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 OALibJ  Vol.8 No.2 , February 2021
Research on Leisure Needs, Leisure Participation and Leisure Obstacles of Family Caregivers with Intellectual Disabilities
Abstract: This study explores the current situation of leisure needs, leisure participation, and leisure barriers of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities, and then analyzes the differences between the different background characteristics of each facet and the correlation between facets. According to the difference analysis, the most important leisure needs were psychological needs, physiological needs and achievement needs. The participation frequency of leisure activities of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities was in the following order: recreational type, social type, sports type and hobby type. Family caregivers with mental retardation had the highest perception of structural retardation, followed by personal intrinsic retardation and interpersonal retardation. There were significant differences between gender and weekly leisure participation on the leisure needs of caregivers with intellectual disabilities. The relationship, age, education level, marital status, monthly family income and weekly leisure participation had significant differences on the leisure participation of caregivers with intellectual disabilities. Education level, monthly family income and weekly leisure participation had significant differences in the leisure barriers of caregivers with intellectual disabilities. The correlation analysis found that there was a low positive correlation between leisure needs and leisure participation of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities (P < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between leisure demands and leisure hindrance of family caregivers with intellectual disability (P > 0.05). There was a low negative correlation between leisure participation and leisure retardation in family caregivers with mental retardation (P < 0.05).

1. Introduction

Leisure is to engage in activities that are beneficial to the body and mind outside of work, which can temporarily break away from the constraints of work, and then achieve the purpose of self-body growth and entertainment. People can gain physical, social, relaxation, educational, psychological, and aesthetic benefits through leisure activity participation [1]; leisure can also enhance personal social support, and is effectively used to adjust life and work pressure, especially the social support provided by social leisure can effectively help individuals adjust stress and maintain health [2] [3]. However, Iso-Ahola and Weissinger pointed out that if an individual encounters obstacles during leisure activities and causes frustration, this will prevent the individual from being adequately satisfied physically and mentally, which will affect leisure activities and motivation [4]. According to the 2014 demographic data of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Taiwan, the number of people with physical and mental disabilities reached 1.14 million, of which children aged 0 to 11 and children aged 12 to 17 were physically and mentally disabled. Children with intellectual disabilities have weaker self-care abilities, movement or action abilities, verbal communication, and social interpersonal emotions. They need the help of caregivers. Therefore, if there are people with intellectual disabilities in the family, the responsibilities and pressures of the family members will be more important than the average caregiver, usually have less free time, which will affect the participation of family caregivers in leisure activities [5] [6].

Research by He and Huang showed that family caregivers of children with physical and mental disabilities will be inferior to ordinary family caregivers due to long-term stress, and they suggest that if appropriate social support and leisure activities are involved, the pressure of family caregivers can be rescued, and thus strengthen the quality of life, satisfaction and happiness [7]. In the past, most research topics focused on the stress and quality of life of parents of people with disabilities [7] [8] [9], as well as leisure participation and leisure obstacles of people with intellectual disabilities and other topics [5] [10] [11]. Few researches on family caregivers with intellectual disabilities discuss their leisure needs, leisure participation and leisure obstacles, etc. This shows that they are in the stage of academic development, so this study is to discuss this topic, and the way to deal with family caregivers with intellectual disabilities. The quality of life is becoming more and more perfect, it is necessary to understand the current status of leisure activities, and then find out the difficulties and obstacles facing them, and pay attention to and try to meet their actual needs to improve their quality of life.

Therefore, this research takes the caregivers of mentally handicapped families as the object, analyzing the current situation of leisure needs, leisure participation and leisure obstacles, and discussing the correlation between them.

The purpose of this research is as followings:

1) To understand the current situation of leisure needs, leisure participation and leisure barriers of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities.

2) To determine the variance of leisure needs of family caregivers with different background variables.

3) To understand the differences in the recreational participation of family caregivers with different background variables.

4) To understand the differences in the recreational barriers of family caregivers with different background variables.

5) To explore the leisure needs, leisure participation and leisure barriers of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities.

2. Literature Review

2.1. Family Caregivers with Intellectual Disabilities

According to the “Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities”, amended by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Taiwan in 2015 [12], mental disorders are classified as “nervous system structure and mental and mental functions”. Its criteria are set out in the method for determining whether students with mental and physical disabilities are inferior or inferior, it must be that intellectual development is significantly slower than that of people of the same age, or that there are serious difficulties in adjusting to school life and daily life. The results of individual intelligence tests were less than two standard deviations from the mean, and the students’ performance in any dimension of self-care, motor and action ability, language and communication, social interpersonal and emotional behaviors, and subject learning were significantly more difficult than those of the same age, and there must be a caregiver to assist. Caregivers are mainly family members who care for, nurture, and teach the mentally disabled. They may include parents, siblings, grandparents, and other family members.

In order to understand the leisure status of family caregivers with physical and mental disorders, the leisure status of family caregivers with physical and mental disorders will be analyzed. Kong found that the participants of family of children with developmental retardation were mainly family members [13]. When choosing leisure activities, they should mainly choose recreational activities that do not require too much equipment and space restrictions, and choose recreational activities that are more relaxed and do not require energy consumption. The leisure frequency was 1 - 3 hours per week. The most leisure spending is NT$1000 - 4000. The research results of

Lin et al. showed that the majority of parents of accompanied children participated in early treatment courses were female [14], and the unemployment rate was relatively high due to the care of the children, and the average family income was NT$30,000 to 50,000. Those families with low income and parents’ occupations have more leisure activities than recreational activities. They targeted parents of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome as the research object, showing that type of leisure obstruction is the highest in structural obstruction, followed by interpersonal obstruction, and the lowest intrinsic obstruction; The first three barriers to leisure are: due to the pressure of work (life), the difficulty of taking care of the sick children outside, and the high cost of leisure activities, the types of leisure participation are entertainment activities, social activities, outdoor recreation activities, knowledge and culture activities, skills, hobbies, etc. Parents of friends with Prader-Willi syndrome have a negative correlation between leisure barriers and leisure participation. Wang found that the top two barriers to sports and leisure are autism and economic barriers. When parents are under emotional pressure and economic pressure due to autism, they will think that engaging in leisure activities is a luxury and thus cause leisure barriers [15]. Therefore, in this research, gender, relationship with children, age, education level, marital status, occupation, monthly family income, weekly leisure participation, and gender and degree of disorder of children were discussed as basic variables.

2.2. Leisure Needs

Lavery [16] pointed out that leisure demand can be divided into: effective demand, extended demand and potential demand, which are described as following:

1) Effective demand: Refers to the demand that people have the will and actually have the ability to obtain, which is the leisure activities that can be directly engaged in at present.

2) Deferred demand: Refers to the current willingness and ability, but due to the lack of facilities or participation knowledge, it is unable to meet the needs of participating in leisure activities.

3) Potential demand: Refers to the current demand, but the inability to obtain the demand, said the current inability to participate, only after the improvement of personal barriers, can only participate in leisure activities.

Analysis of the relevant aspects of leisure needs will enable you to understand the factors that affect individual leisure needs.

Zhang and Gao pointed out that leisure demands refer to individuals participating in leisure activities to meet different internal and external needs [17], and through the performance of the activities, to promote individuals to acquire knowledge inquiry, social interaction, self-ability and physical and mental needs. The results of Kabanoff showed that the highest scores of both sexes in leisure needs are the interaction needs of women and the challenges of men and studied the leisure needs of vocational practical skills students in Tainan [18]. Different genders showed that males were higher than females in terms of overall leisure needs. Tsai et al. used the participants of Sun Moon Lake Swimming Crossing as a target to study their leisure needs. The results showed that different ages have significant differences in knowledge inquiry factors [19]. The leisure demand reached a significant level at different ages, and the leisure demand of younger people was greater than that of older people. Studies have shown that there are significant differences in leisure needs between different educational levels. The research results of showed that there are significant differences in leisure needs between different marital status. The research results showed that different occupations have different needs for self-determination and skill use, and the technical staff is higher than the administrative clerical staff [18]. The administrative staff tends to be a recreational activity when they are under pressure In addition to professional recreational activities, professional technicians also like to promote healthy sports. The research results of showed that the leisure needs of caregivers with different occupations and incomes have significant differences. Chen studied the leisure needs of caregivers with physical and mental disabilities [6]. People with a monthly income of 30,001 to 40,000 NT$ all have the highest social leisure needs, time needs and spiritual needs. In summary, gender, age, marital status, education level, relationship with children, and monthly family income of family caregivers with mental retardants may affect their leisure activities. Therefore, this study proposes the hypothesis (H1) that the values of leisure demands of family caregivers with mental retardants differ in terms of background variables. It was hypothesized (H4, H5) that the leisure needs of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities were correlated with leisure barriers and leisure participation.

2.3. Leisure Participation

Leisure participation usually refers to the type and frequency of individuals’ participation in activities, so as to meet the physiological, psychological and social needs. The activities they participate in are non-work activities. These activities can freely choose to participate or not to participate, as well as the frequency and diversity of participation types, which can represent their involvement degree [20]. He et al. point out that the available time or frequency of the degree of participation in leisure activities in free leisure time can be used as the measurement standard [21]. By analyzing the research on leisure participation, we can understand the factors that affect the participation of family caregivers with physical and mental disorders. There were significant differences in the participation of elementary school teachers of different genders. They found that the father of patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome was more involved in skills, hobbies and overall leisure activities than mother. There are significant differences between parents’ outdoor recreation activities and their knowledge and culture activities. The degree of parents’ participation in knowledge and culture activities with university or college education is higher than that of parents in senior secondary school. Parents of couples living together were more involved than those who were separated or divorced. Chen et al. studing the students with intellectual disabilities in elementary school in Taipei and found that the participation of women in artistic and cultural sexual activities and home-based sexual activities was significantly higher than that of men [6]. The participation of older people in social activities and sports activities was higher than that of younger people. The educational level of parents is significantly different in outdoor tourism.

He pointed out that teachers who are married and their children are young often engage in leisure activities and parent-child sexual activities [21]. Gao pointed out that the higher the monthly amount of discretionary leisure activities, the higher the willingness to engage in sensory entertainment and outdoor activities [9]. That people with mild intellectual disability mainly engaged in static activities, such as reading, singing and watching movies, while people with physical and mental disabilities did not have high frequency of leisure activities. Chen pointed out that students with intellectual disabilities most often participated in leisure activities, such as watching TV [6], walking and shopping. Students with mild mental disabilities participated in sports activities significantly higher than those with severe mental disabilities. Participate in leisure activities is mainly to meet the individual life, psychological and social needs, the study shows the leisure participation is affected by the individual basic factors Therefore, this research reference Chen et al., essential factor analysis method [6], the activity is divided into sports activities, social activities, entertainment activities, hobbies, activities, and participate in frequency method to understand the status of the parents leisure participation. Therefore, the present study hypothesized (H3) that the values of leisure participation of family caregivers with different background variables differ. Hypothesis (H4, H6), there is a correlation between leisure participation and leisure needs and leisure barriers of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities.

2.4. Obstacles to Leisure

Leisure hindrance refers to the tendency to interfere with or inhibit one’s preference to participate in leisure activities and to reduce one’s intention to participate [22] [23]. Crawford and Godbey summarized the three factors affecting leisure participation as follows [22]:

1) Intrapersonal Constraints: It refers to the obstacle factors constituted by personal personality or mental state, which affect the performance and willingness of individuals to participate in leisure activities, e.g., stress, health factors, lack of self-confidence, depression, belief, subjective evaluation of leisure activities and so on, and then affect leisure participation.

2) Interpersonal Constraints: The result of interpersonal interaction influences leisure participation or preference. For example, the lack of family members’ accompanying participation or the lack of interaction with partners leads to loneliness, which then influences individuals’ willingness to engage in leisure activities.

3) Structural Constraints: The lack of time, transportation, money, government policy and social ecology affects the willingness to participate in leisure activities. For example, the leisure environment provided lacks convenient transportation and sufficient funds for paying for leisure activities.

After analyzing many scholars at home and abroad who can understand the various possible factors that cause leisure obstacles, formulate coping strategies to increase participation in leisure activities. Research pointed out that women’s personal and structural obstacles are higher, and the poor people’s leisure obstacles are also smaller than those of the wealthy and wealthy. They found in the study of leisure inhibitors will be affected by gender, education level, the influence of the situation in residence, leisure expenses. That women’s leisure barriers are higher than men’s. Research found that the general obstacles to family leisure are the crowded leisure places, the high cost, the need to care for family members, and religious beliefs. The obstacles to leisure for single-parent families are the high cost, the crowded leisure facilities, the need to take care of children, and religious beliefs. The structural obstacles are the biggest, and there are significant differences between different ethnic groups and marriages. Chen et al. surveyed leisure barriers of mentally and physically disabled caregivers and found that female caregivers have higher interpersonal and structural barriers, external factors, and internal factors than male caregivers [6]. Interpersonal and structural obstacles and internal factor obstacles are the highest for caregivers without income. There is a significant negative correlation between the caregiver’s leisure needs and the barriers inherent in leisure barriers, indicating that the lower the leisure needs of caregivers, the higher the barriers are.

Zhong and Zeng [24] showed that leisure barriers negatively affect leisure participation, and leisure barriers play an intermediary role in the relationship between leisure motivation, leisure participation, and leisure benefits, the most important obstacles to leisure are structural obstacles, followed by interpersonal obstacles, and the lowest personal obstacles, it is mainly hindered by the external environment structure such as free control time and disposable money. Research found that the main leisure obstacles are interpersonal obstacles, and women are higher than men, lower grades are higher than upper grades, and less income is more than more income.

Based on the above research, it is found in the related research on leisure obstacles that background variables have a significant effect on leisure obstacles, and that leisure obstacles negatively affect leisure participation, and leisure obstacles play an intermediary role in the relationship between leisure motivation, leisure participation, and leisure effectiveness. Therefore, this study puts forward the hypothesis (H2): No Family carers of mentally handicapped families with the same background variables have poor barriers to leisure. Hypothesis (H5, H6), there is a correlation between leisure barriers and leisure needs and leisure participation of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities.

2.5. Relationship between Variables

Deng (2002) pointed out that there was a statistically significant positive correlation between leisure demand and leisure participation of comprehensive high school teachers [25]. Studied grassroots firefighters and found that leisure participation is significantly related to leisure needs. Studied the low positive correlation between leisure demand and leisure participation of students in vocational practical skills programs in Tainan region. They pointed out that the generation of personal perceived interpersonal barriers is directly affected by the social interaction of leisure needs and the demand for ability achievement. The generation of structural hindrance of personal feeling is directly affected by the demand of knowledge inquiry of leisure demand. They explored the significant correlation between the structural barriers to athleisure and the social interaction needs of athleisure among indigenous women. Studied leisure needs of people with physical and mental disabilities, and the results showed that subjects’ leisure barriers and their conscious leisure needs were correlated. Studied the vocational practical skills program in Tainan region and found that there was a low negative correlation between students’ leisure needs and personal internal barriers.

Zhou (2010) researched the parents of patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome and showed that the higher the barriers to leisure, the lower the leisure participation [26]. He pointed out that there is a positive correlation between leisure for teachers in Taiwan and leisure obstacles [21]. Based on the above, leisure needs, leisure barriers and leisure participation have different relationships in different identities, so this study explores the relationship between leisure needs, leisure barriers and leisure participation of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities (H4, H5, H6).

The research hypothesis and architecture are described in Figure 1.

H1. There are significant differences in leisure needs of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities with different background variables.

Figure 1. Research architecture diagram.

H2. There are significant differences in leisure participation among family caregivers with intellectual disabilities with different background variables.

H3. Family caregivers with intellectual disabilities with different background variables have significant differences in leisure barriers.

H4. There is a significant correlation between leisure needs and leisure participation of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities.

H5. There is a significant correlation between leisure needs and leisure barriers for family caregivers with intellectual disabilities.

H6. There is a significant correlation between leisure participation and leisure barriers for family caregivers with intellectual disabilities.

3. Research Methods

3.1. Research Objects and Sampling

In order to understand the quality of life and current status of leisure activities of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities, this study took the family caregivers of 2015 vocational college students with comprehensive functional sciences in Taiwan as the mother group, excluding special education schools. According to the statistical report of the bulletin network of special education of the ministry of education as of October 21, 2015, there are 3874 students of comprehensive functional science in higher vocational colleges in the western half of Taiwan. The sampling rate of this study is set at 10%. A total of 387 questionnaires were distributed and 329 were recovered, with a recovery rate of 85%.

3.2. Data Processing and Analysis

According to the problems to be discussed in this research, SPSS for Windows version 12.0 statistical software was used for statistical analysis. The statistical methods used are as follows:

1) Descriptive statistics: the basic characteristics of the sample are analyzed by means of the average, percentage and standard difference according to the questionnaire survey data to show the characteristics and general situation of the sample.

2) Reliability and validity analysis: Cronbach’s coefficient was used to detect the reliability level of the leisure barrier, leisure demand and leisure participation scale. The larger the coefficient is, the higher the internal consistency of each dimension factor is, that is, the higher the reliability is. Generally speaking, the total reliability of all scales should be above 0.7. Factor analysis was used to obtain the Constuct Validity of the scale. Principal component analysis was used for factor analysis. Factors with characteristic value greater than 1 and factor load greater than 0.5 were extracted.

3) Independent sample t test: the independent sample t test was used to examine whether there were significant differences in the overall and structural aspects of the leisure needs, leisure participation and leisure barriers of family caregivers with different background variables.

4) One-way ANOVA: To test whether there are significant differences in the perceptions of leisure needs, leisure participation and leisure obstacles of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities with different background variables. If they reach a significant level, Scheffé’s method is used for post-event comparison.

5) Pearson Correlation: Correlation is a statistic used to test the correlation between two variables. In this study, Pearson product difference correlation was used to analyze whether the overall and dimensions of leisure demand, leisure participation and leisure hindrance were significantly correlated.

4. The Results of the Study

Basic Data Analysis of Family Caregivers with Intellectual Disabilities

The basic data analysis results of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities are shown in Table 1. The majority are 225 women (71.4%); the relationship with children is “Mother” up to 219 people (69.5%); the age of caregivers is “41 - 50 years old” Up to 195 people (61.9%), 56 people (17.8%) in the “51 - 60 years old”; education level: up to 160 people (50.8%) in “high school”, followed by “junior high school” and “university or college” 70 people (22.2%) and 65 people (20.6%); the marital status is “married” up to 244 people (77.5%); although the occupation is “service industry” up to 66 people (21.0%), the other is not much different; Although the total monthly household income is “20,001 - 30,000 Yuan” up to 76 people (24.1%), the other is not much different; weekly leisure activities: “1 - 2 times” up to 186 people (59.0%), 0 A total of 103 people (32.7%).

The average number of leisure needs is shown in Table 2. Overall, the most important leisure needs items for family caregivers with intellectual disabilities are the average “psychological needs” of 4.07; the second is the average of “physiological needs” of 4.03; the average of the least attention to “achievement needs” is 3.83, shows that the leisure needs of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities may be affected by the pressure to take care of children with intellectual disabilities on weekdays, resulting in less interaction with society and the environment, and due to the lack of stress relief channels, the pressure to take care of children gradually accumulates, resulting in chronic negative Emotions, and because the pressure of caring for children with intellectual disabilities is difficult to resonate with others, even after it is expressed, it cannot effectively relieve the pressure. Therefore, the leisure needs of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities focus on psychological needs and expect to be able to come through leisure activities relieve the stress of life and feel happy.

The average of each leisure activity type and project participation is shown in Table 3. Family caregivers with intellectual disabilities had the highest frequency of participating in recreational activities, with an overall mean of 3.31. They were followed by the “social” mean of 2.57, the “sports” mean of 2.28 and the “hobby” mean of 2.04. From the above information, it can be learned that family caregivers with intellectual disabilities still choose to participate in more static, relaxed, not too much physical energy to participate in the “entertainment” type of leisure activities, such as watching TV, surfing the Internet, listening to music and other leisure activities. Intelligent obstacle family caregivers leisure participation factor, average more than 3 “watch TV”, “on the Internet, online games, playing mobile phone/tablet”, “listening to music/radio”, “visiting relatives/family/home party parent-child activities” and “watch” five items, such as the top three all the activities of the interior and don’t need to spend more money, only some taller than average, says family caregivers of leisure participation is still low.

Table 1. The distribution table of the number of basic data of the subjects N = 315.

Table 2. Analysis of the current situation of leisure needs of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities.

Table 3. Current status analysis table of leisure participation of caregivers in families with intellectual disabilities.

The average number of leisure barriers is shown in Table 4. Family caregivers with mental retardation had the highest perception of “structural obstruction”, with an average of 2.86. The second is the average of “personal intrinsic hindrance” 2.70. The lowest level of perceived interpersonal barriers was 2.65. Intelligent obstacles family caregivers leisure factor, average more than 3 is “because there is no spare time to participate in leisure activities”, “because of work pressure” (life) and other two, the result shows that intelligent obstacle family caregivers could because it takes time to care for children, and the work or life pressure big, lead to have no spare time to engage in leisure activities.

The results of the analysis of the differences in leisure participation of different background variables (Table 5) are related to the fact that “brother and sister” participate in more sports-oriented leisure activities than “other”. Age “under 30” is more than “61 years old”, “31 - 40 years old” is more than “61 years old”, “41 - 50 years old” is more than “61 years old” to participate in more recreational leisure activities.

Table 4. Current situation analysis table of leisure barriers of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities.

Table 5. Difference analysis of leisure participation in different background variables.

*p < 0.05 **p < 0.01.

Educational level “University or college” is more involved in sports leisure activities than “junior high school”, “university or college” is more than “high school (vocational)”; “university or college” is involved in more social leisure activities than “junior high school”; “University or college” is more involved in recreational activities than “primary school” and “university or college” than “junior high school”; “university or college” is more involved than “junior high school” and “master degree” than “junior high school” Hobby leisure activities. Marital status married people engage in more social leisure activities than other people. The total income of the family “more than 70,001 NT$” than “less than 20,000 NT$”, “more than 70,001 NT$” than “20,001 - 30,000 NT$” participate in more sports leisure activities; “30,001 - 40,000 NT$” is less than “20,000 NT$”; “40,001 - 50,000 NT$” is less than “20,000 NT$”; “50,001 - 60,000 NT$” is less than “20,000 NT$”; “60,001 - 70,000 NT$” is less than “20,000 NT$”; “70,001 - 50,000 NT$” is less than “20,000 NT$” 001 - 30,000 NT$ “to participate in more social leisure activities; “More than 70,001 NT$” than “less than 20,000 NT$” participate in more recreational leisure activities; “More than 70,001 NT$” than “less than 20,000 NT$”, “more than 70,001 NT$” than “20,001 - 30,000 NT$” participate in more hobby leisure activities. Weekly leisure participation times “1 - 2 times” than “0 times”, “3 - 4 times” than “0 times”, “5 - 7 times” than “0 times” participate in more sports leisure activities; “1 - 2 times” than “0 times”, “3 - 4 times” than “0 times”, “3 - 4 times” than “1 - 2 times” participate in more social leisure activities; “5 - 7 times” participated in more recreational activities than “0 times”. “1 - 2 times” than “0 times”, “3 - 4 times” than “0 times” participate in more hobby leisure activities. The results of the analysis of leisure barrier differences among different background variables (Table 6) showed that the education level of “junior high school” had a greater personal barrier than that of “college or junior college”. “Junior high school” has greater interpersonal barriers than “senior high school (vocational)” and “junior high school” than “university or junior college”. “Junior high school” than “senior high school (vocational)”, “junior high school” than “university or junior college” has a greater structural obstacle. The monthly gross household income of “20,001 - 30,000 Yuan” is larger than that of “60,001 - 70,000 Yuan” and “20,001 - 30,000 Yuan” is larger than that of “over 70,000 Yuan”.

Table 7 the study found that there was a low significant positive correlation between the physiological demand for leisure and the participation of leisure sports, leisure social interaction and leisure entertainment (r = 0.143, r = 0.177, r = 0.227, p < 0.05) (Table 5), while there was no significant correlation between the physiological demand for leisure and the participation of leisure hobbies. There was a significantly positive correlation between the physiological demand for leisure and the overall participation in leisure (r = 0.198, p < 0.05). In terms of the correlation analysis between leisure psychological demand and leisure participation, it is also found that there is a low significant positive correlation between leisure psychological demand and leisure sports participation, leisure social participation and leisure entertainment participation (r = 0.151, r = 0.216, r = 0.213, p < 0.05), and no significant correlation between leisure psychological demand and leisure hobby participation. There was a significantly positive correlation between leisure psychological demand and leisure overall participation (r = 0.195, p < 0.05). The above results suggest that under the pressure of life, the caregivers of the family with intellectual disability are not expected to participate in the recreational activities of hobbies, and only have low expectations for sports participation, social interaction and recreational activities.

The correlation analysis results of leisure achievement demand and leisure participation in each purchase surface show that leisure achievement demand and leisure sports participation, social interaction participation, entertainment participation, hobby participation and overall participation all show low and significant positive correlation (r = 0.161, r = 0.187, r = 0.229, r = 0.112, r = 0.220, p = 0.005).

In the analysis of the correlation between the overall demand for leisure and leisure participation, it was found that the overall demand for leisure was significantly positively correlated with the participation of leisure sports, sports sports, entertainment and overall participation (r = 0.171, r = 0.217, r = 0.251, r = 0.231, p = 0.05). There was no significant correlation between overall leisure demand and leisure hobby participation. This result is consistent with the significant positive correlation between leisure demand and leisure participation in previous studies (Deng, 2002; Lu Chongming, 2010; Weng et al. 2014). The results of this study show that the leisure needs of caregivers in families with intellectual disabilities are consistent with the expectation of leisure participation, but their leisure activities are often influenced by the factors of caregivers

Table 6. Difference analysis of leisure barriers of different background variables.

*p < 0.05 **p < 0.01.

Table 7. Relationship between leisure demand and leisure participation.

*p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01.

The results of the correlation analysis of leisure physiological demand and leisure retardation in the family caregivers with intellectual disability (Table 8) showed that there was no significant correlation between leisure physiological demand and leisure overall retardation with each dimension. The correlation analysis between leisure achievement demand and leisure obstacle shows that there is no significant correlation between leisure achievement demand and overall obstacle. In terms of the correlation analysis between the overall demand and the psychological demand for leisure, it is found that there is a low negative correlation between the barriers to leisure interpersonal communication (r = −0.120, p = 0.033). R = −0.135, p = 0.016), and there was no significant correlation between the global obstruction and other secondary planes. This result shows that the leisure psychological needs of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities are affected by interpersonal barriers, which may lead to withdrawal or abandonment, thus affecting the overall needs.

According to the correlation analysis of leisure and entertainment participation and leisure hobby participation on leisure hindrance (Table 9), there is no significant correlation between leisure and entertainment participation and leisure hobby participation, as well as the overall hindrance and the secondary dimension.

The results of the correlation analysis of recreational and sports participation and leisure retardation show that the overall and structural retardation of recreational and sports participation and leisure retardation are significantly and negatively correlated (r = −0.120, p = 0.034). R = −0.162, p = 0.004). There was no significant correlation with the secondary structure of the leisure barrier. According to the correlation analysis of recreational and social participation and recreational barriers, it is found that. Recreational and social participation and recreational individual’s internal barriers and structural barriers are significantly negatively correlated with the overall barriers (r = −127, p = 0.024). R = −0.265, p = 0.000; R = −0.187, p = 0.001). There was no significant correlation with leisure interpersonal barriers. The results suggest that family caregivers with intellectual disabilities are less affected by interpersonal barriers in recreational sports participation, so they have higher expectations for recreational sports participation. However, the correlation analysis between overall leisure participation and overall leisure obstruction shows that overall leisure participation has a significantly low negative correlation with overall leisure structural obstruction (r = −0.192, p = 0.001). R = −0.131, p = 0.021), there was no significant correlation between the internal barriers to leisure and interpersonal barriers. This result is consistent with previous studies that the higher the leisure barriers, the lower the leisure participation [26].

From the above research, it can be seen that leisure participation of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities is seriously affected by leisure barriers. Therefore, if the leisure barriers of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities can be thoroughly understood and assisted to eliminate, it will promote the leisure participation of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities and thus effectively improve their quality of life.

Table 8. Relationship between leisure demand and leisure hindrance.

*p < 0.05.

Table 9. Correlation between leisure participation and leisure hindrance.

*p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01.

5. Conclusions and Suggestions

Mental needs were the most important leisure needs for family caregivers with mental disabilities, followed by physical needs, and achievement needs were the least important. Family caregivers with intellectual disabilities were most involved in recreational activities and least involved in hobby activities. Family caregivers with intellectual disabilities had the highest perception of “structural obstruction”, followed by “personal internal obstruction”, and the lowest perception of “interpersonal obstruction”. There were significant differences in the leisure needs of family caregivers with mental retardation. There was also a significant difference in personal factors in the leisure participation of family caregivers with mental retardation. If the age is 61 years old, they are less likely to participate in recreational leisure activities. The education level is “college or junior college” and above than other types of leisure activities with more participation; “married” people engage in more social leisure activities than “other” people. The monthly total income of the family is “more than 70,001 Yuan” than other more involved in various leisure activities; there were more types of leisure activities during the week than none at all. There were significant differences of personal factors in the leisure barriers of family caregivers with mental retardation. The monthly family income of “20,001 - 30,000 Yuan” has a bigger structural obstacle than those with higher income. There were no leisure participants and there were significant barriers to leisure. There was a low positive correlation between leisure needs and leisure participation of family caregivers with mental disability, and a low positive correlation between physiological needs and overall leisure participation and various forms of leisure participation. There was a low positive correlation between leisure psychological demand and leisure participation. There was also a low positive correlation between leisure achievement demand and overall participation and its various forms of participation. There was a low positive correlation between the overall leisure demand and the overall leisure participation. Although there was no significant correlation between leisure demands and overall leisure barriers, there was a low negative correlation between leisure interpersonal barriers. There was a low negative correlation between leisure participation and leisure retardation in family caregivers with mental retardation, and there was a low negative correlation between leisure participation and overall retardation and structural retardation. There was a low negative correlation between recreational social participation and leisure overall hindrance, personal intrinsic hindrance and structural hindrance. There was a low negative correlation between overall leisure participation and overall leisure hindrance and structural hindrance.

5.1. Suggestions for Caregivers of Families with Intellectual Disabilities

According to the results of the study, the family caregivers with intellectual disabilities have a low frequency of leisure activities, and most of them are indoor recreational leisure activities that do not require energy consumption. In addition, the intelligent obstacle family caregivers the biggest leisure block is the life and work pressure, because of care for special needs children need more involved than the average person, so if one caregivers to take care of the children reduce outdoor leisure time, it is recommended that intelligent obstacle family caregivers should keep their living space, attaching importance to and borrow from leisure activities, loosen body and mind to relieve stress. The study also found that family caregivers with intellectual disabilities were less likely to engage in “sports” and “hobby” activities at leisure, indicating that family caregivers with intellectual disabilities were less interested in activities that required more physical effort, skill and time. According to the “333 principle” promoted by the sports department of the ministry of education (2014), exercise at least three days a week for at least 30 minutes each time, pulse pulse reached the standard of 130, and exercise can promote the brain secretion of endorphins, endorphins can make people have a pleasant feeling, so more exercise is good for health and mental health. Therefore, plan or participate in the caregiver and the caregiver can participate in the same sports leisure activities.

5.2. Suggestions to Government Agencies

This study found that in intelligent obstacles family caregivers leisure the option “because there is no suitable people traveled together” block on the high side, because many intelligent obstacles to students and their parents will not take the initiative to contact or meet other students and their parents, can by the relevant government unit to promote these people know each other of the same situation, in addition to discuss the experience of education or take care of each other, can also get a lot of information about mental retardation, moreover, after pour out each other and exchange can alleviate their psychological pressure, relax the mind. Also can be found from the study, in intelligent obstacles family caregivers leisure the option “because of the lack of appropriate leisure activities” barrier on the high side, because of the mental retardation students and their parents is only a few in the crowd, is impossible to specially set up to promote leisure government agencies, so we can make good use of the existing mechanism, encourage the special education school in holiday or open special places for intelligent obstacle after school students and their parents.

It can be seen from the research that the demand for “promoting family parent-child relationship” among the leisure needs options of family caregivers with intellectual disabilities is quite high, which shows that many parents are eager to have channels to interact with students with intellectual disabilities. Usually, students with intellectual disabilities must go to school, and Parents must also go to work, so there is not much time to get along on ordinary days. On holidays, they often do their own activities, so there is no opportunity for interaction. If there is a government agency or special education school, parents and children can take the initiative Activities, then can effectively promote the communication between parents and children.

5.3. Recommendations for the Parents’ Association of the Mentally Handicapped

From this study shows that intelligent obstacles family caregivers leisure option, “because of the lack of participation in leisure activities” ratio on the high side, suggested that association can continue to carry out activities, parents can share each other through participation in care or education views and practices, and learn from other parents to different experience, for the way of the future will have certain help, and communicate with similar parents can effectively relieve the pains to care for children. From the research also found that intelligent obstacles family caregivers leisure option, “because of the lack of enough leisure activities information” and the high cost of “leisure” ratio on the high side, suggested that association to construct information web site provides the latest recreational information, and to negotiate with the related units and mills, provide preferential or reduction parents, parents to reduce the economic burden, boosting intelligence obstacle family caregivers leisure participation frequency.

Constructing a leisure information website for parents with intelligent disabilities. From the study, it can be found that among the options of leisure obstruction for family carers with intelligent disorders, the rate of “lack of sufficient leisure activity information” and “too high cost of leisure activities” is high, and it is suggested that the Association can construct leisure information websites to provide the latest leisure information and negotiate with relevant units and manufacturers to provide parental benefits or relief to reduce the financial burden on parents, thereby increasing the frequency of leisure participation of family careers with intelligent disorders.

6. Study Limitations

The study was aimed at family carers with intelligent disorders in the Higher Vocational Integrated Functions Section in western Taiwan, so the results of the study could not be estimated to all family caregivers with mental disorders. Second, this study to take questionnaires to test, because limited to the subject’s own answer cognition and coordination, can only assume that the subject can fill in the detailed answer.

Cite this paper: Jenq, S.-N. and Chen, M.-R. (2021) Research on Leisure Needs, Leisure Participation and Leisure Obstacles of Family Caregivers with Intellectual Disabilities. Open Access Library Journal, 8, 1-22. doi: 10.4236/oalib.1107033.
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