Back
 JACEN  Vol.10 No.2 , May 2021
Heavy Metal Fluxes in Tropical Urban Forest Soil in Abidjan District (Côte d’Ivoire)
Abstract: In Western Africa, the growth of cities has led to natural resource pollution, especially air pollution. Urban forests play a key role in filtering atmospheric particles and pollutants through the canopy before reaching the soil. This study aims to quantify heavy metal fluxes in an urban forest in the district of Abidjan in order to assess its role in the protection of natural resources. A monitoring of wet deposition (throughfall and open field rain) and litterfall was carried out for six months in the urban forest of the National Floristic Center located in Abidjan, C?te d’Ivoire. The results show that the soil of this urban forest is a ferralsol type characterized by a sandy-clay texture and a low load of coarse elements. The annual litterfall is estimated to 12.16 ± 0.71 t·ha-1·yr-1, similar to other tropical forests. Annual quantities of rain and throughfall are in the range of the rainfall recorded in the district of Abidjan (2013 ± 152 and 1773 ± 51 mm). Chemical analyses showed that litter and rainfall contain Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd and Hg. Manganese and Zn are the most abundant elements and Hg the least abundant in both rainfall and litter. The main source of input of the heavy metals into the urban forest soil is associated with biological recycling through the litter. The litterfall contributes to metal fluxes in soil 109 times greater than metal fluxes carry by wet depositions (open field rain and throughfall). However, a detailed study of rainfall showed that the forest canopy constitutes a barrier for the transfer of heavy metal to urban soil. This is indicated by a decrease in heavy metal content from open field rain to throughfall. Consequently, this study recommends the creation and maintenance of urban forests to increase biomass canopy and improve atmospheric air quality for West African cities undergoing constant change and development.
Cite this paper: Bolou-Bi, B. , Ettien, D. , Guety, T. , Pitta, M. and Balland-Bolou-Bi, C. (2021) Heavy Metal Fluxes in Tropical Urban Forest Soil in Abidjan District (Côte d’Ivoire). Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 10, 169-183. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2021.102011.
References

[1]   Guengant, J.P. (2011) How to Benefit from the Demographic Dividend? Demography at the Centre of Development Trajectories in WAEMU Countries as Well as in Guinea, Ghana, Mauritania and Nigeria Paris, Agence Francaise de Développement.
http://www.afd.fr/jahia/Jahia/home/publications/Publicationsthematiques-geographiques/conference-ouagadougou

[2]   Branchu, P., Badin, A.L., Bechet, B., Eisenlohr, L., Le Priol, T., Marseille, F. and Trielli, E. (2013) Road Pollution and the Local Environment. VertigO—The Electronic Journal of Environmental Sciences, Special Issue No. 15.

[3]   Bur, T. (2008) Anthropic Impact on Metallic Trace Elements in Agricultural Soils in Midi-Pyrénées. Implications in Terms of Limits and Critical Loads, PhD Thesis, University of Toulouse, Toulouse, 399 p.

[4]   Varrault, G. (2011) Les contaminants dans les milieux récepteurs sous forte pression urbaine. Dissertation for the Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches, Université Paris-Est, Marne-la-Vallée, 89 p.

[5]   IUSS Working Group WRB (2007) World Reference Base for Soil Resource 2006. World Soil Resources Reports No. 103, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 132 p.

[6]   Schwartz, C., Fetzer, K.D., Kubiniok, J. and Morel, J.L. (2000) Availability of Pollutants in Garden Soils. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Soils of Urban, Industrial, Traffic and Mining Areas (SUITMA), Essen, 12-18 July 2000, 485-490.

[7]   Nowak, D.J., Crane, D.E. and Stevens, J.C. (2006) Air Pollution Removal by Urban Trees and Shrubs in the United States. Urban Forestry Urban Greening, 4, 115-123.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2006.01.007

[8]   Beckett, K., Freer-Smith, P. and Taylor, G. (2000) Effective Tree Species for Local Air Quality Management. Journal of Arboriculture, 26, 12-19.

[9]   Kpangui, K.B. (2009) Contribution of Geographic Information Systems to the Study of the Specific Diversity of the Arboretum of the National Floristic Centre of the University of Cocody-Abidjan. Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies Thesis, Cocody-Abidjan University, Abidjan, 62 p.

[10]   Reis, A.T., Coelho, J.P., Rodrigues, S.M., Rocha, R., Davidson, C.M., Duarte, A.C. and Pereira, E. (2012) Development and Validation of a Simple Thermo-Desorption Technique for Mercury Speciation in Soils and Sediments. Talanta, 99, 363-368.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2012.05.065

[11]   Bernhard-Reversat, F. (1972) Decomposition of Leaf Litter in the Lower Ivory Coast Rainforest. Oecology Plant, 7, 279-300.

[12]   Oladoye, A.O., Ola-Adams, B.A. and Adedire, M.O. (2010) Litter Fall Dynamics in Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de Wit plantation in the Nigerian Derived Savanna. Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 5, 31-38

[13]   Oziegbe, M. and Faluyi, J.O. (2011) Reproductive Biology of Ludwigia leptocarpa and L. adscendens subsp. Diffusa in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Turkish Journal of Botany, 36, 167-173.

[14]   Isaac, M.E., Gordon, A.M., Thevathasan, N., Oppong, S.K. and Quashie Sam, S.J. (2005) Temporal Changes in Soil Carbon and Nitrogen in West African Multi-Strata Agroforestry Systems: A Chronosequence of Pools and Fluxes. Agroforestry Systems, 65, 23-31.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10457-004-4187-6

[15]   Owusu-Sekyere, E., Cobbina, J. and Wakatsuki, T. (2006) Nutrient Cycling in Primary, Secondary Forests and Cocoa Plantations in the Ashanti Region, Ghana. West African Journal of Applied Ecology, 9, 10-19.
https://doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v9i1.45680

[16]   Dawoe, E.K., Isaac, M.E. and Quashie-Sam, J. (2010) Litter Fall and Litter Nutrient Dynamics under Cocoa Ecosystems in Lowland Humid Ghana. Plant and Soil, 330, 55-64.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-0173-0

[17]   Pragasan, A. and Parthasarathy, N. (2005) Litter Production in Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests of South India in Relation to Season, Plant Life Forms and Physiognomic Groups. Current Science, 88, 1255-1263.

[18]   Ndakara, O. (2012) Litter Fall and Nutriment Returns in Isolated Stards of Termilalia catappa Trees in the Rainforest Area of Southern Nigeria. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 5, 10 p.
https://doi.org/10.4314/ejesm.v5i1.1

[19]   Santa Regina, I. and Tarazona, T. (2001) Nutrient Pools to the Soil through Organic Matter and Throughfall under a Scots Pine Plantation in the Sierra de la Demanda, Spain. European Journal of Soil Biology, 37, 125-133.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1164-5563(01)01072-X

[20]   Yang, J., McBride, J., Zhou, J. and Sun, Z. (2005) The Urban Forest in Beijing and Its Role in Air Pollution Reduction. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 3, 65-78.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2004.09.001

[21]   Wang, Q., Wang, S. and Huang, Y. (2008) Comparisons of Litter Fall, Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Return in a Monoculture Cunninghamia lanceolata and a Mixed Stand in Southern China. Forest Ecology Management, 255, 1210-1218.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2007.10.026

[22]   Leblond, S. (2004) Multidisciplinary Study of the Transfer of Metals from the Atmosphere to Mosses (Scleropodium purum (Hedw.) Limpr.): Monitoring on a Rural Site (Vouzon, France). PhD Thesis, Paris Diderot University, Paris, 224 p.

[23]   Gandois, L. (2009) Dynamics and Balance of Trace Metal Elements (Heavy Metal) in Forest Ecosystems Francais: Modelling, Specification and Critical Loads. PhD Thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, Toulouse, 318 p.

[24]   Agnan, Y. (2013) Bioaccumulation and Bioindication by Lichens of Current and Past Air Pollution in Metals and Nitrogen in France: Sources, Mechanisms and Influencing Factors. PhD Thesis, University of Toulouse, Toulouse, 307 p.

[25]   Moiseenko, T.I. (2017) Evolution of Biogeochemical Cycles under Anthropogenic Loads: Limits Impacts. Geochemistry International, 55, 841-860.
https://doi.org/10.1134/S0016702917100081

[26]   Papa, S., Bartoli, G., Pellegrino, A. and Fioretto, A. (2010) Microbial Activities and Trace Element Contents in an Urban Soil. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 165, 193-203.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-0938-1

[27]   Pouyat, R.V. and McDonnell, M.J. (1991) Heavy Metal Accumulations in Forest Soils along an Urban-Rural Gradient in Southeastern New York, USA. Water, Air, Soil Pollution, 57, 797-807.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00282943

[28]   Bargagli, R. (1998) Trace Elements in Terrestrial Plants. An Ecophysiological Approach to Biomonitoring and Biorecovery. Springer, Berlin, 324 p.

[29]   Pacyna, J.M., Pacyna, E.G. and Aas, W. (2009) Changes of Emissions and Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury, Lead, and Cadmium. Atmospheric Environment, 43, 117-127.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.09.066

[30]   Oga, M.S. (2008) Groundwater Resources in the Greater Abidjan Region (Cote d’Ivoire): Hydrochemical and Isotopic Approaches. PhD Thesis, Paris-Sud University, Orsay, 245 p.

[31]   Mathieu, P. and Monnet, C. (1971) Physico-Chemistry of Rainwater in Savannah and Tropical Forests. Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, 93-114.

[32]   Cheret, V. (1987) La sapinière du Luchonnais (Pyrénées Hautes-Garonnaise): Phytoecological Study; Research on the Phenomenon of Forest Dieback. Doctoral Thesis, Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, 287 p.

[33]   Lefeivre, B. (1989) Chemical Composition and Acidity of Precipitation Collected in the Central Pyrenees: Relationship between Meteorological Situations and Acidification Processes. Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies Thesis, Université Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, 68 p.

[34]   Gourlaouen, V. (1999) Study of pH Distribution in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean: Application to the Modelling of Sound Propagation in the Ocean. Brest (FRA). DEA Thesis, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Plouzané, 33 p.

[35]   Prescott, C.E. (2002) The Influence of the Forest Canopy on Nutrient Cyc1ing. Tree Physiology, 22, 1193-1200.
https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/22.15-16.1193

[36]   Bolou-Bi, E.B., Vigier, N., Poszwa, A., Boudot, J.P. and Dambrine, E. (2012) Effects of Biogeochemical Processes on Magnesium Isotope Variations in a Forested Catchment in the Vosges Mountains (France). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 87, 341-355.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2012.04.005

[37]   Probst, A., Fritz, B. and Viville, D. (1995) Mid-Term Trends in Acid Precipitation, Streamwater Chemistry and Element Budgets in the Strengbach Catchment (Vosges Mountains, France). Water Air and Soil Pollution, 79, 39-59.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01100429

[38]   Augusto, L. (1999) Study of the Impact of Some Forest Species on the Biogeochemical Functioning and Vegetation of Acidic Soils. Doctoral Thesis, Henri Poincaré University, Nancy, 276 p.

[39]   Bermudez, G.M.A., Jasan, R., Pla, R., Maria, L. and Pignata, M.L. (2012) Heavy Metals and Trace Lements in Atmospheric Fall-Out: Their Relationship with Topsoil and Wheat Element Composition. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 213-214, 447-456.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.02.023

[40]   Fortin, M.C., Bicudo, D.C., Bourotte, C., de Cicco, V. and Arcova, F.C.S. (2005) Rainfall and Throughfall Chemistry in the Atlantic Forest: A Comparison between Urban and Natural Sites (Sao Paulo State, Brazil). Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 570-585.
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-9-570-2005

[41]   Rodrigo, A., àvila, A. and Roda, F. (2003) The Chemistry of Precipitation, Throughfall and Stemflow in Two Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.) Forests under a Contrasted Pollution Environment in NE Spain. The Science of the Total Environment, 305, 195-205.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00470-9

[42]   Hou, H., Takamatsu, T., Koshikawa, M.K. and Hosomi, M. (2005) Trace Metals in Bulk Precipitation and Throughfall in a Suburban Area of Japan. Atmospheric Environment, 39, 3583-3595.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.02.035

[43]   Chiwa, M., Crossley, A., Sheppard, L.J., Sakugawa, H. and Cape, J.N. (2004) Throughfall Chemistry and Canopy Interactions in a Sitka Spruce Plantation Sprayed with Six Different Simulated Polluted Mist Treatments. Environmental Pollution, 127, 57-64.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(03)00259-8

[44]   Michalzik, B. and Stadler, B. (2005) Importance of Canopy Herbivores to Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matter Fluxes to the Forest Floor. Geoderma, 127, 227-236.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.12.006

[45]   Avila, A. and Rodrigo, A. (2004) Trace Metal Fluxes in Bulk Deposition, Throughfall and Stemflow at Two Evergreen Oak Stands in NE Spain Subject to Different Exposure to the Industrial Environment. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 171-180.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.09.067

[46]   Gandois, L., Tipping, E., Dumat, C. and Probst, A. (2010) Canopy Influence on Trace Metal Atmospheric Inputs on Forest Ecosystems: Speciation in Throughfall. Atmospheric Environment, 44, 824-833.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.11.028

[47]   Mclellan, I., Hursthouse, A., Varela, A. and Pereira, C.S. (2013) Geochemical Approach to Assessing Human Impacts in Cork Oak Forest Soils of the MED Region. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 132, 34-40.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2013.04.005

 
 
Top