Back
 ABCR  Vol.10 No.3 , July 2021
An AAS Dependent Method for Quantitative Analysis of Essential Trace Elements from Blood Samples of Pakistani Female Breast Cancer Patients
Abstract: Breast cancer is the second leading cancer in the world. The long-term exposure of some metallic compounds induces different forms of cancer, including breast cancer. Trace elements are essential metals for the physiological functions of the cell on a molecular level and also contribute in treatment of many diseases. The aim of study was to compare the level of essential trace elements, sodium, potassium, calcium, iron, and zinc in breast cancer patients with normal healthy adult women. Total forty-five patients (age range from 25 - 73 years) were included in this study and divided into three groups according to three different stages of breast cancer including tumor-II, tumor-III and tumor-IV. Blood was collected from all participants after taking history, clinical data and taking consent. However, about fifteen non-cancer healthy women in age range from 26 - 69 years were subjected to this study. The elemental concentrations were determined through atomic absorption spectrophotometer subsequent to microwave-induced acid digestion. The results of Na, K, Zn, Fe, Ca, were observed to decrease in blood samples of breast cancer patients as compared to non-cancer subjects. The results are reliable with other numerous literature reported studies, the efficiency, and deficiency of these trace metals may contribute an important role in the progress of breast cancer.
Cite this paper: Chanihoon, G. , Unar, A. , Memon, A. , Jafar, T. , Shaikh, H. , Sani, A. , Kumar, R. , Soomro, S. and Qureshi, M. (2021) An AAS Dependent Method for Quantitative Analysis of Essential Trace Elements from Blood Samples of Pakistani Female Breast Cancer Patients. Advances in Breast Cancer Research, 10, 44-59. doi: 10.4236/abcr.2021.103004.
References

[1]   Grandics, P. (2003) Cancer: A Single Disease with a Multitude of Manifestions? Journal of Carcinogenesis, 2, 9.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-3163-2-9

[2]   Silvera, S.A.N. and Rohan, T.E. (2007) Trace Elements and Cancer Risk: A Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence. Cancer Causes & Control, 18, 7-27.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10552-006-0057-z

[3]   Yaman, M., Kaya, G. and Yekeler, H. (2007) Distribution of Trace Metal Concentrations in Paired Cancerous and Non-Cancerous Human Stomach Tissues. World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG, 13, 612-618.

[4]   Schrauzer, G. (2008) Effects of Selenium and Low Levels of Lead on Mammary Tumor Development and Growth in MMTV-Infected Female Mice. Biological Trace Element Research, 125, Article No. 268.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-008-8172-1

[5]   Wu, H.-D.I., et al. (2006) Differentiation of Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Normal and Malignant Breast Patients. Biological Trace Element Research, 113, 9-18.
https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:113:1:9

[6]   Anton, S.D., et al. (2013) Effect of a Novel Dietary Supplement on pH Levels of Healthy Volunteers: A Pilot Study. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 11, 384-388.
https://doi.org/10.3736/jintegrmed2013049

[7]   Berghmans, T., Paesmans, M. and Body, J.-J. (2000) A Prospective Study on Hyponatraemia in Medical Cancer Patients: Epidemiology, Aetiology and Differential Diagnosis. Supportive Care in Cancer, 8, 192-197.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s005200050284

[8]   Bennett, H., et al. (2004) Cognitive Impairment after Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP). Disability and Rehabilitation, 26, 1381-1387.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09638280400000229

[9]   Do Freda, B.J. (2004) Evaluation of Hyponatremia: A Little Physiology Goes a Long Way. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 71, 639-650.

[10]   Sergeev, I. (2004) Calcium as a Mediator of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-Induced Apoptosis. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 89, 419-425.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2004.03.010

[11]   Xue, L., et al. (1999) Influence of Dietary Calcium and Vitamin D on Diet-Induced Epithelial Cell Hyperproliferation in Mice. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 91, 176-181.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/91.2.176

[12]   Kesse-Guyot, E., et al. (2007) Dairy Products, Calcium and the Risk of Breast Cancer: Results of the French SU. VI. MAX Prospective Study. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 51, 139-145.
https://doi.org/10.1159/000103274

[13]   Abbas, S., Linseisen, J. and Chang-Claude, J. (2007) Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake and Premenopausal Breast Cancer Risk in a German Case-Control Study. Nutrition and Cancer, 59, 54-61.
https://doi.org/10.1080/01635580701390223

[14]   Shin, M.-H., et al. (2002) Intake of Dairy Products, Calcium, and Vitamin D and Risk of Breast Cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 94, 1301-1310.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/94.17.1301

[15]   Kaaks, R., et al. (2005) Postmenopausal Serum Androgens, Oestrogens and Breast Cancer Risk: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Endocrine-Related Cancer, 12, 1071-1082.
https://doi.org/10.1677/erc.1.01038

[16]   Tapiero, H. and Tew, K.D. (2003) Trace Elements in Human Physiology and Pathology: Zinc and Metallothioneins. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 57, 399-411.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0753-3322(03)00081-7

[17]   Sturniolo, G., et al. (2000) The Many Functions of Zinc in Inflammatory Conditions of the Gastrointestinal Tract. The Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine, 13, 33-39.
https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-670X(2000)13:1<33::AID-JTRA5>3.0.CO;2-K

[18]   Kolachi, N.F., et al. (2012) Investigation of Essential Trace and Toxic Elements in Biological Samples (Blood, Serum and Scalp Hair) of Liver Cirrhotic/Cancer Female Patients before and after Mineral Supplementation. Clinical Nutrition, 31, 967-973.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2012.04.015

[19]   Platz, E.A., et al. (2002) Prediagnostic Toenail Cadmium and Zinc and Subsequent Prostate Cancer Risk. The Prostate, 52, 288-296.
https://doi.org/10.1002/pros.10115

[20]   Siddiqui, M., et al. (2006) Comparison of Some Trace Elements Concentration in Blood, Tumor Free Breast and Tumor Tissues of Women with Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions: An Indian Study. Environment International, 32, 630-637.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2006.02.002

[21]   Kuo, H.W., et al. (2002) Serum and Tissue Trace Elements in Patients with Breast Cancer in Taiwan. Biological Trace Element Research, 89, 1-11.
https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:89:1:1

[22]   Zanke, B.W., et al. (2007) Genome-Wide Association Scan Identifies a Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility Locus on Chromosome 8q24. Nature Genetics, 39, 989-994.
https://doi.org/10.1038/ng2089

[23]   Karadag, A., et al. (2004) Bone Sialoprotein, Matrix Metalloproteinase 2, and αvβ3 Integrin in Osteotropic Cancer Cell Invasion. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 96, 956-965.
https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djh169

[24]   Czerniecki, B.J., et al. (2007) Targeting HER-2/neu in Early Breast Cancer Development Using Dendritic Cells with Staged Interleukin-12 Burst Secretion. Cancer Research, 67, 1842-1852.

[25]   Lu, S.-L., et al. (2006) Loss of Transforming Growth Factor-β Type II Receptor Promotes Metastatic Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Genes & Development, 20, 1331-1342.
https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.1413306

[26]   Kibar, Y., et al. (2006) Prognostic Value of Cytology, Nuclear Matrix Protein 22 (NMP22) Test, and Urinary Bladder Cancer II (UBC II) Test in Early Recurrent Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder. Annals of Clinical & Laboratory Science, 36, p. 31-38.

[27]   Neve, R.M., et al. (2006) A Collection of Breast Cancer Cell Lines for the Study of Functionally Distinct Cancer Subtypes. Cancer Cell, 10, 515-527.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2006.10.008

[28]   Zowczak, M., et al. (2001) Analysis of Serum Copper and Zinc Concentrations in Cancer Patients. Biological Trace Element Research, 82, Article No. 1.
https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:82:1-3:001

[29]   Afridi, H.I., et al. (2006) Essential Trace and Toxic Element Distribution in the Scalp Hair of Pakistani Myocardial Infarction Patients and Controls. Biological Trace Element Research, 113, 19-34.
https://doi.org/10.1385/BTER:113:1:19

[30]   Cui, Y., et al. (2007) Levels of Zinc, Selenium, Calcium, and Iron in Benign Breast Tissue and Risk of Subsequent Breast Cancer. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 16, 1682-1685.
https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0187

[31]   Pasha, Q., Malik, S.A. and Shah, M.H. (2008) Statistical Analysis of Trace Metals in the Plasma of Cancer Patients versus Controls. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 153, 1215-1221.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.09.115

[32]   Wadhwa, S.K., et al. (2015) Interaction between Carcinogenic and Anti-Carcinogenic Trace Elements in the Scalp Hair Samples of Different Types of Pakistani Female Cancer Patients. Clinica Chimica Acta, 439, 178-184.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2014.10.007

[33]   Rodu, B. and Jansson, C. (2004) Smokeless Tobacco and Oral Cancer: A Review of the Risks and Determinants. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine, 15, 252-263.
https://doi.org/10.1177/154411130401500502

[34]   Magalova, T., et al. (1999) Copper, Zinc and Superoxide Dismutase in Precancerous, Benign Diseases and Gastric, Colorectal and Breast Cancer. Neoplasma, 46, 100-104.

[35]   Kazi, T.G., et al. (2007) Evaluation of Zinc Status in Whole Blood and Scalp Hair of Female Cancer Patients. Clinica Chimica Acta, 379, 66-70.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2006.12.009

[36]   Zhai, H., Chen, X. and Hu, Z. (2003) Study on the Relationship between Intake of Trace Elements and Breast Cancer Mortality with Chemometric Methods. Computational Biology and Chemistry, 27, 581-586.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1476-9271(03)00049-5

[37]   Savino, W., et al. (2007) The Thymus Is a Common Target in Malnutrition and Infection. British Journal of Nutrition, 98, S11-S16.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114507832880

[38]   Oneschuk, D. and Younus, J. (2008) Natural Health Products and Cancer Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy. Oncology Reviews, 1, 233-242.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12156-008-0028-6

[39]   Spitz, M.R., et al. (2004) Subgroup Report: Head and Neck Cancer. IARC Scientific Publications, No. 157, 41-47.

 
 
Top