japan, 30, 568-570.

[48]   Whitton, J.T. and Everall, J.D. (1973) The Thickness of the Epidermis. British Journal of Dermatology, 89, 467-476.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1973.tb03007.x

 
 
Top