Back
 AS  Vol.12 No.5 , May 2021
Development of an Internet of Things (IoT) System for Measuring Agricultural Runoff Quantity and Quality
Abstract: Runoff is an important component of the water balance of agricultural fields. Accurate measurement or estimation of agricultural runoff is important due to its potential impact on water quantity and quality. Since runoff from agricultural fields is sporadic and is often associated with irrigation and/or intense rainfall events, manually measuring runoff and collecting water samples for water quality analysis during runoff events is inconvenient and impractical. In the fall of 2017, a field site was selected at the Clemson University Edisto Research and Education Center with the objective of developing, constructing, and testing an Internet of things (IoT) flume system to automatically measure runoff and collect water samples. In 2018, an automatic IoT system was developed and installed consisting of six stainless steel H-flumes (22.9-cm), which measured runoff from six adjacent research plots under two different cultural regimes (cover crop and no cover crop). An electronic eTape sensor was installed in the flume and used to measure the water level or the flume’s head. Open-source electronic (Arduino) devices and a cloud-based platform were then used to create a wireless sensor network and IoT system to automatically record the amount of runoff (hydrograph) coming from each section, collect water samples and transmit the data to a Cloud server (Thingspeak.com) where the data can be viewed remotely in real-time. The IoT flume system has been operating successfully and reliably for more than two years.
Cite this paper: Payero, J. , Marshall, M. , Nafchi, A. , Khalilian, A. , Farmaha, B. , Davis, R. , Porter, W. and Vellidis, G. (2021) Development of an Internet of Things (IoT) System for Measuring Agricultural Runoff Quantity and Quality. Agricultural Sciences, 12, 584-601. doi: 10.4236/as.2021.125038.
References

[1]   USDA (1986) Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds; Technical Release No. 55 (TR-55), Natural Resources Conservation Service, 164.

[2]   Chanasyk, D.S., Mapfumo, E. and Willms, W. (2003) Quantification and Simulation of Surface Runoff from Fescue Grassland Watersheds. Agricultural Water Management, 59, 137-153.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(02)00124-5

[3]   Bicknell, B.R., Imhoff, J.C., Kittle, J.L., Jobes, T.H. and Donigian, A.S. (2005) HSPF Version 12.2 User’s Manual.

[4]   Devi, G.K., Ganasri, B.P. and Dwarakish, G.S. (2015) A Review on Hydrological Models. Aquatic Procedia, 4, 1001-1007.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqpro.2015.02.126

[5]   Gregoretti, C., Degetto, M., Bernard, M., Crucil, G., Pimazzoni, A., De Vido, G., Berti, M., Simoni, A. and Lanzoni, S. (2016) Runoff of Small Rocky Headwater Catchments: Field Observations and Hydrological Modeling. Water Resources Research, 52, 8138-8158.
https://doi.org/10.1002/2016WR018675

[6]   Sitterson, J.C., Knightes, K., Parmar, K., Muche, M. and Avant, B. (2017) An Overview of Rainfall-Runoff Model Types. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens.

[7]   Wani, S.P., Singh, P. and Pathak, P. (1999) Methods and Management of Data for Watershed Research: Technical Manual for the Training Workshop, 15-26 November 1999, ICRISAT Center, Patancheru, India. Technical Manual No. 5. Patancheru 502 324, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Andhra Pradesh.

[8]   McGregor, K.C., Greer, J.D., Gurley, G.E. and Bolton, G.C. (1969) Runoff Production from North Mississippi Loessial Soils. Bulletin 777. US Department of Agriculture and the Mississippi Agricultural Experiment Station, 30 p.

[9]   Osborn, H.B. and Renard, K.G. (1970) Thunderstorm Runoff on the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, Arizona, USA. IASH-Unesco-Symposium on the Results of Research on Representative and Experimental Basins, Wellington, December 1970, 10 p.

[10]   Ritsema, C.J., Stolte, J., Oostindie, K. and Van Den Elsen, E. (1996) Measuring and Modelling of Soil Water Dynamics and Runoff Generation in an Agricultural Loessial Hillslope. Hydrological Processes, 10, 1081-1089.
https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(199608)10:8<1081::AID-HYP413>3.0.CO;2-N

[11]   Bartley, R., Roth, C.H., Ludwig, J., McJannet, D., Liedloff, A., Corfield, J., Hawdon, A. and Abbott, B. (2006) Runoff and Erosion from Australia’s Tropical Semi-Arid Rangelands: Influence of Ground Cover for Differing Space and Time Scales. Hydrological Processes, 20, 3317-3333.
https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6334

[12]   Ree, W.O. and Crow, F.R. (1954) Measuring Runoff Rates with Rectangular Highway Culverts. US Department of Agriculture, Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin No. T-51, 19 p.

[13]   Striebel, T., Daub, J. and Herrmann, R. (1994) A Sampling Device for Measuring Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Urban Street Runoff. The Science of the Total Environment, 146-147, 515-523.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(94)90277-1

[14]   Soultani, M., Tan, C.S., Gaynor, J.D., Neveu, R. and Drury, C.F. (1993) Measuring and Sampling Surface Runoff and Subsurface Drain Outflow Volume. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 9, 447-450.
https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.26008

[15]   Khan, A.A.H. and Ong, C.K. (1997) Design and Calibration of Tipping Bucket System for Field Runoff and Sediment Quantification. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 52, 437-443.

[16]   Zhao, S.L., Dorsey, E.C., Gupta, S., Moncrief, J.F. and Huggins, D.R. (2001) Automated Water Sampling and Flow Measuring Devices for Runoff and Subsurface Drainage. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 56, 299-306.

[17]   Bonta, J.V. and Goyal, V.C. (2000) Comparison of Drip-Flow/Low-Flow Measuring Devices for Infiltrometer Runoff Measurements. Transactions of the ASAE, 43, 1489-1498.
https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.3048

[18]   Kidron, G.J. (2014) Sink Plot for Runoff Measurements on Semi-Flat Terrains: Preliminary Data and Their Potential Hydrological and Ecological Implications. Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, 62, 303-308.
https://doi.org/10.2478/johh-2014-0032

[19]   Greene, R.S.B. and Sawtell, G.R. (1992) A Collection System for Measuring Runoff and Soil Erosion with a Mobile Rainfall Simulator on Sealed and Stony Red Earth Soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 30, 457-463.
https://doi.org/10.1071/SR9920457

[20]   Le Bissonnais, Y., Renaux, B. and Delouche, H. (1995) Interactions between Soil Properties and Moisture Content in Crust Formation, Runoff and Interrill Erosion from Tilled Loess Soils. Catena, 25, 33-46.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0341-8162(94)00040-L

[21]   Isensee, A.R. and Sadeghi, A.M. (1999) Quantification of Runoff in Laboratory-Scale Chambers. Chemosphere, 38, 1733-1744.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(98)00390-7

[22]   Benavides-Solorio, J. and MacDonald, L.H. (2001) Post-Fire Runoff and Erosion from Simulated Rainfall on Small Plots, Colorado Front Range. Hydrological Processes, 15, 2931-2952.
https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.383

[23]   Humphry, J.B., Daniel, T.C., Edwards, D.R. and Sharpley, A.N. (2002) A Portable Rainfall Simulator for Plot-Scale Runoff Studies. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 18, 199-204.
https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.7789

[24]   Palese, A.M., Ringersma, J., Baartman, J.E.M., Peters, P. and Xiloyannis, C. (2015) Runoff and Sediment Yield of Tilled and Spontaneous Grass-Covered Olive Groves Grown on Sloping Land. Soil Research, 53, 542-552.
https://doi.org/10.1071/SR14350

[25]   International Telecommunication Union (2013) Overview of the Internet of Things. ITU-T Y-Series Recommendations (Y.2060), Global Information Infrastructure, Internet Protocol Aspects and Next Generation Networks. Geneva, 22 p.

[26]   Payero, J.O., Nafchi, A.M., Davis, R. and Khalilian, A. (2017) An Arduino-Based Wireless Sensor Network for Soil Moisture Monitoring Using Decagon EC-5 Sensors. Open Journal of Soil Science, 7, 288-300.
https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2017.710021

[27]   Payero, J.O., Nafchi, A.M., Khalilian, A., Qiao, X. and Davis, R. (2017) Development of a Low-Cost Internet-of-Things (IoT) System for Monitoring Soil Water Potential Using Watermark 200SS Sensors. Advances in Internet of Things, 7, 71-86.
https://doi.org/10.4236/ait.2017.73005

[28]   Payero, J.O. (2020) A Wireless Sensor Network for Sensor-Based Irrigation Automation of Cotton. Proceeding of the 2020 Beltwide Cotton Conference, Austin, 8-10 January 2020, 4 p.

[29]   U.S. Climate Data (2020).
https://www.usclimatedata.com/climate/blackville/south-carolina/united-states/ussc0025

[30]   USDA-NRCS (2020) Web Soil Survey. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS).
https://websoilsurvey.sc.egov.usda.gov/App/WebSoilSurvey.aspx

[31]   USDA NRCS (2009) Small Watershed Hydrology WinTR-55 User Guide. USDA, 142 p.
https://www.wcc.nrcs.usda.gov/ftpref/wntsc/H&H/WinTR55/WinTR55UserGuide.pdf

[32]   Brakensiek, D.L., Osborn, H.B. and Rawls, W.J. (1979) Field Manual for Research in Agricultural Hydrology. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington DC, 550 p.

[33]   Frere, M. (1971) Requisite Sampling Frequency for Measuring Nutrient and Pesticide Movement with River Waters. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 19, 837-839.
https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60177a035

 
 
Top