ABSTRACT In India, with ever increasing population and stress on natural resources, especially water, rejuvenation of rainwater harvesting (RWH) technique which was forgotten over the days is becoming very essential. Large number of RWH methods that are available in the literature are demand specific and site specific, since RWH system depends on the topography, land use, land cover, rainfall and demand pattern. Thus for each and every case, a detailed evaluation of RWH structures is required for implementation, including the analy-sis of hydrology, topography and other aspects like site availability and economics, however a common methodology could be evolved. The present study was aimed at evaluation of various RWH techniques in order to identify the most appropriate technique suitable for a large scale industrial area to meet its daily wa-ter demand. An attempt is made to determine the volume of water to be stored using mass balance method, Ripple diagram method, analytical method, and sequent peak algorithm method. Based on various satisfying criteria, analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is employed to determine the most appropriate type of RWH method and required number of RWH structures in the study area. If economy alone is considered along with hydrological and site specific parameters, recharging the aquifer has resulted as a better choice. However other criteria namely risk, satisfaction in obtaining required volume of water for immediate utilization etc. has resulted in opting for concrete storage structures method. From the results it is found that AHP, if used with all possible criteria can result in a better tool for evaluation of RWH methods and structures. This RWH structures not only meets the demand but saves transportation cost of water and reduces the dependability of the industry on irrigation reservoir. Besides monetary benefits it is hoped that the micro environment inside the industry will improve due to the cooling effect of the stored water.
Cite this paper
nullV. JOTHIPRAKASH and M. SATHE, "Evaluation of Rainwater Harvesting Methods and Structures Using Analytical Hierarchy Process for a Large Scale Industrial Area," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 1 No. 6, 2009, pp. 427-438. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.16052.
 R. N. Athavale, “Water harvesting and sustainable supply in India,” Centre for Environment Education, Ahmedabad, India, 2003.
P. Arnold and C. Adrian, “Rainwater harvesting,” Inter-mediate Technology Publishing, London, 1986.
R. K. Sivanappan, “Status and prospects of rainwater harvesting,” in proceedings of the workshop on rainwater harvesting, IIT Madras, pp. 1–10, 2001.
Th. M. Boers and J. Ben-Asher, “A review of rainwater harvesting,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 5, pp. 145–158, 1982.
C. A. David, “Guidance on the use of rainwater tanks,” National Environmental Health Forum Monographs Wa-ter Series, Australia, No. 3, 1998.
D. Rees, “Partially Below Ground (PBG) tank for rain-water storage instructions for manufacture,” DTU Tech-nical release series TR-RWH01, University of Warwick, UK, 2000.
D. Rees and V. Whitehead, “Ferro-Cement Jar Instruc-tions for manufacture (Based on the construction of a Ferro-cement Jar at Kyera Farm, Mbarara, Uganda),” DTU Technical release series TR-RWH06, University of Warwick, UK, 2000.
CGWB, “Manual on artificial recharge of ground water,” Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water Re-sources, Government of India, New Delhi, 2007.
S. K. Kamra, V. V. Dhruva Narayana, and K. V. G. K. Rao, “Water harvesting for reclaiming alkali soils,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 11, pp. 127–135, 1986.
S. S. Grewal, S. P. Mittal, Y. Agnihotri, and L. N. Dubey, “Rainwater harvesting for the management of agricultural droughts in the foothills of northern India,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 16, pp. 309–322, 1989.
H. N. Verma and P. B. S. Sarma, “Design of storage tanks for water harvesting in rainfed areas,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 18, pp. 195–207, 1990.
G. N. Gupta, “Influence of rain water harvesting and conservation practices on growth and biomass production of Azadirachta Indica in the Indian desert,” Forest Ecol-ogy and Management, Vol. 70, pp. 329–339, 1994.
A. M. Abu-Awwad and M. R. Shatanawi, “Water har-vesting and infiltration in arid areas affected by surface crust: examples from Jordan,” Journal of Arid Environ-ments, Vol. 37, pp. 443–452, 1997.
A. Agarwal and S. Narain, “Dying wisdom: Rise, fall and potential of India’s traditional water harvesting systems,” State of India’s Environment-A Citizens’ Report No. 4, Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, India, 2003.
D. N. Pandey, A. K. Gupta, and D. M. Anderson, “Rain-water harvesting as an adaptation to climate change,” Current Science, Vol. 85, No. 1, pp. 46–59, 2003.
M. Qadir, Th. M. Boers, S. Schubert, A. Ghafoor, and G. Murtaza, “Agricultural water management in water starved countries: challenges and opportunities,” Agri-cultural Water Management, Vol. 62, pp. 165–185, 2003.
A. K. Goel and R. Kumar, “Economic analysis of water harvesting in a mountainous watershed in India,” Agri-cultural Water Management, Vol. 71, pp. 257–266, 2005.
S. N. Ngigi, H. G. Hubert Savenije, J. Rockstrom, and C. K. Gachene, “Hydro-economic evaluation of rainwater harvesting and management technologies: Farmers_ in-vestment options and risks in semi-arid Laikipia district of Kenya,” Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Vol. 30, pp. 772–782, 2005.
D. D. Ozha and F. M. Golani, “Rehabilitation of tradi-tional water harvesting systems of Rajasthan and their significance in present context,” Journal of the Institution of Public Health Engineers, Vol. 2006–07, No. 3, pp. 28–30, 2006.
B. Panigrahi, S. N. Panda, and B. C. Mal, “Rainwater conservation and recycling by optimal size on-farm res-ervoir,” Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 50, pp. 459–474, 2006.
M. Qadir, B. R. Sharma, A. Bruggeman, R. Choukr-Allah, and F. Karajeh, “Non-conventional water resources and opportunities for water augmentation to achieve food se-curity in water scarce countries,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 87, pp. 2–22, 2007.
R. Saha, P. K. Ghosh, V. K. Mishra, and K. M. Bujarba-ruah, “Low-cost micro-rainwater harvesting technology (Jalkund) for new livelihood of rural hill farmers,” Cur-rent Science. Vol. 92, No. 9, pp. 1258–1265, 2007.
M. Mehta and V. Jothiprakash, “Integrated rainwater harvesting system for a college campus in a metro city,”Journal of Indian Association for Environmental Man-agement, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 122–126, 2008.
T. L. Saaty, “Introduction to a modelling of social deci-sion process. Mathematics and Computers in Simula-tion,” Vol. XXV, pp. 105–107, 1983.