Back
 JHRSS  Vol.9 No.2 , June 2021
Impact of Career Planning, Employee Autonomy, and Manager Recognition on Employee Engagement
Show more
Abstract: This study investigated the impact of career planning, employee autonomy, and manager recognition on employee engagement through the lens of the social exchange theory. A survey of 120 employees in US small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) was conducted and a multiple regression model was created to answer the research questions seeking to know if career planning, employee autonomy, and manager recognition contributed to employee engagement and if so, to what extent. The results supported the theoretical model of social exchange as well as the hypothesized relationships. In other words, data confirmed the existence of a statistically significant relationship between the independent variables: career planning, employee autonomy, and manager recognition, and the dependent variable, employee engagement. Career planning was identified as a better contributor to engagement as compared to the other two predictors. Manager recognition, while contributing less than career planning, was deemed a better contributor compared to employee autonomy. These findings offer implications for research on social exchange theory as an asset for the organization and suggest that in SMEs, managers need to have career planning discussions with their direct reports. These discussions set employees’ hopes of a promotion and increase their levels of engagement and involvement. Recognizing employees on a regular basis for a job well-done increases their sense of achievement toward their hoped promotion, thus helping to keep them continuously engaged.
Cite this paper: Lartey, F. (2021) Impact of Career Planning, Employee Autonomy, and Manager Recognition on Employee Engagement. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 9, 135-158. doi: 10.4236/jhrss.2021.92010.
References

[1]   Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of Employee Engagement and Their Impact on Employee Performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 63, 308-323.
https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-01-2013-0008

[2]   Antony, J., Vinodh, S., & Gijo, E. V. (2017). Lean Six Sigma for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: A Practical Guide. UK: CRC Press.
https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315372174

[3]   Appelbaum, S. H., & Kamal, R. (2000). An Analysis of the Utilization and Effectiveness of Nonfinancial Incentives in Small Business. Journal of Management Development, 19, 733-763.
https://doi.org/10.1108/02621710010378200

[4]   Arthur, M. B., Hall, D. T., & Lawrence, B. S. (1989). Handbook of Career Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625459

[5]   Bailyn, L. (1993). Breaking the Mold: Women, Men, and Time in the New Corporate World. New York: Free Press.

[6]   Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: John Wiley.

[7]   Bovee, C., Thill, J., & Mescon, M. (2007). Excellence in Business (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Prentice Hall.

[8]   Brun, J. P., & Dugas, N. (2008). An Analysis of Employee Recognition: Perspectives on Human Resources Practices. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19, 716-730.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09585190801953723

[9]   Burnett, J. R., & Lisk, T. C. (2019). The Future of Employee Engagement: Real-Time Monitoring and Digital Tools for Engaging a Workforce. International Studies of Management & Organization, 49, 108-119.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00208825.2019.1565097

[10]   Cambridge Dictionary (2020). Goal Setting. Cambridge Dictionary Online.
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/goal-setting

[11]   CEB (2015). Seventy Percent of Employees Unhappy with Career Opportunities.
https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/seventy-percent-of-employees-unhappy-with-career-opportunities-300178571.html

[12]   Chambers, H. E. (2004). My Way or the Highway: The Micromanagement Survival Guide. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

[13]   Chhetri, S. B. (2017). Antecedents and Consequences of Job Engagement: Empirical Study of Bank Employees. Business Perspectives and Research, 5, 167-179.
https://doi.org/10.1177/2278533717692919

[14]   Church, A. H., Bracken, D. W., Fleenor, J. W., & Rose, D. S. (2019). Handbook of Strategic 360 Feedback. New York: Oxford University Press.
https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190879860.001.0001

[15]   Clark, S. C. (2001). Work Cultures and Work/Family Balance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 348-365.
https://doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2000.1759

[16]   Coffman, C. (2000). Is Your Company Bleeding Talent? How to Become a True “Employer of Choice”. Princeton, NJ: Gallup Organization.

[17]   Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (Rev. ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

[18]   Cohen, J. (1992). A Power Primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155

[19]   Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02310555

[20]   Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social Exchange Theory: An Interdisciplinary Review. Journal of Management, 31, 874-900.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206305279602

[21]   David, S., & Panday, S. (2013). A Study of Engagement at Work: What Drives Employee Engagement? European Journal of Commerce and Management Research, 2, 155-161.

[22]   Demerouti, E., & Cropanzano, R. (2010). From Thought to Action: Employee Work Engagement and Job Performance. In A. B. Bakker, & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work Engagement: A Handbook of Essential Theory and Research (pp. 147-163). Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press.

[23]   Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The Job Demands-Resources Model of Burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499-512.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.499

[24]   Donner, G. J., & Wheeler, M. M. (2001). Career Planning and Development for Nurses. International Nursing Review, 48, 79-85.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1466-7657.2001.00028.x

[25]   Doran, G. T. (1981). There’s a S.M.A.R.T. Way to Write Managements’ Goals and Objectives. Management Review, 70, 35-36.

[26]   Emerson, R. M. (1976). Social Exchange Theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 2, 335-362.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.02.080176.002003

[27]   Evans, B. K., & Fischer, D. G. (1992). A Hierarchical Model of Participatory Decision-Making, Job Autonomy, and Perceived Control. Human Relations, 45, 1169-1189.
https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679204501103

[28]   Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.-G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A Flexible Statistical Power Analysis Program for the Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Sciences. Beharior Research Methods, 39, 175-191.
https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146

[29]   Feys, M., Anseel, F., & Wille, B. (2013). Responses to Co-Workers Receiving Recognition at Work. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28, 492-510.
https://doi.org/10.1108/JMP-08-2011-0025

[30]   Field, A. (2013). Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

[31]   Gagne, M., & Bhave, D. P. (2011). Autonomy in the Workplace: An Essential Ingredient to Employee Engagement and Well-being in Every Culture. In Human Autonomy in Cross-Cultural Context: Perspectives on the Psychology of Agency, Freedom, and Well-Being (Vol. 1, pp. 163-187). Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School of Business.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9667-8_8

[32]   Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement. American Sociological Review, 25, 161-178.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2092623

[33]   Gruman, J. A., & Saks, A. M. (2011). Performance Management and Employee Engagement. Human Resource Management Review, 21, 123-136.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.09.004

[34]   Gull, I. A., Khan, A., & Sheikh, A. M. (2020). Employee Engagement-Performance Relationship through Innovative Work Behaviour and Intention to Stay. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 12, 79-87.

[35]   Harvard Business Review (2013). The Impact of Employee Engagement on Performance. Harvard Business Review Analytic Services Report.
https://talentsnapshot.com/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2017/04/Impact_of_Employee_Engagement_on_Performance.pdf

[36]   Hedge, J. W., & Rineer, J. R. (2017). Improving Career Development Opportunities through Rigorous Career Pathways Research. Occasional Paper, RTI Press Publication.
https://doi.org/10.3768/rtipress.2017.op.0037.1703

[37]   Homans, G. C. (1958). Social Behavior and Exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 63, 597-606.
https://doi.org/10.1086/222355

[38]   Homans, G. C. (1961). Social Behavior: Its Elementary Forms. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

[39]   Hughes, D., Bimrose, J., Barnes, S.-A., Bowes, L., & Orton, M. (2005). A Systematic Literature Review of Research into Career Development Interventions for Workforce Development. Derby, UK: Centre for Guidance Studies.

[40]   Ivancevich, J. M., & McMahon, J. T. (1982). The Effects of Goal Setting, External Feedback, and Self-Generated Feedback on Outcome Variables: A Field Experiment. Academy of Management Journal, 25, 359-372.
https://doi.org/10.5465/255997

[41]   Jose, G., & Mampilly, S. R. (2012). Satisfaction with HR Practices and Employee Engagement: A Social Exchange Perspective. Journal of Economics and Behavioural Studies, 4, 423-430.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235790288
https://doi.org/10.22610/jebs.v4i7.343


[42]   Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement at Work. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692-724.
https://doi.org/10.5465/256287

[43]   Kazimoto, P. (2016) Employee Engagement and Organizational Performance of Retails Enterprises. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 6, 516-525.
https://doi.org/10.4236/ajibm.2016.64047

[44]   Khamis, H. J., & Kepler, M. (2010). Sample Size in Multiple Regression: 20 + 5k. Journal of Applied Statistical Science, 17, 505-517.

[45]   Lartey, F. M. (2020). Predicting the Number of Remote PHY Devices in a Hybrid Fiber/Coax Node+0 Deployment. Journal of Network Operations, 6, 19-36.

[46]   Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (1979). Goal Setting—A Motivational Technique That Works. Organizational Dynamics, 8, 68-80.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(79)90032-9

[47]   Long, R. J., & Shields, J. L. (2010). From Pay to Praise? Non-Cash Employee Recognition in Canadian and Australian Firms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21, 1145-1172.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2010.483840

[48]   Macey, W. H., Schneider, B., Barbera, K. M., & Young, S. A. (2009). Employee Engagement: Tools for Analysis, Practice, and Competitive Advantage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444306538

[49]   Mankins, M., & Garton, E. (2017). How Spotify Balances Employee Autonomy and Accountability. Harvard Business Review.
http://www.redpointconsulting.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/How-Spotify-Balances-Employee-Autonomy-and-Accountability.pdf

[50]   Mann, A., & Dvorak, N. (2016). Employee Recognition: Low Cost, High Impact.
https://www.gallup.com/workplace/236441/employee-recognition-low-cost-high-impact.aspx

[51]   Marks, G. (2017). Study: 71 Percent of Employees Are Looking for New Jobs. The Washington Post.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/on-small-business/wp/2017/10/19/study-71-percent-of-employees-are-looking-for-new-jobs/

[52]   Merino, D. M., & Privado, J. (2015). Does Employee Recognition Affect Positive Psychological Functioning and Well-Being? The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 18, E64.
https://doi.org/10.1017/sjp.2015.67

[53]   Miller, J. (1982). Towards a Personal Guidance Base. London: Further Education Unit.

[54]   Mone, E. M., & London, M. (2018). Employee Engagement through Effective Performance Management: A Practical Guide for Managers (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315626529

[55]   Montani, F., Boudrias, J.-S., & Pigeon, M. (2020). Employee Recognition, Meaningfulness and Behavioural Involvement: Test of a Moderated Mediation Model. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31, 356-384.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2017.1288153

[56]   Raza, S., Ansari, N. U. A., Humayon, A. A., Hussain, M. S., & Aziz, K. (2017). Factors Affecting Millenials Employee Engagement in Government Sector. International Journal of Management Excellence, 10, 1195-1200.
https://doi.org/10.17722/ijme.v10i1.947

[57]   Reed, V. A., Schifferdecker, K. E., & Turco, M. G. (2012). Motivating Learning and Assessing Outcomes in Continuing Medical Education Using a Personal Learning Plan. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 32, 287-294.
https://doi.org/10.1002/chp.21158

[58]   Rich, B. L., LePine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2017). Job Engagement: Antecedents and Effects on Job Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 617-635.
https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.51468988

[59]   Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 600-619.
https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940610690169

[60]   Salanova, M., Agut, S., & Peiró, J. M. (2005). Linking Organizational Resources and Work Engagement to Employee Performance and Customer Loyalty: The Mediation of Service Climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1217-1227.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.6.1217

[61]   Sarti, D. (2014). Job Resources as Antecedents of Engagement at Work: Evidence from a Long-Term Care Setting. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25, 213-237.
https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21189

[62]   Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The Measurement of Work Engagement with a Short Questionnaire: A Cross-National Study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 701-716.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164405282471

[63]   Shafritz, J. M., & Hyde, A. C. (2012). Classics of Public Administration. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Publishing.

[64]   Shantz, A., Alfes, K., Truss, C., & Soane, E. (2013). The Role of Employee Engagement in the Relationship between Job Design and Task Performance, Citizenship and Deviant Behaviours. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24, 2608-2627.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2012.744334

[65]   Shuck, B., Twyford, D., Reio, T. G., & Shuck, A. (2014). Human Resource Development Practices and Employee Engagement: Examining the Connection with Employee Turnover Intentions. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25, 239-270.
https://doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.21190

[66]   Stansfield, T. C., & Longenecker, C. O. (2006). The Effects of Goal Setting and Feedback on Manufacturing Productivity: A Field Experiment. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 55, 346-358.
https://doi.org/10.1108/17410400610653273

[67]   Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

[68]   Taber, K. T. (2018). The Use of Cronbach’s Alpha When Developing and Reporting Research Instruments in Science Education. Research in Science Education, 48, 1273-1296.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-016-9602-2

[69]   Tate, D. T., Lartey, M. F., & Randall, P. M. (2019). Relationship between Computer-Mediated Communication and Employee Engagement among Telecommuting Knowledge Workers. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 7, 328-347.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jhrss.2019.72021

[70]   Taylor, F. W. (1911). The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: Harper Bros.

[71]   Thompson, C. A. & Prottas, D. J. (2005). Relationships among Organizational Family Support, Job Autonomy, Perceived Control, and Employee Well-Being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 100-118.
https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-8998.10.4.100

[72]   Turner, P. (2020). Measuring Employee Engagement. In Employee Engagement in Contemporary Organizations (pp. 193-222). Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-36387-1

[73]   White Jr., R. D. (2010). The Micromanagement Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Cure. Public Personnel Management, 39, 71-76.
https://doi.org/10.1177/009102601003900105

[74]   Wynarczyk, P., Watson, R., Storey, D. J., Short, H., & Keasey, K. (2016). Managerial Labour Markets in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises. New York: Routledge.
https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315544243

 
 
Top