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 JAMP  Vol.9 No.5 , May 2021
Selection and Justification of a New Initial Level of the Material World
Abstract: The work refers to the foundations of the material world, in particular—to the field of quantum physics associated with the initial level—his fundamental physical constants and elementary particles. The study of the initial levels of structuring of this formation is necessary for a better understanding of the foundations of the structure Universe. Therefore, the solution of these problems is an urgent and important task, to which the works of many scientists of the world are devoted, from ancient times to the present. However, these tasks have not yet been fully resolved. Their solution is the main goal and scientific novelty of the work performed. For this, research methods were used based on the general principles of deduction and movement from simple initial systems to more complex ones, which are substantiated by reliable physical laws. The research results are the choice and substantiation of the initial (zero) level of the material world and a system of fundamental physical constants and physical quantities found on their basis, which precede the 1st level—elementary particles. The problems of determining the wave parameters of the gravitational field and the unified of gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the Universe were solved only as a result of the transition to the zero level of the material world.

1. Introduction

The work refers to the foundations of the material world, in particular—to the field of quantum physics, which precedes the level of elementary particles. The study of the initial levels of the universe is necessary for a better understanding of the foundations of its structure, as the foundation of the universe. Therefore, the solution of these problems is an urgent and important task, to which the works of many scientists of the world are devoted, from ancient times [1] to the present time [2] [3]. However, these tasks have not yet been fully resolved.

Analysis of the state of the problem shows that at present, the initial levels of the material world include: 1st level—elementary particles, 2nd—nuclear, 3rd—atomic, etc., since each of them has its own physical laws. In [4], the initial 0-th level was added to them for the first time, preceding all the levels indicated above (Figure 1), which was called Planck’s by the author of this work.

It was based on the fundamental physical constants (1) to (7), the values of which are recommended by CODATA [5]:

1) The speed of light in vacuum c = 0.299792458 ( exactly ) × 10 9 m / s . (1)

2) Planck constant h (2), which is associated with the circular Planck constant ħ number 2π in the framework of dependence (3):

h = 6 .626070040 ( 81 ) × 10 34 J s = 6 .626070040 ( 81 ) × 10 34 kg m 2 / s (2)

= h 2 π = 6 .626070040 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) 2 × 3.14159256 = 1.054571800 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) (3)

3) Gravitational constant G = 6. 67408 ( 31 ) × 10 11 m 3 / kg s 2 . (4)

4) Electric constant ε 0 = 8 .854187817 × 10 12 A 2 s 4 / kg m 3 , (5)

5) Magnetic constant μ 0 = 1 / ( ε 0 c 2 ) = 4 π × 1 0 7 ( N / A 2 ) , (6)

6) Thermal constant of Wines b = 2 .897756 × 1 0 3 ( m K ) . (7)

where single value: A is ampere, N is Newton, and K is degree of Kelvin.

Bringing this level to the original level of the material world has been justified by the fact that on the basis of the constants c, ħ, G in 1900 M. Planck found the special units of measurement: this is length lp (8), time tp (9), and mass mp, (10) [6]. Their feature of which was to obtain quantities with dimensions (m), (s), (kg) based on strict physical dependencies. This reduces them to absolute units

Figure 1. Quantum levels of material world (microcosm of Universe).

of measurement, the same in the entire Universe. They are recommended by CODATA also [5].

l p = G c 3 = 1.61623 × 10 35 ( m ) (8)

t p = G c 5 = 5.39116 × 10 44 ( s ) (9)

m p = c G = 2.17647 × 10 8 ( kg ) (10)

On this basis, in [4], it was proposed to highlight this level into the initial (zero) Planck’s level (Figure 1). However, its use in scientific research as a level preceding the Elementary particles level is associated with the problem of disharmony between the ratio of length (8) and time (9) to mass (10). For them, there are no analogues among all known elementary particles, including of theoretical developments for their preparation in the future. For example, their comparison with the size-mass parameters of the electron [5] [6] gives mutually opposite differences in the numerical values of the quantities: classical electron radius re = 2.8179409 × 10−15 m on 20 order of magnitude more than Planck’s length lp = 1.61623 × 10−35 m, and electron rest mass me = 9.1093897 × 10−31 kg on 23 order of magnitude less than Planck’s mass mp = 2.17647 × 10−8 kg. Therefore, in the framework of traditional knowledge of the material world, the use of the lp, tp, mp values in scientific research is limited to the superdense (singular) period of the birth of the Universe and its Big Bang [7], as a result of which matter arose in the form of the initial physical fields and substances. In other cases, they are considered abstract quantities that is of found only by mathematical transformations to obtain their dimensions m, s, kg.

Therefore, it is necessary to eliminate the indicated disadvantages, in order to expand scientifically based knowledge about the material world at its initial (zero) quantum-mechanical level, which precedes the level of elementary particles. These are the main goal of the work performed.

2. Working Methods

This work is based on a method of studying the material world at its initial (zero) quantum-mechanical level, which precedes the levels of elementary particles, nuclei of atoms and the atoms themselves. The method is founded on the general principles of dialectics [8] and deduction, as a way of reasoning, in which a new position is deduced by a logical way from general provisions to particular conclusions.

3. Results of the Work and Their Discussion

The difference and scientific novelty of this work is the replacement of the initial (zero) level of the material world, which is associated with abstract parameters of length, time and mass by the real physical quantities of the material world.

To achieve the set goal, was used new fundamental physical constant—the frequency of the waves of the gravitational field νG → 7.4 × 1042 s−1, which was found in 2013 in [9] and further developed in [10] [11] [12], on the basis of Planck’s constant h (2) according to strict physical dependence (11):

ν G = c 5 G h = [ 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) ] 5 6.67408 × 10 11 ( m 3 / kg s 2 ) × 6 .626070040 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) = 7.39994 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) 7.4 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) (11)

On the basis of the constant h, by analogy with the dependences (8) to (10), new Planck values of the length of time and mass (12)… (14) were also determined, which are not yet included in the CODATA list:

l p = h G c 3 = 6 .626070040 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) × 6 .67408 × 10 11 ( m 3 / kg s 2 ) [ 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) ] 3 = 4 .05128 × 10 35 ( m ) (12)

t p = h G c 5 = 6 .626070040 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) × 6 .67408 × 10 11 ( m 3 / kg s 2 ) [ 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) ] 5 = 13 .5136 × 10 44 ( s ) (13)

m p = h c G = 6 .626070040 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) × 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) 6 .67408 × 10 11 ( m 3 / kg s 2 ) = 5 .45560 × 10 8 ( kg ) (14)

To distinguish Planck values (12) to (14) from circular (8) to (10), they are called linear, and the index in their designation is taken in uppercase (P), instead of lowercase (p).

In the works of M. Planck there is no constant νG (11). To find it, it was necessary to change the direction of the train of thought to the opposite, which was not done, since M. Planck did not study the gravitational field and his goals were different to find the units of measurements: m, s, kg, which are universal for the entire material world.

The found constant obtained on the basis of strict physical dependence (11), which includes only real physical constants c, G, h. Therefore, denying the reality νG is equivalent to denying the reality of these constants. She has the level of scientific discovery [13], therefore, by analogy with Planck’s constant, it has every right to be called Nastasenko’s constant by the name of its discoverer.

On the basis of the constant νG (11), it is possible to replace the abstract value of the length with the real value of the wavelength λG of the gravitational field (15) and the abstract time with the value of the period TG of oscillations of the waves of the gravitational field (16), which strictly follow from the wave laws of de Broglie [2]:

λ G = с ν G = 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) 7.4 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) = 4.051249 | 432 | × 10 35 ( m ) (15)

T G = 1 ν G = 1 7.4 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) = 0.135135135 × 10 42 ( s ) = 0. | 135 | × 10 42 ( s ) (16)

It is also possible to obtain the real value of the mass mG (17), which follows from the wave energy EG = hνG of De Broglie law and the relationship between the mass and its total energy according to Einstein’s law: E = mc2 [2], which leads this mass to its energy equivalent:

m G = E G c 2 = h ν G c 2 = 6.626070040 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) × 7.4 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) [ 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) ] 2 = 5 .455647896 × 10 8 ( kg ) (17)

Only during the transition to the 0th level of the material world was it possible to determine the wave parameters of the gravitational field.

The found parameters (11), (15) to (17) are also wave characteristics of the Unified field of the Universe: νG = νU, λG = λU, TG = TU, mG = mU, which was first shown in [14] [15] [16] [17]. On a strict basis the connection between the frequencies νG = νU and the unity of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields are given in [18] [19] in dependences (18) to (20), in which the frequencies νU are included in the constant G characterizing the gravitational field, as well as in the constants c and h, characterizing the electromagnetic field:

G = c 5 ν U 2 h = [ 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) ] 5 [ 7.4 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) ] 2 × 6.626070040 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) = 6 .673969698 × 10 11 ( m 3 / kg s 2 ) (18)

h = c 5 ν U 2 G = [ 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) ] 5 [ 7.4 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) ] 2 × 6 .673969698 × 10 11 ( m 3 / kg s 2 ) = 6.626070040 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) (19)

c = ν U 2 G h 5 = [ 7.4 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) ] 2 × 6 .673969698 × 10 11 ( m 3 / kg s 2 ) × 6.626070040 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) 5 = 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) (20)

Only during the transition to the 0th level of the material world was it possible to solve the problem of combining the gravitational and electromagnetic fields.

Further registration of the parameters νG = νU, λG = λU, TG = TU, mG = mU in CODATA is planned.

Within the framework of dependencies (15) to (17), the found values of length, time and mass are not only real, but also calculated more accurately (up to 9 digits) than the original Planck values (12) to (14), based on fundamental physical constants c, h, G, which are obtained up to 5 digits.

By analogy with dependence (11), on the basis of the circular Planck constant ħ, the circular frequency of oscillations of the gravitational field waves ωg was found, this the circular constant of Nastasenko (21):

ω g = c 5 G = [ 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) ] 5 6.67408 × 10 11 ( m 3 / kg s 2 ) × 1.05457266 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) = 18 .5489 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) (21)

Taking into account the relationship between the constants h and ħ through the number 2π (3), the frequency ωg can be refined up to 9 digits according to dependence (22):

ω g = 2 π ν G 2 = 2 π × [ 7.4 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) ] 2 = 18.5490492 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) (22)

By analogy with (15) to (17), on the basis of the frequency ωg, with the same refinement up to 9 digits in comparison with the original 5 digits (8) to (10), new circular values: of length (23), time (24) and masse (25) can be obtained:

λ g = с ω g = 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) 18.5490492 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) = 1.61621469 × 10 35 ( m ) (23)

T g = 1 ω g = 1 18.5490492 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) = 5.39111191 × 10 42 ( s ) (24)

m g = E g c 2 = ω g c 2 = 1.05457266 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) × 18.5490492 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) [ 0 , 299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) ] 2 = 2 .17649040 × 0 8 ( kg ) (25)

By analogy with the strict connection of the Unified field of the Universe with constants (18) to (20), its connection with the constant ωg = ωu (26) to (28) is possible:

G = c 5 ω U 2 = [ 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) ] 5 [ 18.5490492 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) ] 2 × 1.054571800 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) = 6 .673969698 × 10 11 ( m 3 / kg s 2 ) (26)

= c 5 ω U 2 G = [ 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) ] 5 [ 18.5490492 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) ] 2 × 6 .673969698 × 10 11 ( m 3 / kg s 2 ) = 1.054571800 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) (27)

c = ω U 2 G 5 = [ 18.5490492 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) ] 2 × 6 .673969698 × 10 11 ( m 3 / kg s 2 ) × 1.054571800 × 10 34 ( kg m 2 / s ) 5 = 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) (28)

This reduces the parameters λg = λu, Tg = Tu, mg = mu (23) to (25) to the circular wave characteristics of the Unified field of the Universe. Their further registration in CODATA is also planned.

The constant νG = νU has the only dimension—time in seconds (s−1) ore Hz, and the constant ωg = ωu has the dimension of rad/s. Since the radian is not have unit of metrical quantity, this reduces ωg = ωu to time in seconds (s−1). All other constants (1) to (7) have dimensions in which the frequencies s−1 is included as constituent elements. Therefore, Nastasenko’s constants are primary in relation to all other fundamental physical constants, which bring them to a special (primary) level of significance in the material world. Moreover, this is the oscillation frequency of the waves of the Unified gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the Universe: νG = νU, which increases its significance compared to h and G associated with one of the types of these fields.

It should also be taken into account that among the basic constants (1) to (7) the speed of light is referred of the vacuum [2] [5], since it depends on the medium of its propagation. However, this dependence reduces the level of its fundamental nature in comparison with other constants that do not have the indicated restrictions, which requires the elimination of the indicated drawback. In this case, the speed of light in [3] [20], it was proposed to replace the speed of the waves of the gravitational field of the Universe, which does not depend on the medium of their propagation. However, it is more accurate to refer this speed it to the velocity cU of the waves of the Unified Field of the Universe (29):

с U = λ U ν U = 4.051249 | 432 | × 10 35 ( m ) × 7.4 × 10 42 ( s 1 ) = 0.299792458 × 10 9 ( m / s ) (29)

Therefore, a transition from the speed of light c in vacuum to a new fundamental constant of speed cU (29) is necessary, which are numerically equal to each other: cU = c, as constituent elements of the unified field of the Universe [3].

Thus, taking into account that the constants ħ and ωu are derivatives of the constants h and νU through their relationship with the number 2π, it can be strictly argued that in the foundations of the material world are not 6 (Figure 1), but 7 fundamental physical constants (Figure 2).

This expands scientific knowledge about of initial (zero) level. Replacement of abstract Planck values (Figure 1) with real values of the Unified field of the Universe (Figure 2) also refines and expands knowledge about the initial (zero) level of the material world. In this case, shown in Figure 2, the list of 7 fundamental constants is supplemented by new linear (15) to (17) and circular (23) to (25) values quants of the Unified field of the Universe.

Thus, there are 3 factors to consider:

1) The proven priority of the Nastasenko constants νU and ωu with respect to the Planck constants h and ħ, as well as to other fundamental physical constants;

2) The need to replace the constant of the speed of light c, which depends on the medium of its propagation, with the speed cU of the waves of the Unified field of the Universe, which does not depend on the medium of their propagation;

Figure 2. Replacing the Planck level of the material world with the level of Nastasenko.

3) Transition from abstract Planck values of length, time and mass to real values of the Unified field of the Universe: wavelength, period of their oscillations and mass, as the energy equivalent of these waves.

Therefore, from the original values of the Planck level (Figure 1) in the new level (Figure 2), only Planck’s constants h and ħ remain, which are secondary with respect to the Nastasenko constants νU and ωu. All other parameters are different in it. In this case, there is every reason to consider the initial (zero) level of the material world not as the Planck one, but as the quantum-mechanical level of Nastasenko (Figure 2), instead of the Planck one (Figure 1), previously named by the author of this work.

The discovery of a new level of the material world, which is deeper than the levels of atoms, their nuclei and elementary particles, is a great scientific achievement, which was first made in 2000 in [4] and structured in [3]. Therefore, within the framework of the law on scientific discoveries [13], there is every right to name this level by the name of its discoverer.

4. Conclusions

1) On the basis of strict physical laws and dependencies, the necessity of introducing the initial (zero) level of the material world, which precedes its first level, associated with elementary particles, has been substantiated.

2) On the basis of strict physical laws and dependencies, a new fundamental physical constant was found—the frequency of oscillation of the waves of the Unified field of the Universe νG = νU → 7.4 × 1042 s−1 (Nastasenko’s constant), which expands scientific knowledge about the initial (zero) level of the material world and is primary in relation to Planck’s constant and to other fundamental physical constants.

3) On the basis of the Nastasenko constant νG = νU, it is possible to replace the abstract Planck values of length, time and mass with real values of the Unified field of the Universe: its wavelength, period of their oscillations and mass, as the value of the energy equivalent of these waves.

4) Based on the connection of Planck’s constants h and ħ, it is possible to replace abstract circular Planck values of length, time and mass with real circular values of the Unified field of the Universe: it’s of circular wavelength, of the period their oscillations and mass, as the value of the energy equivalent of these waves.

5) Determination of the wave parameters of the gravitational field and the solution of the problem of unified the gravitational and electromagnetic fields became possible only with the transition to the zero level of the material world, which was first proposed in the works of V. Nastasenko.

6) Taking into account clauses 1 and 4, there is every reason for the initial (zero) level of the material world, which was previously called Planck’s, to replace it with the Nastasenko level, with the introduction of new physical constants into it.

7) Given the novelty and rigor of obtaining new values on the basis of reliable physical laws, they have all the signs of scientific discoveries and can be recommended for use in scientific research and in the study of the disciplines of quantum physics in higher educational institutions, as well as adapted in secondary specialized educational institutions and in schools.

Cite this paper: Nastasenko, V. (2021) Selection and Justification of a New Initial Level of the Material World. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 9, 1089-1099. doi: 10.4236/jamp.2021.95075.
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