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 JWARP  Vol.13 No.5 , May 2021
Assessment of Domestic Water Sources Safety: Application of the Micro Biological Survey Method and Microbiological Profile of the Contaminating Bacteria
Abstract: Water is essential for human life and it’s expected to be clean and safe. In Cameroon, government efforts to improve access to drinking water are mitigated. Many households are suffering from chronic water shortages leading to the majority of people using doubtful water sources. This study was carried out in accordance with guidelines produced by the STARBIOS2-EU funded project on Responsible Research and Innovation and aimed to assess the microbiological quality of water samples collected from domestic water sources in 3 divisions of the West region of Cameroon. 22 water samples from well water, stream, water pump and river were aseptically collected. At each sampling point, 50 mL of sample was taken aseptically and immediately transported to the laboratory for analysis. The detection of Coliforms bacteria was done using Micro Biological Survey (MBS) method. 1 mL of each sample was inoculated in the Coliforms MBS (Coli MBS) vial initially rehydrated with 10 mL of sterile distilled water. The Coli MBS vials were closed, shaken for homogenization, and then incubated at 37&deg;C. From the initial red color of the Coli MBS vials, changes in color to yellow of the reaction vials were monitored at three different time intervals (12 h, 19 h and 24 h), corresponding to three levels of bacterial concentration. All positives samples on MBS method were selected to determine the presence of E. coli Loop full broths of Coli MBS vials were taken; streaked into the eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. E. coli was confirmed by observing green metallic sheen on EMB agar plate. The biochemical indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer and citrate (IMViC) test was performed to determine the complete microbiological profile of the water samples. Almost all the water samples were contaminated with Total Coliforms (TC). A high concentration of TC (>103 CFU/mL) was found in 8 samples (36.4%), a medium concentration (10 < x < 103 CFU/mL) was observed in 10 samples (45.5%) and 2 samples (9.1%) were low concentrated (1 < x < 10 CFU/mL). 8 samples were positive for the presence of E. coli by observing the green metallic sheen on EMB agar plates. The IMViC test confirmed the presences of 5 bacteria species: Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., E. coli spp., Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. We recommend integrating sanitary assessment in the design and implementation of water supply projects. Regular water purification using proper methods and maintenances of the water point. Regular microbiological quality assessment of water intended for human consumption should be planned and carried out.
Cite this paper: Adogaye, S. , Rodrigue, M. , Martial, N. , Wondeu, A. , Martin, S. , Kemogne, J. , Montesano, C. and Vittorio, C. (2021) Assessment of Domestic Water Sources Safety: Application of the Micro Biological Survey Method and Microbiological Profile of the Contaminating Bacteria. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 13, 350-361. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2021.135022.
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