Back
 JWARP  Vol.13 No.5 , May 2021
Effect of Distance of Sanitary Pits on the Physicochemical Properties of Hand Dug Well Water Samples Consumed by People Living in Akwuke Community, Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State
Abstract: Studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of distance of sanitary pits on the physicochemical properties of hand-dug well water samples consumed by people living in Akwuke community, Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State, using standard analytical procedures and instrumentation. The mean range of pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, nitrate and sulphate in the well water samples at the determined sampling distances of 3, 6 and 10 m from the sanitary pits were 5.9 - 7.24, 1.92 - 6.63 NTU, 122.03 - 303.91 μs/cm, 100.00 - 261.90 mg/L, 1.21 - 4.68 mg/L and 28.89 - 49/61 mg/L respectively. The investigated mean physicochemical parameters of the well water samples were generally observed to increase with decrease in the distance of the well water samples from the sanitary pits. The levels of the determined physicochemical parameter of the well water samples at sampling distances of 3, 6, and 10 m respectively from the sanitary pits were statistically significant. The mean pH values of the well water samples at sampling distances of 3 and 6 m respectively from the sanitary pits were below the WHO recommended threshold limits for safe drinking water. Additionally, the mean values of turbidity and total dissolved solids of the well water samples at a sampling distance of 3 m from the sanitary pits were above the WHO permissible limits. The pH, turbidity and total dissolved solids are some of the most important parameters used in assessing the quality of any water source, therefore, the poor physicochemical properties of well water samples at a sampling distance of 3 m from the sanitary pits could put at severe health risk consumption of this water over a prolonged time. Siting well water at a reasonable far distance (above 10 m) for sanitary pits especially in communities with severe water scarcity would definitely help guarantee access to safe drinking water by rural as well as urban dwellers in Nigeria.
Cite this paper: Ezeh, E. , Akagha, C. , Okeke, O. , Aniobi, C. and Nnadozie, C. (2021) Effect of Distance of Sanitary Pits on the Physicochemical Properties of Hand Dug Well Water Samples Consumed by People Living in Akwuke Community, Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 13, 340-349. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2021.135021.
References

[1]   Oludairo, O. and Aiyedinu, J. (2016) Contamination of Commercially Packaged Sachet Water and the Public Health Implications: An Overview. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 3, 73-81.
https://doi.org/10.3329/bjvm.v13i2.26632

[2]   Dada, A.C. (2009) Sachet Water Phenomenon in Nigeria: Assessment of the Potential Health Impacts. African Journal Microbiology Research, 3, 15-21.

[3]   Chabukdhara, M., Gupta, S.K., Kotecha, U. and Nama, A.K. (2017) Ground Water Quality in Ghaziabad District, Uttar Pradesh, India Multivariate and Health Risk Assessment. Chemosphere, 179, 167-178.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.03.086

[4]   Black, M. (1998) Learning What Work: A 20 Years Retrospective View on International Water and Sanitation Co-Operation 1978-1998. UNDP World Bank Water and Sanitation Programme.
http://www.wds.wordbank.org

[5]   MacDonald, A.M. (2005) Developing Ground Water: A Guide for Rural Water Supply. ITDG Publishing.
http://www.development.bookshop.com
https://doi.org/10.3362/9781780441290


[6]   Salaudeen, I., Ogunbamono, Rsheed-Adeleke, A.A. and Ololaniyi, A.A. (2018) Assessment of Heavy Metals and Microbial Load of Ground Water Samples from Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. Pollution, 4, 429-238.

[7]   Alabi, M.A., Idowu, G., Oyefuga, O., et al. (2013) Assessing the Ground Water Quality in Sagamu Town, Ogun State, South West Nigeria. LOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 6, 57-63.
https://doi.org/10.9790/2402-0635763

[8]   Agatemor, C. and Agatemor, U.M. (2010) Physicochemical Characteristics of Well Waters in Four Urban Centers in Southern, Nigeria. Environmentalist, 30, 333-339.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-010-9280-y

[9]   Macler, B.A. and Markle, J.C. (2000) Current Knowledge on Ground Water Microbial Pathogens and Their Control. Hydrogeology Journal, 8, 29-40.
https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00010972

[10]   Nwachukwu, E. and Ume, C. (2013) Bacteriological and Physicochemical Qualities of Drinking Water Sources in Local Area of Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science and Water Research, 2, 336-341.

[11]   America Public Health Association (1998) Standard Method for Examination of Water and Waste Water/America Water Association and Pollution and Control Federal. 20th Edition, Washington DC, 100-104.

[12]   Dissmeyer, G.E. (2000) Drinking Water. USDA from Forest and Grassland Service General Technical Report SRS-39, Asheville, 272-276.

[13]   World Health Organization (2011) Guideline for Drinking Water Quality. 7th Edition, WHO Press, Genera, 479-506.

[14]   World Health Organization (2008) Guideline for Drinking Water Quality. 3rd Edition, Incorporating the First and Second Addenda, Vol. I, Genera, 349-352.

[15]   Adah, P.D. and Abok, G. (2013) Challenges of Urban Water Management in Nigeria: The Way Forward. Journal of Environmental Science and Research Management, 3, 111-121.

[16]   Ganiyu, S.A., Baduus, B.S. and Olurin, O.T. (2018) Evaluation of Seasonal Variation of Water Quality Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis and Irrigation Parameter Indices in Ajakanga Area, Ibadan, Nigeria. Applied Water Science, 8, 35-45.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-018-0677-y

[17]   M.R. (1999) Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control. In: America Water Works Association, Ed., Water Quality and Treatment: A Handbook of Community Water Supplies, McGraw Hill, London, 82-107.

[18]   Asamoah, D.N. and Amorin, R. (2011) Assessment of the Quality of Bottled/Sachet Water in the Tawa-Nsulaem Municipality of Ghana. Journal of Applied Science and Engineering Technology, 3, 377-385.

[19]   Ojekunle, Z.O., Adeyemi, A.D., Taiwo, A.M., Ganiyu, S.A. and Balogun, M.A. (2020) Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics of Ground Water with Selected Industrial Areas in Ogun State, Nigeria. Environmental Pollutants and Bioavailability, 32, 108-121.
https://doi.org/10.1080/26395940.2020.1780157

[20]   Cidu, R., Frau, F. and Tore, P. (2011) Drinking Water Quality: Comparing Inorganic Components in Bottled Water and Italian Tap Water. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 24, 184-193.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2010.08.005

[21]   Olajire, A.A. and Imeppeoria, F.E. (2001) Water Quality Assessment of Osun River: Studies on Inorganic Nutrients. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 69, 17-28.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010796410829

[22]   Adesakin, T.A., Oyewale, A.T., Bajero, U., Mohammed, A.N., Aduwo, I.A. and Barje, I.B. (2020) Assessment of Bacteriological Quality and Physicochemical Parameters of Domestic Water Sources in Samaru Community, Zaria, Northwest, Nigeria. Heliyon, 6, 4773-4780.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04773

[23]   Atiku, S., Ogbaka, C.C., Olatuhboson, O.A. and Nwagbara, O.F. (2018) Comparative Study of the Physicochemical and Bacteriological Qualities of Some Drinking Water in Abuja-Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science, 24, 91-98.
https://doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v24i1.11

[24]   Olabaniyi, S.B. and Onoyemi, S.B. (2004) Quality of Ground Water in the Deltaic Plain Sand Aquifer of Warm and Its Environs of Delta State, Nigeria: Water Resource. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Hydrogeologist, 15, 38-45.

[25]   Ogoko, E.C. (2019) Water Quality Assessment of Dug Wells in Lagos Island, Southwestern Nigeria. Communication in Physical Sciences, 42, 110-117.

 
 
Top