JACEN  Vol.10 No.2 , May 2021
Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation by Maize Grown on a Ferralsol Amended with Urban-Based Biosolid Wastes
Abstract: Organic waste materials as soil amendments are one of the topical approaches applauded for achieving sustainable agriculture world-over. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of urban-based biosolid waste (UBBW) application on heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb) bioaccumulation by maize (Zea mays L.) plants. A pot experiment was conducted three times, using an acid Ferralsol from Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute, Kabanyolo (MUARIK) in Uganda. Treatments included the application of three types of UBBW, namely sewage, brewery and abattoir, each applied independently at the rates of 0, 50 and 100 g per pot filled with 4 kg soil. This was equivalent to 0, 2.5 and 5.0 metric tonnes of dry materials per hectare. Phosphorus fertiliser was also applied at 0, 0.795 and 1.591 g P per pot, equivalent to rates of 0, 25 and 50 kg P ha-1. The brewery waste applied at rates ≥ 2.5 t·ha-1 and phosphorus at 25 kg P ha-1 resulted in shoot Cu concentrations below the World Health Organisation (WHO) safe limit (73.3 mg·kg-1); and Zn slightly above the WHO safe limit (99.4 mg·kg-1). In contrast, the concentrations of chromium in the maize plants were well above the WHO safe limit (2.3 mg·kg-1), irrespective of the applied type of UBBW. Shoot metal bioaccumulation followed the order zinc > copper > chromium, with Pb being below the detection limit. The safest UBBW was abattoir waste; while the least environmentally suitable was sewage waste. It is clear that irrespective of the type of UBBW, their application to Ferralsol causes less bioaccumulation of Pb and Cr in maize plants compared to Zn and Cu.
Cite this paper: Ntambi, E. , Ntale, M. and Tenywa, J. (2021) Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation by Maize Grown on a Ferralsol Amended with Urban-Based Biosolid Wastes. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 10, 184-195. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2021.102012.

[1]   Jordao, C.P., Nascentes, C.C., Cecon, P.R., Fontes, R.L.F. and Pereira, J.L. (2006) Heavy Metal Availability in Soil Amended with Composted Urban Solid Wastes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 112, 309-326.

[2]   Duruibe, J.O., Ogwuegbu, M.O.C. and Egwurugwu, J.N. (2007) Heavy Metals Pollution and Human Biotoxic Effects. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2, 112-118.

[3]   Alloway, B.J. and Ayers, D.C. (1993) Chemical Principles of Environmental Pollution. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, 291 p.

[4]   Oun, A., Kumar, A., Harrigan, T., Angelakis, A. and Xagoraraki, I. (2014) Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US (A Review). Water, 6, 3701-3723.

[5]   Network, C.W. (2015) Risks Associated with Application of Municipal Biosolids to Agricultural Land in Canadian Context. Literature Review. Canadian Municipal Water Consortium, Ryerson University, Toronto.

[6]   Palm, C.A. and Rowland, A. (1997) Chemical Characterization of Plant Quality for Decomposition. In: Cadish, G. and Giller, K.E., Eds., Driven by Nature: Plant Litter Quality and Decomposition, CAB International, Wallingford, 379-394.

[7]   Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keeney, D.R.E. (1982) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part II. 2nd Edition, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, 803.

[8]   Baker, D.E. and Amacher, M.C. (1982) Nickel, Copper, Zinc and Cadmium. In: Page, A.L., Miller, R.H. and Keener, D.R., Eds., Methods of Soils Analysis. Part II, 2nd Edition, American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, 323-363.

[9]   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1993) 40 CFR Part 503 Standards for the Use and Disposal of Sewage Sludge Subpart B Land Applications (503.13-Pollutant Limits) 58FR9387.

[10]   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2011) Water: Sewage Sludge (Biosolids).

[11]   UN-Habitat (2008) Global Atlas of Excreta, Wastewater Sludge, and Biosolids Management: Moving forward the Sustainable and Welcome Uses of a Global Resource. 632.

[12]   Al-Musharafi, S.K., Mohamond, I.Y. and Al-Balury, S.N. (2013) Heavy Metal Pollution from Treated Sewage Effluents. APCBEE Procedia, 5, 344-348.

[13]   Sastre, L., Vicente, M.A. and Lobo, M.C. (1996) Influence of the Application of Sewage Sludges on Soil Microbial Activity. Bioresource Technology, 57, 19-23.

[14]   Nasiru, A., Osakwe, C.E., Lawal, I.M. and Chinade, A.U. (2016) Assessment of Physical Parameters and Heavy Metals in Gombe Abattoir Wastewater. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), 5, 64-69.

[15]   Ediene, V. and Iren, O. (2017) Impact of Abattoir Effluents on the pH, Organic Matter, Heavy Metal Levels and Microbial Composition of Surrounding Soils in Calabar Municipality. Asian Journal of Environment and Ecology, 2, 1-10.

[16]   Dick, D.P., Gonclaves, C.N., Dalmolin, R.S.D. and Neto, L.M. (2005) Characteristics of Soil Organic Matter of Different Brazilian Ferralsols under Native Vegetation as a Function of Soil Depth. Geoderma, 124, 319-333.

[17]   Kelling, K.A., Keeney, D.R., Walsh, L.M. and Ryan, J.A. (1977) A Field Study of the Agricultural Use of Sewage Sludge: III. Effect on Uptake and Extractability of Sludge-Borne Metals. Journal of Environmental Quality, 6, 352-358.

[18]   WHO (1996) Permissible Limits of Heavy Metals in Soil and Plants. World Health Organization, Geneva.

[19]   Sigh, D.V. and Swarup, C. (1982) Copper Nutrition of Wheat in Relation to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilization. Plant and Soil, 65, 433-436.

[20]   Harpreet, K. (2014) Transformation and Availability of Copper to Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as Influenced by Phosphorus Fertilization. Environmental Science.

[21]   Mingchu, Z. (2015) Using Spent Brewery Grain in the Alaska Compost Pile. The University of Alaska Fairbanks Cooperative Extension Service in Cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture.

[22]   Monalisa, M. and Kumar, P.H. (2012) Effect of Chelate-Assisted Hexavalent Chromium on Physiological Changes, Biochemical Alterations, and Chromium Bioavailability in Crop Plants—An in Vitro Phytoremediation Approach. Bioremediation Journal, 16, 147-155.

[23]   Silveira, M.L.A., Alleoni, L.R.F. and Guilherme, L.R.G. (2003) Biosolids and Heavy Metals in Soils. Science Agricola (Piracicaba, Braz.). 60, 793-806.

[24]   Pakade, V.E., Tavengwa, N.T. and Madikizela, L.M. (2019) Recent Advances in Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adsorptive Methods. RSC Advances, 9, 26142-26164.

[25]   Tsonko, T. and Cebola, L.F.J. (2012) Zinc in Plants—An Overview. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 24, 322-333.

[26]   Alloway, B.J. (1995) Heavy Metals in Soils. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, 7-39.

[27]   Ntambi, E., Tenywa, J.S. and Ntale, M. (2020) Sorption and Desorption Phenomena of Urban Biowaste-Based Heavy Metals by a Ferralsol. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 9, 13-26.