CWEEE  Vol.10 No.2 , April 2021
Field Performance Evaluation of a Small-Scale Drip Irrigation System Installed in the Upper West Region of Ghana
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the water application uniformity for a drip irrigation system, considering the water quality and the duration of usage. The uniformity parameters, Emission Uniformity (EU %) and Uniformity Coefficient (UC %) were determined for the drip irrigation system installed over a year of performance. The procedures are based on taking measurements of emitter discharge along selected driplines on a sub-main. The catch can be identified as L1A, L1B, L1C, L1D, same for L2A to L2D, L3A to L3D and L4A to L4D. This gave a total of sixteen (16) measurement positions as there were 4 driplines. Results indicated that the uniformity of water application was 90% indicating that the emitter was still good after a year of installation. The average discharge rate was 0.57 l/h. The uniformity coefficient (UC %) for the gravity-fed drip irrigation system was 78%, indicating good water application and was quite significant for the evaluation of the uniform distribution of water for the design. The expansion of this irrigation method in rural communities could contribute to relevant water savings in most areas of the Upper West Region of Ghana.
Cite this paper: Darimani, H. , Kpoda, N. , Suleman, S. and Luut, A. (2021) Field Performance Evaluation of a Small-Scale Drip Irrigation System Installed in the Upper West Region of Ghana. Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, 10, 82-94. doi: 10.4236/cweee.2021.102006.

[1]   MOFA (2014) Agric Sector Annual Progress Report.

[2]   Setiawan, A., Purwanto, D.H., Pamuji, D.S. and Nurul Huda, N. (2014) Development of a Solar Water Pumping System in Karsts Rural Area Tepus, Gunungkidul through Student Community Services. Energy Procedia, 47, 7-14.

[3]   Essien, O.E. and Essien, M.E. (2009) Basin-Scale Temporal Distribution of Water Resources Sensitivity of Components Contributions in Ikpa Catchment of Nigeria. Global Journal of Engineering and Technology, 2, 147-153.

[4]   Essien, O.E. and Essien, M.E. (2014) Design and Evaluation of Gravity-Fed Perforated Tube Drip Irrigation for Dry Season Irrigation of Citrus Sinensis. International Journal of Engineering Inventions, 3, 28-35.

[5]   Goyal, M.R. (2013) Management of Drip/Trickle or Micro Irrigation. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Crop Publication, Boca Raton, 408.

[6]   Raphael, O.D., Amodu, M.F., Okunade, D.A., Elemile, O.O. and Gbadamosi, A.A. (2018) Field Evaluation of Gravity-Fed Surface Drip Irrigation Systems in a Sloped Greenhouse. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), 9, 536-548.

[7]   Raphael, O.D., Ogedengbe, K., Fasinmirin, J.T., Okunade, D., Akande, I. and Gbadamosi, A. (2018) Growth-Stage-Specific Crop Coefficient and Consumptive Use of Capsicum chinense Using Hydraulic Weighing Lysimeter. Agricultural Water Management, 203, 179-185.

[8]   Burt, C.M., Clemmens, A.J., Strelkoff, T.S., Solomon, K.H., Bliesner, R.D., Hardy, L.A. and Eisenhauer, D.E. (1997) Irrigation Performance Measures: Efficiency and Uniformity. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 123, 423-442.

[9]   Zhu, D.L., Wu, P.T., Merkley, G.P. and Jin, J. (2010) Drip Irrigation Lateral Design Procedure Based on Emission Uniformity and Field Microtopography. Irrigation and Drainage, 59, 535-546.

[10]   van der Kooij, S., Zwarteveen, M., Boesveld, H. and Kuper, M. (2013) The Efficiency of Drip Irrigation Unpacked. Agricultural Water Management, 123, 103-110.

[11]   Boularbah, S., Kuper, M., Hammani, A., Mailhol, J.C. and Taky, A. (2019) The Blind Angle: Performance Assessment of Drip Irrigation in Use in a Large-Scale Irrigation Scheme in Morroco. Irrigation and Drainage, 68, 925-936.

[12]   Luquet, D., Vidal, A., Smith, M. and Dauzat, J. (2005) “More Crop per Drop”: How to Make It Acceptable for Farmers? Agricultural Water Management, 73, 108-119.

[13]   Vidal, A., Comeau, A., Plusquellec, H. and Gadelle, F. (2001) Case Studies on Water Conservation in the Mediterranean Region. IPTRID/FAO, Rome.

[14]   Qiu, Y., Luo, J. and Meng, G. (2004) The Effect of Water Saving and Production Increment by Drip Irrigation Schedules. Wuhan University Journal of Natural Sciences, 9, 493-497.

[15]   Benouniche, M., Kuper, M., Hammani, A. and Boesveld, H. (2014) Making the User Visible: Analysing Irrigation Practices and Farmers’ Logic to Explain Actual Drip Irrigation Performance. Irrigation Science, 32, 405-420.

[16]   Zamaniyan, M., Fatahi, R. and Boroomand-Nasab, S. (2014) Field Performance Evaluation of Micro Irrigation Systems in Iran. Soil and Water Research, 9, 135-142.

[17]   Merriam, J.L. and Keller, J. (1978) Farm Irrigation System Evaluation: A Guide for Management. Utah State University, Logan.

[18]   Kumari, C.P., Bhagat, E.I.B. and Neeraj, K. (2018) Emission Uniformity Evaluation of Installed Drip Irrigation System. International Journal of Chemical Studies, 6, 1651-1654.

[19]   Capra, A. and Scicolone, B. (1998) Water Quality and Distribution Uniformity in Drip/Trickle Irrigation Systems. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 70, 355-365.

[20]   Asif, M., Ahmad, M., Mangrio, A.G., Akbar, G. and Wahab, A. (2015) Design, Evaluation and Irrigation Scheduling of Drip Irrigation System on Citrus Orchard. Pakistan Journal of Meteorology, 12, 37-48.

[21]   Jatoth, V., Mishra, A.K. and Neelam, P. (2017) Calculation of Uniform Coefficient, Soil Moisture Distribution and Analysis of Level of Biofilms Strategy under Sub Surface Drip Irrigation. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6, 713-726.

[22]   USDA-NRCS (2018) Using Soil Textural Triangle. Soil Science Curriculum. University of Nebraska Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, CROPWATCH.

[23]   Akhtar, M.M., Tang, Z. and Mohamadi, B. (2014) Contamination Potential Assessment of Potable Groundwater in Lahore. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 23, 1095-1916.

[24]   FAO (2019) Safety and Quality of Water Used in Food Production and Processing. Microbiological Risk Assessment Series Meeting Report. Roma.

[25]   Kahlown, M.A., Tahir, M.A., Rashid, H. and Bhatti, K.P. (2006) Water Quality Status. Fourth Technical Report 2004-06, PCRWR, Islamabad, Organization of the United Nations, World Health Organization, Rome.

[26]   James, L.G. (1993) Principles of Farm Irrigation Systems Design. Krieger Publishing Company, Malarbar.

[27]   Smajstrla, A., Boman, G.B.J., Haman, D.Z., Pitts, D.J. and Zazueta, F.S. (2012) Field Evaluation of Microirrigation Water Application Uniformity. Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 1-10.

[28]   Storlie, C. (1995) Treating Drip Irrigation System with Chlorine. Ruthgers Cooperative Extension Services Fact Sheet FS795.

[29]   Al-Ghobari, H.M. (2012) A Comparison of Water Application Uniformity for Drip Irrigation System above and below Soil Surface at Various Soil Depths and Scheduling Techniques in Arid Region. Sustainable Irrigation and Drainage, 168, 311-319.

[30]   Isikwue, M.O., Ochedikwu Anthea, E.F. and Onoja, S.B. (2016) Small Farm Gravity Drip Irrigation System for Crop Production. Greener Journal of Science, Engineering and Technological Research, 6, 48-54.

[31]   Roberto, N. (2005) Fertilization Combined with Irrigation (Fertigation). Extension Service Irrigation and Soil Field Service, 2-5.

[32]   Ochedikwu, A.E.F. (2015) Performance Evaluation of Small Farm Gravity Drip Irrigation System for Vegetable Production. Master of Engineering Thesis, The Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, University of Agriculture, Makurdi.