FNS  Vol.12 No.7 , July 2021
Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Fruit-Flavored Greek Yogurt Acid Whey
Abstract: Greek yogurt has become much more popular within the last 15 to 20 years. The by-product of Greek yogurt manufacture is acid whey. Although acid whey has been considered a waste product, researchers are exploring various uses of this whey. Since the health benefits of consuming probiotics are widely known, one may propose adding probiotics to acid whey to form a probiotic beverage. Typically, probiotic bacteria do not thrive in acidic conditions. It would be beneficial to determine if the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus can survive in these acidic conditions. The objectives were to determine the growth of L. acidophilus in acid whey resulting from manufacturing Greek yogurt and to study any changes in apparent viscosity, pH, and titratable acidity over 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. Plain yogurt was manufactured, and whey was separated from plain yogurt to yield Greek yogurt and acid whey. Acid whey was batch pasteurized, cooled, sweetened, flavored with pineapple flavoring, inoculated with L. acidophilus, and stored at 4°C for 4 weeks. The log L. acidophilus counts progressively decreased from 7.84 immediately after manufacture to 2.06 at week 4. There were no significant changes in pH and titratable acidity of the pineapple-flavored probiotic acid whey over 4 weeks of storage, indicating product stability over shelf life. Viscosity changed over the storage time with minimum values at week 2 and maximum values at week 4. Although the counts declined over 4 weeks of storage, some L. acidophilus survived in the pineapple-flavored acid whey.
Cite this paper: Dufrene, A. , Park, D. , Olson, D. and Aryana, K. (2021) Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus in Fruit-Flavored Greek Yogurt Acid Whey. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 12, 681-692. doi: 10.4236/fns.2021.127051.

[1]   Erickson, B.E. (2017) Acid Whey: Is the Waste Product an Untapped Goldmine? Chemical & Engineering News, 95, 26-30.

[2]   Lange, I., Mleko, S., Tomczyńska-Mleko, M., Polischuk, G., Janas, P. and Ozimek, L. (2020) Technology and Factors Influencing Greek-Style Yogurt—A Review. Ukranian Food Journal, 9, 7-35.

[3]   Jovanovic, S., Vucic, T. and Jeftic, M. (2019) Characteristics of Low Fat Yogurt. Proceedings of the X International Scientific Agricultural Symposium “Agrosym 2019”, Jahorina, 3-6 October 2019, 1544-1549.

[4]   Menchik, P., Zuber, T., Zuber, A. and Moraru, C.I. (2019) Composition of Coproduct Streams from Dairy Processing: Acid Whey and Milk Permeate. Journal of Dairy Science, 102, 3978-3984.

[5]   Flinois, J.C., Dando, R. and Padilla-Zakour, O.I. (2019) Effects of Replacing Buttermilk with Yogurt Acid Whey in Ranch Dressing. Journal of Dairy Science, 102, 7874-7883.

[6]   Smith, S., Smith, T.J. and Drake, M.A. (2016) Flavor and Flavor Stability of Cheese, Rennet, and Acid Wheys. Journal of Dairy Science, 99, 3434-3444.

[7]   Smithers, G.W. (2015) Whey-ing up the Options—Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. International Dairy Journal, 48, 2-14.

[8]   Flinois, J.C., Dando, R. and Padilla-Zakour, O.I. (2019b) Yogurt Acid Whey Utilization for Production of Baked Goods: Pancakes and Pizza Crust. Foods, 8, 615.

[9]   Yoon, A.K. and Rizvi, S.S.H. (2020) Functional, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Milk Protein Concentrate-Based Supercritical Fluid Extrudates Made with Acid Whey. International Journal of Food Properties, 23, 708-721.

[10]   Wronkowska, M., Juśkiewicz, J., Zduńczyk, Z., Warechowski, J., Soral-Śmietana, M. and Jadacka, M. (2018) Effect of High Added-Value Components of Acid Whey on the Nutritional and Physiological Indices of Rats. Journal of Functional Foods, 50, 63-70.

[11]   Corrochano, A.R., Ferraretto, A., Arranz, E., Stuknyté, M., Bottani, M., O’Connor, P.M., Kelly, P.M., De Noni, I., Buckin, V. and Giblin, L. (2019) Bovine Whey Peptides Transit the Intestinal Barrier to Reduce Oxidative Stress in Muscle Cells. Food Chemistry, 288, 306-314.

[12]   FAO/WHO (2002) Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food.

[13]   Fijan, S. (2014) Microorganisms with Claimed Probiotic Properties: An Overview of Recent Literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11, 4745-4767.

[14]   Aryana, K.J. and Olson, D.W. (2017) A 100-Year Review: Yogurt and Other Cultured Dairy Products. Journal of Dairy Science, 100, 9987-10013.

[15]   Kim, H.S. and Gilliland, S.E. (1983) Lactobacillus acidophilus as a Dietary Adjunct for Milk to Aid Lactose Digestion in Humans. Journal of Dairy Science, 66, 959-966.

[16]   Harrison, V.C. and Peat, G. (1975) Serum Cholesterol and Bowel Flora in the Newborn. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 28, 1351-1355.

[17]   Rao, C.V., Sanders, M.E., Indranie, C., Simi, B. and Reddy, B.S. (1999) Prevention of Colonic Preneoplastic Lesions by the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM in F344 Rats. International Journal of Oncology, 14, 939-944.

[18]   Gill, H.S., Rutherfurd, K.J., Prasad, J. and Gopal, P.K. (2000) Enhancement of Natural and Acquired Immunity by Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019). British Journal of Nutrition, 83, 167-176.

[19]   Hilton, E., Isenberg, H.D., Alperstein, P., France, K. and Borenstein, M.T. (1992) Ingestion of Yogurt Containing Lactobacillus acidophilus as Prophylaxis for Candidal Vaginitis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 116, 353-357.

[20]   Gilliland, S.E. and Speck, M.L. (1977) Antagonistic Action of Lactobacillus acidophilus toward Intestinal and Foodborne Pathogens in Associative Cultures. Journal of Food Protection, 40, 820-823.

[21]   Montazeri-Najafabady, N., Ghasemi, Y., Dabbaghmanesh, M.H., Talezadeh, P., Koohpeyma, F. and Gholami, A. (2019) Supportive Role of Probiotic Strains in Protecting Rats from Ovariectomy-Induced Cortical Bone Loss. Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins, 11, 1145-1154.

[22]   Yan, F.F., Li, N., Shi, J.L., Li, H.Z., Yue, Y.X., Jiao, W.S., Wang, N.N., Song, Y., Huo, G.C. and Li, B.L. (2019) Lactobacillus acidophilus Alleviates Type 2 Diabetes by Regulating Hepatic Glucose, Lipid Metabolism and Gut Microbiota in Mice. Food and Function, 10, 5804-5815.

[23]   Lim, H.Y., Jeong, D., Park, S.H., Shin, K.K., Hong, Y.H., Kim, E., Yu, Y.-G., Kim, T.-R., Kim, H., Lee, J. and Cho, J.Y. (2020) Antiwrinkle and Antimelanogenesis Effects of Tyndallized Lactobacillus acidophilus KCCM12625P. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21, 1620.

[24]   Lankaputhra, W.E.V. and Shah, N.P. (1995) Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp in the Presence of Acid and Bile Salts. Cultured Dairy Products Journal, 30, 2-7.

[25]   Dave, R.I. and Shah, N.P. (1996) Evaluation of Media for Selective Enumeration of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacteria. Journal of Dairy Science, 79, 1529-1536.

[26]   Tharmaraj, N. and Shah, N.P. (2003) Selective Enumeration of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Propionibacteria. Journal of Dairy Science, 86, 2288-2296.

[27]   Kulp, W.L. and Rettger, L.F. (1924) Comparative Study of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Journal of Bacteriology, 9, 357-395.

[28]   Kitay, E. and Snell, E.E. (1950) Some Additional Nutritional Requirements of Certain Lactic Acid Bacteria. Journal of Bacteriology, 60, 49-56.

[29]   Lv, X., Liu, G., Sun, X, Chen, H., Sun, J. and Feng, Z. (2017) Nutrient Consumption Patterns of Lactobacillus acidophilus KLDS 1.0738 in Controlled pH Batch Fermentations. Journal of Dairy Science, 100, 5188-5194.

[30]   Drgalić, I., Tratnik, L. and Božanic, R. (2005) Growth and Survival of Probiotic Bacteria in Reconstituted Whey. Lait, 85, 171-179.

[31]   Pescuma, M., Hébert, E.M., Mozzi, F. and de Valdez, G.F. (2010) Functional Fermented Whey-Based Beverage Using Lactic Acid Bacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 141, 73-81.

[32]   Skryplonek, K., Dmytrów, I. and Mituniewicz-Malek, A. (2019) Probiotic Fermented Beverages Based on Acid Whey. Journal of Dairy Science, 102, 7773-7780.

[33]   Castro, W.F., Cruz, A.G., Rodrigues, D., Ghiselli, G., Oliveira, C.A.F., Faria, J.A.F. and Godoy, H.T. (2013) Effects of Different Whey Concentrations on Physicochemical Characteristics and Viable Counts of Starter Bacteria in Dairy Beverage Supplemented with Probiotics. Journal of Dairy Science, 96, 96-100.

[34]   Matijević, B., Božanić, R. and Tratnik, L. (2009) The Influence of Lactulose on Growth and Survival of Probiotic Bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 in Reconstituted Sweet Whey. Mljekarstvo, 59, 20-27.

[35]   Hernandez-Mendoza, A., Robles, V.J., Angulo, J.O., De La Cruz, J. and Garcia, H.S. (2007) Preparation of a Whey-Based Probiotic Product with Lactobacillus reuteri and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 45, 27-31.

[36]   Sharma, P., Trivedi, N. and Gat, Y. (2017) Development of Functional Fermented Whey-Oat-Based Product Using Probiotic Bacteria. 3 Biotech, 7, 272.

[37]   Skryplonek, K. and Jasińska, M. (2017) Development of Fermented Beverages Based on Acid Whey. Folia Pomeranae Universitatis Technologiae Stetinensis, 44, 191-204.

[38]   Djurić, M., Carić, M., Milanović, S., Tekić, M. and Panić, M. (2004) Development of Whey-Based Beverages. European Food Research and Technology, 219, 321-328.