Back
 JEP  Vol.12 No.4 , April 2021
Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Fish and Sediments from Vea Irrigation Reservoir
Abstract: The low yield of food production ascribed to harm caused by pests has led to the application of pesticides to food crops. Pesticide residues from the application on crops are mostly found in foods that can cause diseases for consumers of such products. A total of 37 pesticide residues consisting of 15 organochlorines (OC), 13 organophosphorus (OP) and 9 synthetic pyrethroids (SP) were determined. The QuEChERS method was exploited for extraction and clean-up. Gas Chromatograph was used for detection and quantification which was equipped with an electron capture detector and pulse flame photometric detector. The results showed that the mean concentrations of pesticides in fish ranged from 0.007 mg·kg-1 to 1.026 mg·kg-1 for OCs, 0.002 mg·kg-1 to 0.190 mg·kg-1 for OPs and 0.004 mg·kg-1 to 0.032 mg·kg-1 for SP. Sediments have mean concentrations ranged from 0.005 mg·kg-1 to 1.207 mg·kg-1 for OCs. OP ranges from 0.002 mg·kg-1 to 0.399 mg·kg-1 and 0.003 mg·kg-1 to 0.202 mg·kg-1 for synthetic pyrethroids. Maximum Residue Limits were exceeded in both fish and sediment samples except for malathion, fenitrothion, profenofos, gamma-chlordane, and deltamethrin. Exposure in children ranged from 4.60 × 10-6 mg·kg-1·d-1 to 2.36 × 10-3 mg·kg-1·d-1 and in adults it is from 1.97 × 10-6 mg·kg-1·d-1 to 1.01 × 10-3 mg·kg-1·d-1. Health risk estimation revealed a non-cancer risk potential of β-HCH in sediment and aldrin and p,p'-DDE in fish. Carcinogenic risk assessed for organochlorine pesticide residues indicates cancer benchmark concentrations greater than 10-4 to 10-6 threshold for acceptance.
Cite this paper: Danladi, K. and Akoto, O. (2021) Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Fish and Sediments from Vea Irrigation Reservoir. Journal of Environmental Protection, 12, 265-279. doi: 10.4236/jep.2021.124017.
References

[1]   Fianko, J.R., Donkor, A., Lowor, S., Yeboah, P., Glover, E., Adom, T. and Faanu, A. (2011) Health Risk Associated with Pesticide Contamination of Fish from the Densu River Basin in Ghana. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2, 115-123.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2011.22013

[2]   Rathore, H.S. and Nollet, L.M.L. (2012) Pesticides: Evaluation of Environmental Pollution. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
https://doi.org/10.1201/b11864

[3]   Darko, G., Osei, A. and Caleb, O. (2008) Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Fish, Sediments and Water from Lake Bosomtwi, Ghana. Chemosphere, 72, 21-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.02.052

[4]   Asante, K.A. and Ntow, W.J. (2009) Status of Environmental Contamination in Ghana, the Perspective of a Research Scientist. In: Obayashi, Y., Isobe, T., Subramanian, A., Suzuki, S. and Tanabe, S., Eds., Interdisciplinary Studies on Environmental Chemistry—Environmental Research in Asia, TERRAPUB, Tokyo, 253-260.

[5]   Bhat, B.A., Bhat, I.A., Vishwakarma, S., Verma, A. and Saxena, G. (2012) A Comparative Study on the Toxicity of a Synthetic Pesticide, Dichlorvos and a Neem Based Pesticide, Neem-On to Labeo rohita (Hamilton). Current World Environment, 7, 157-161.
https://doi.org/10.12944/CWE.7.1.24

[6]   Willis, G.H. and McDowell, L.L. (1983) Pesticides in Agricultural Runoff and Their Effects on Downstream Water Quality. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1, 267-279.
https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620010402

[7]   El-Nahhal, Y. and Radwan, A.A. (2013) Human Health Risks: Impact of Pesticide Application. Journal of Environmental and Earth Science, 3, 199-210.

[8]   Chitwan, G., Rijal, J.P., Regmi, R., Ghimire, R., et al. (2018) Farmers’ Knowledge on Pesticide Safety and Pest Management Practices: A Case Study of Vegetable. Agriculture, 8, 16.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture8010016

[9]   Dernbach, J.C. and Mintz, J.A. (2011) Environmental Laws and Sustainability: An Introduction. Sustainability, 3, 531-540.
https://doi.org/10.3390/su3030531

[10]   Dinham, B. (2003) Growing Vegetables in Developing Countries for Local Urban Populations and Export Markets: Problems Confronting Small-Scale Producers. Pest Management Science, 59, 575-582.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.654

[11]   USGS (1999) The Quality of Our Nation’s Waters: Nutrients and Pesticides—A Summary. Science for a Changing World, 1-4.

[12]   USEPA (2004) Overview of the Ecological Risk Assessment Process in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Office of Pesticide Programs.

[13]   Lartey, A. (2017) Seafood as Part of a Healthy Diet.

[14]   Kafilzadeh, F. (2015) Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Water, Sediments and Fish from Lake Tashk, Iran. Achievements in the Life Sciences, 9, 107-111.

[15]   Pelig-Ba, K.B. (2011) Levels of Agricultural Pesticides in Sediments and Irrigation Water from Tono and Vea in the Upper East of Ghana. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2, 761-768.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2011.26088

[16]   Sun, P.C., Tsai, R.J., Finger, G., Chen, Y.Y. and Yeh, D. (2008) What Drives a Successful E-Learning? An Empirical Investigation of the Critical Factors Influencing Learner Satisfaction. Computers & Education, 50, 1183-1202.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2006.11.007

[17]   Ahmad, D. and Afzal, M. (2020) Flood Hazards and Factors Influencing Household Flood Perception and Mitigation Strategies in Pakistan. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 27, 15375-15387.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08057-z

[18]   Boobis, A.R., Cohen, S.M., Dellarco, V., Mcgregor, D., Meek, M.E.B., Vickers, C., et al. (2006) IPCS Framework for Analyzing the Relevance of a Cancer Mode of Action for Humans on Chemical Safety in Developing the Framework for Analysing the Relevance. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 36, 781-792.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10408440600977677

[19]   Ilboudo, S., Toé, A.M., Ouédraogo, R., Ouédraogo, M. and Guissou, I.P. (2014) Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Water from Desert Locust Area in Burkina Faso Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Water from Desert Locust Area in Burkina Faso. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 4, 227-232.
https://doi.org/10.19026/rjees.6.5764

[20]   ECHA (2013) Principles for Environmental Risk Assessment of the Sediment Compartment. Proceedings of the Topical Scientific Workshop, Helsinki, 7-8 May, 2013, 82 p.

[21]   Lawrence, E., Ozekeke, O. and Isioma, T. (2015) Distribution and Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Surface Water, Sediment and Fish from Ogbesse River, Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 7, 20-30.

[22]   Maund, S.J., Sherratt, T.N., Stickland, T., Williams, P., Shillabeer, N. and Jepson, P.C. (1997) Ecological Considerations in Pesticide Risk Assessment for Aquatic Ecosystems. Pesticide Science, 49, 185-190.
https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(199702)49:2<185::AID-PS493>3.0.CO;2-M

[23]   Lamers, M., Schreinemachers, P., Ingwersen, J., Sangchan, W., Grovermann, C. and Berger, T. (2013) Agricultural Pesticide Use in Mountainous Areas of Thailand and Vietnam: Towards Reducing Exposure and Rationalizing Use. In: Frohlich, H.L., Schreinemachers, P., Stahr, K. and Clemens, G., Eds., Sustainable Land Use and Rural Development in Southeast Asia: Innovations and Policies for Mountainous Areas, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 149-173.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33377-4_4

[24]   ECETOC (2004) Soil and Sediment Assessment of Organic Chemicals, No. 92.

[25]   Sanchez-Bayo, F. (2002) An Approach for Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Agriculture. Journal of Pesticide Science, 27, 425-428.
https://doi.org/10.1584/jpestics.27.425

[26]   Zhang, Z.L. (2003) Fate and Assessment of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Water and Sediment from Minjiang River Estuary, Southeast China. Chemosphere, 52, 1423-1430.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00478-8

[27]   US EPA (2014) Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making. Framework for Human Health Risk Assessment to Inform Decision Making, 1-63.

[28]   Saria, J.A.M. (2017) Assessment of Human Health Hazard Due to Metal Uptake via Fish Consumption from Coastal Area of Tanzania. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 10, 555-565.
https://doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v10i4.12

[29]   U. EPA (1992) Guidelines for Exposure Assessment.

[30]   Sax, S.N., Bennett, D.H., Chillrud, S.N., Ross, J., Kinney, P.L. and Spengler, J.D. (2006) A Cancer Risk Assessment of Inner-City Teenagers Living in New York City and Los Angeles. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114, 1558-1566.
https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8507

 
 
Top