ABSTRACT The study looked at the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in leachates from a solid waste disposal site and an effluent from an oil refinery in some water bodies around Accra. Sixteen (PAHs) were extracted simultaneously by solid phase and analysis by gas chromatograph. The results of this study gener-ally demonstrated that there were elevated levels of PAHs in the water sample of the Densu River, Chemu, Korle and Kpeshi Lagoons. The average concentration of PAHs in the water ranged from 0.000 of many of the PAHs to 0.552µg/L, for Acenapththene to 11.399µg/L for Benzo (ghi) perylene of the Chemu Lagoon, 0.00µg/L for Benzo (a) Pyrene to 8.800µg/L for Benzo (ghi) perylene (Korle Lagoon) and 0.052µg/L for Pyrene to 4.703ug/L for Acenaphthylene of the Kpeshi Lagoon and 0.00µg/L for pyrene to Acenaphthylene 2.926µg/L of the Weija Dam. Concentrations ranging from below detection level to 14.587µg/L were also recorded at the Oblogo solid waste dump and it’s environ. The Weija dam supply over two million gallons of portable water daily to the people of Accra and the levels of the PAH determined is worrying, as a result, the Oblogoh disposal site ought to be re-located to avert any possible epidemic.
Cite this paper
nullD. ESSUMANG, C. ADOKOH, J. AFRIYIE and E. MENSAH, "Source Assessment and Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH’s) in the Oblogo Waste Disposal Sites and Some Water Bodies in and around the Accra Metropolis of Ghana," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 1 No. 6, 2009, pp. 456-468. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.16055.
 NPI, ‘‘Australian national pollution inventory substance profile,’’ Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2001.
New York City Department of Sanitation (NYCDS), ‘‘Solid waste management plan,’’ Environmental Impact, New York: Author, pp. 12–14, 1991.
M. Gochfeld, “Health implications of solid waste man-agement,” In Environmental Medicine, eds. S. Brooks, et al. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, pp. 104–112, 1995.
Mechanical Biological Treatment Welsh Assembly (MBTWA), “Mechanical biological treatment,” Envi-ronment Countryside and Planning Website, Welsh As-sembly, pp 21–32, 2005.
Arias-Estevez, “Sorption of PAHs to colloid dispersion of humic substance in water,” McGraw Hill Higher Educa-tion, Fourth Edition, pp. 315, 2007.
Agency for toxic substances and disease registry (ATSDR), ‘‘Toxicology profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),’’ Atlanta, ga: U.S department for health and human service, public health service, 1995.
D. R. Shahunthala, J. M. Sweezey, V. P. Hodson, M. Boudreau, S. C. Courtenay, K. Lee, T. King and J. A. Dixon, ‘‘Influence of salinity and fish species on PAH uptake from dispersed crude oil,’’ Vol. 52(10), pp. 1182–1189, 2006.
C. A. Anyakora, K. A. Ogbeche, P. Palmer, H. Coker, G. Ukpo and C. Ogah, ‘‘A screen for Benzo[a]pyrene, a car-cinogen, in the water samples from the Niger Delta re-gion,’’ Nig. J. Hosp. Med., Vol.14, pp. 288–293, 2004.
S. A. Perlin, R. Woodrow-Setzer, J. Creason and K. Sex-ton, “Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Ap-pendix A,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 29, pp. 69–80, 1995.
C. Baird, “Environmental chemistry,” New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, pp. 65–74, 1995.
C. A. Aynankora, K. A. Ogbeche, P. Palmer, H. Coker and G. Ukpo, ‘‘Analysis of polynuclear aromatic hydro-carbons in sediment samples of Niger delta region,’’ Chemosphere, Vol. 60, pp. 990–997, 2005.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), ‘‘Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),’’ Atlanta, GA: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1990.
World Health Organization (WHO), ‘‘Polynuclear aro-matic hydrocarbons. In: Guidelines for drinking-water quality,’’ Health criteria and other supporting information. Geneva, World Health Organization 2nd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 123–152, 1998.
S. King, J. S. Meyer and A. R. J. Andrews, ‘‘Screening method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil using hallow fibre membrane solvent micoextraction,’’ Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 982, pp. 201–208, 2002.
American Public Health Association, ‘‘Standard method for the examination of water and waste water,’’ 20th Edi-tion, pp. 6/80–6/81, 2005.
D. O. Alonge, ‘‘Carcinogenic polynuclear hydrocarbon determined in Nigeria Kundi (smoked dried meat),’’ Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 43, pp. 167–173, 1998.
F. Douglass, “GC/MS analytical methods,” Academic Press INC, New York, 2nd Edition, pp. 112–115, 2004.
S. D. Ramachandran, M. J. Sweezey, P. V. Hodson, M. Boudreau, S. C. Courtenay, K. Lee, T. King and J. A. Dixon, ‘‘Influence of salinity and fish species on PAH uptake from dispersed crude oil Marine Pollution Bulle-tin,’’ Vol. 52, No. 10, pp. 1182–1189, 2006.
W. Kanchanamayoon and N. Tatrahun, ‘‘Extraction of eleven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water sam-ples,’’ Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 95–99, 2009.
E. Gilbert, D. K. Dodoo, F. Okai-Sam, D. K. Essumang and E. K. Quagraine, ‘‘Characterization and source as-sessment of heavy metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hy-drocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of the Fosu Lagoon,’’ Ghana Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, Vol. 41, pp. 2747–2775, 2006.
D. Okoro, ‘‘Source determination of polynuclear aro-matic hydrocarbons in water and sediment of a creek in the Niger Delta region,’’ African Journal of Biotechnol-ogy, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 282–285, 2008.
P. Bikey, T. Mandy and B. Presley, ‘‘Exposure analysis and environmental epidemiology,’’ Endangered, sj. Jea, Vol. 289, pp. 268–272, 2001.
U. S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency), ‘‘Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Fluoranthene. Of-fice of Water Regulations and Standards,’’ Criteria and Standards Division, Washington, DC. EPA Vol. 440, pp. 5 80 049, 1980.
L. Zhu and J. Wang, ‘‘Pattern and Sources of PAHs pol-lution in Sediment of Hangzhou, China,’’ Organohal Comp., Vol. 66, pp. 291–296, 2004.
M. B. Yunker, R. W. Macdonald, R. Vingarzan, R. H. Mitchell, D. Goyette and S. Sylvestre, “PAHs in the Fra-ser River basin; a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indi-cators of PAH source and composition,” Org. Geochem., Vol. 33, pp. 489–515, 2002.
W. A. Maher and J. Aislabie, ‘‘Polycyclic aromatic hydro-carbons in near shore marine sediments of Australia,’’ Sci-ence of the Total Environment, Vol. 112, pp. 143 164, 1992.
J. L. Zhou and K. Maskaoui, ‘‘Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and surface sediments from Daya Bay,” China, Environmental Pollution, Vol. 121, pp. 269–281, 2003.