Back
 AJMB  Vol.11 No.2 , April 2021
A Study of Prevalence and Pathogenic Activity of Bacteria in the Air of Dhaka City and Their Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern
Abstract: Bangladesh composes the most polluted air with Dhaka securing the top position. The purpose of the study is the enumeration of the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in Dhaka city’s air and their antibiotic susceptibility to the common antibiotics. For the sample collection, different selective media was exposed in air where the highest and lowest CFU was 137 and 1 respectively. Pathogens were screened through Hemolysis, DNase and Coagulase test and identified by 16s rRNA sequencing followed by antibiotic susceptibility test. 16s rRNA sequencing revealed that the organisms were Bacillus altitudinis strain 41KF2bT.28, Bacillus licheniformis strain QMA46-2, Bacillus altitudinis, Bacillus pumilis strain BJ-DEBCR-34, Staphylococcus aureus strain TPS3156, Bacillus sp CO16, Pseudomonas sp strain 96LC22 and Shigella dysenteriae strain ATCC 13313. Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus were 81.81% and 54.54% resistant to the antibiotics. Whole-genome sequencing would help to observe mutations in the traits as changes in hemolytic activity were found during pathogenecity tests.
Cite this paper: Nawar, S. , Rashid, M. , Ahmed, A. , Hossain, M. and Afzal, A. (2021) A Study of Prevalence and Pathogenic Activity of Bacteria in the Air of Dhaka City and Their Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern. American Journal of Molecular Biology, 11, 51-62. doi: 10.4236/ajmb.2021.112005.
References

[1]   Moore, M.D. and Jaykus, L.A. (2018) Virus-Bacteria Interactions: Implications and Potential for the Applied and Agricultural Sciences. Viruses, 10, 61.
https://doi.org/10.3390/v10020061

[2]   Al-Masum Molla, M. (2019) Living in Toxic Air. The Daily Star.
https://www.thedailystar.net/frontpage/dhaka-second-most-polluted-air-city-in-world-living-
toxic-air-1711213


[3]   (2019) World Most Polluted Cities in 2019. IQAir.
https://www.iqair.com/world-most-polluted-cities?continent=&country=&state=&page=1&perPage=50&cities=vnxvinME52vNycse5

[4]   Kabir, M.S., Mridha, F., Islam, S. and Shorifujjaman, M. (2016) Microbiological Pollutants in Air and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Some Bacterial Isolates. Jahangirnagar University Journal of Biological Sciences, 5, 47-56.
https://doi.org/10.3329/jujbs.v5i1.29742

[5]   Brochu, P., Ducré-Robitaille, J.-F. and Brodeur, J. (2006) Physiological Daily Inhalation Rates for Free-Living Individuals Aged 1 Month to 96 Years, Using Data from Doubly Labeled Water Measurements: A Proposal for Air Quality Criteria, Standard Calculations and Health Risk Assessment. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 12, 675-701.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10807030600801550

[6]   Stryjakowska-Sekulska, M., Piotraszewska-Pajak, A., Szyszka, A., Nowicki, M. and Filipiak, M. (2007) Microbiological Quality of Indoor Air in University Rooms. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 16, 623-632.

[7]   Cernei, E.R., Maxim, D.C., Mavru, R. and Indrei, L.L. (2013) Bacteriological Analysis of Air (Aeromicroflora) from the Level of Dental Offices in Iasi County. Romanian Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 5, 53-58.

[8]   Ekhaise, F.O., Ighosewe, O.U. and Ajakpovi, O.D. (2008) Hospital Indoor Airborne Microflora in Private and Government Owned Hospitals in Benin City, Nigeria. World Journal of Medical Sciences, 3, 19-23.

[9]   Hemolysis (2020) VetBact.
https://www.vetbact.org/index.php?displayextinfo=67&vbsearchstring=Hemolytic%20activitym

[10]   Buxton (2005) Blood Agar Plates and Hemolysis Protocols. American Society for Microbiology, 1-9.
https://asm.org/getattachment/7ec0de2b-bb16-4f6e-ba07-2aea25a43e76/protocol-2885.pdf

[11]   Koneman, E.W.A.S. (1997) The Gram Positive Cocci: Staphylococci and Related Organism. In Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology.

[12]   Standard Protocol for PCR, Lee Lab 016 (2014) Department of Microbiology, Technische Universitat München.
http://www.microbial-systems-ecology.de/pdf_files/standardPCR_13jan2014.pdf

[13]   da Silva, R.B. and Valicente, F.H. (2013) Molecular Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis Using rep-PCR. SpringerPlus, 2, 641.
https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-641

[14]   Devereux, R. and Willis, S.G. (1995) Amplification of Ribosomal RNA Sequences. In: Akkermans, A.D.L., Van Elsas, J.D. and De Bruijn, F.J., Eds., Molecular Microbial Ecology Manual, Springer, Dordrecht, 277-287.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-0351-0_19

[15]   Hudzicki, J. (2009) Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Test Protocol. American Society for Microbiology.

[16]   World Health Organisation (WHO) (2014) Burden of Disease from Air Pollution.
http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/FINAL_HAP_AAP_BoD_24March
2014.pdf?ua=1


[17]   Kelly, F.J. and Fussell, J.C. (2015) Air Pollution and Public Health: Emerging Hazards and Improved Understanding of Risk. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 37, 631-649.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9720-1

[18]   (2020) Death Toll from Air Pollution Sees Alarming Rise in Bangladesh. Dhaka Tribune.
https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2020/10/21/death-toll-from-air-pollution-sees-
alarming-rise-in-bangladesh


[19]   Batra, S. (2018) Morphology and Culture Characteristics of Shigella dysenteriae (Sh. dysenteriae). Paramedics World.
https://paramedicsworld.com/shigella-dysenteriae/morphology-culture-characteristics-of-shigella-dysenteriae/medical-paramedical-studynotes

[20]   Zhang, H. (2016) Identification and Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Strains with an Incomplete Hemolytic Phenotype. Frontiers.
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcimb.2016.00146/full
https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2016.00146


[21]   Kaur, R. and Goyal, D. (2020) Biodegradation of Butachlor by Bacillus altitudinis and Identification of Metabolites. Current Microbiology, 77, 2602-2612.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02031-1

[22]   Aziz, I.R., et al. (2019) Identification of Pathogenic Bacteria on the Salted Fish Lutjanus vivanus in Sorong City of West Papua. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, 15, 237-244.
https://doi.org/10.21161/mjm.180230

[23]   Haydushka, I.A., Markova, N., Kirina, V. and Atanassova, M. (2012) Recurrent Sepsis Due to Bacillus licheniformis. Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, 4, 82-83.
https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-777X.93768

[24]   Garcia Hejl, C., Sanmartin, N., Samson, T., Soler, C. and Koeck, J.L. (2015) Maxillary Sinus Infection by Bacillus licheniformis: A Case Report from Djibouti. Médecine et Santé Tropicales, 25, 220-221.
https://doi.org/10.1684/mst.2015.0470

[25]   (2020) Bacillus licheniformis. VetBact.
http://www.vetbact.org/index.php?artid=12

[26]   Shivamurthy, V.M., Gantt, S., Reilly, C., Tilley, P., Guzman, J. and Tucker, L. (2016) Bacillus pumilus Septic Arthritis in a Healthy Child. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, 2016, Article ID: 3265037.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3265037

[27]   Tena, D., Martinez-Torres, J., Perez-Pomata, M.T., Saez-Nieto, J.A., Rubio, V. and Bisquert, J. (2007) Cutaneous Infection Due to Bacillus pumilus: Report of 3 Cases. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 44, e40-e42.
https://doi.org/10.1086/511077

[28]   Park, S.W., Back, J.H., Lee, S.W., Song, J.H., Shin, C.H., Kim, G.E. and Kim, M.J. (2013) Successful Antibiotic Treatment of Pseudomonas stutzeri-Induced Peritonitis without Peritoneal Dialysis Catheter Removal in Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis. Kidney Research and Clinical Practice, 32, 81-83.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.krcp.2013.04.004

[29]   Uddin, M.N., Latifa, G.A., Majumder, A.K., Shamsi, S. and Nayeem, A.A. (2020) Analysis of Ambient Airborne Mycoflora around Curzon Hall Campus, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Stamford Journal of Microbiology, 9, 32-35.
https://doi.org/10.3329/sjm.v9i1.45656

[30]   Asaduzzaman, M., Hossain, M.I., Saha, S.R., Islam, M.R., Ahmed, N. and Islam, M.A. (2019) Quantification of Airborne Resistant Organisms with Temporal and Spatial Diversity in Bangladesh: Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Study. JMIR Research Protocols, 8, e14574.
https://doi.org/10.2196/14574

 
 
Top