As the main living place for college students to stay for a relatively long time in college, “it is the most concentrated place in students’ daily life, the place where students influence and restrict with each other, and the place where students’ ideological exchange and information dissemination are concentrated” (Du, 2014: p. 61), apartment is an important position for ideological and political education, life education, behavior development education, adaptability and interpersonal ability training of college students. Therefore, based on the apartment community management mode, this paper attempts to explore the educational factors of apartment community management in the apartment community management mode, give better play to the functions of management education, service education, environment education, life education, etc., coordinate the ideological and political education, help students establish socialist core values, and cultivate social adaptability and interpersonal cooperation, in order to explore the education strategies of higher vocational colleges that can help college students grow up and achieve the goal of moral education.
2. Research on the Background and Exploration of Apartment Community Management
The idea of apartment community management originates from the basic idea of “self-management, self-service, self-education and self-development” of community management. In 1881, German sociologist F. Tennessee first used the term “community”, defined as “a closely related social group or community composed of homogeneous population with common customs and values”. This definition highlights the basic elements of the community: people, community interaction, community identity. Some scholars pointed out that the community generally has five functions: management function, service function, security function, education function and security and stability function.
The concept of “community” has been introduced into the student management of colleges and universities because of the separation of student living area and teaching area, and the relatively complete living service facilities around the dormitory, forming a relatively perfect living area. “College Students community refers to the specific campus area with college students dormitory as the center, including places for cultural and sports activities, commercial service outlets in dormitory area, student canteen, etc., besides classroom learning, life, self-study and group activities” (Yuan, 2016: p. 102). At present, the related research on College Students’ community-based management mainly focuses on “the reform and innovation of community-based management mechanism or management mode”, “the problems and Countermeasures of community-based management”, “the influencing factors of students’ satisfaction with community management” and “the Enlightenment of community management from the perspective of sociology and university logistics management” From the perspective of management and service, this paper analyzes the current situation of apartment community management in higher vocational colleges, and puts forward less education strategies to meet the needs of students’ all-round development. Based on the questionnaire survey carried out by Polus international college, this paper makes a specific analysis of apartment community management.
3. Development and Existing Problems of Apartment Community Management in Polus International College
At present, Polus International college adopts the “1334” community student work mode: each student living community is equipped with a property service station, and three types of tutors are set up to guide students’ professional learning, formative education and healthy life respectively; student union, Community Association and community self-management association are used to guide students’ bedtime discipline and internal management We should set up four centers: Student Service Center, student development center, mental health center, entrepreneurship and employment service center to provide services for student development.
Up to now, 1334 community student work mode has been carried out for more than five years, and more than 10,000 students have accepted community-based management and enjoyed the achievements brought by the advantages of community-based management. It can be seen from the survey report of Max in recent years that the graduates are generally satisfied with the community work mode, which shows that the “1334” community student work mode of our college has played a good role in guidance, guidance, management and education. With the adjustment of student group and staff, the effect of “student group work” changes every year.
In order to explore the educational effect of the existing apartment community management mode of the school, combined with the problems mentioned in the research of community management at home and abroad, this topic designs the corresponding community management satisfaction questionnaire, through the “questionnaire star” application survey software, online release survey two-dimensional code, and collects a total of 356 valid questionnaires from four secondary colleges.
The survey covers three aspects: community environment, community service and community culture. The method of classified sampling was used in the survey. The survey covers students of two grades in four secondary colleges of Polus International college, including 291 freshmen and 65 sophomores. The proportion of participants in the campus apartments was 66.57% in Longzi building, 15.17% in Linju building, 2.25% in Feiyan building, 13.76% in Yipu building and 2.25% in Chidian building, totally 100%. All the questionnaires were submitted online. 356 questionnaires were submitted and 356 were valid, with an effective rate of 100%. Using SPSS17.0 statistical software to analyze the reliability of survey data, a total of 7 items, the alpha reliability coefficient is 0.850, greater than 0.8, indicating that the reliability of survey data is ideal, suitable for statistical analysis.
The satisfaction survey of College Students’ community management is not only conducive to understanding the current situation of community management, finding problems, solving problems, improving community management, but also conducive to the formation of assessment and evaluation of community management, supervision from the perspective of students, and then standardized management of the community from many aspects. Through the above research and investigation, the problems of the current community management mode of Polus International College in management, service and education are summarized as follows:
3.1. Material Factors Have a Significant Positive Impact on Satisfaction
29.78% of the students are not satisfied with the community function planning; 28.37% of the students are not satisfied with the water and electricity use, washing and drying and other supporting facilities are not perfect; 24.44% of the students are not satisfied with the network service and greening Service; 22.47% of the students are not satisfied with the dormitory hardware configuration and property repair processing.
In the survey, we found that in the apartment community management, we need to improve the supporting facilities, including a variety of community software and hardware resources, reasonable planning of community comprehensive service facilities, to serve students as the core, based on sound facilities, fully meet the needs of students, and create a good community living environment.
3.2. Human Factors Have a Significant Positive Impact on Satisfaction
18.82% of the students are not satisfied with the effect of community management and construction. In the survey, we found that the students have a higher recognition of the Communist Party and the Communist Youth League, and they are more inclined to accept that the construction of the Communist Youth League can lead the development of Higher Vocational Students’ community, promote the cooperation of organizations at all levels, multi subject participation, and community students’ co governance and sharing, so as to improve the ability of community management power.
3.3. Management Factors Have a Significant Positive Impact on Satisfaction
14.89% of the students were dissatisfied with the community management system, and they were resistant to the way of community management; 11.52% of the students were dissatisfied with the system education in the community, and the relevant supporting forces needed to be strengthened.
In the survey, we found that the school community development management is not in place, the management power is relatively scattered, the students' participation is not enough, the joint education institutions and the students' feedback response mechanism need to be further improved.
3.4. All Round Education Factors Have a Positive and Significant Impact on Satisfaction
92.98% of the students think that the community management reflects the educational effect of the college’s three complete education; 89.33% of the students think that the community management helps them improve their interpersonal skills, adaptability and self-management ability; 91.58% of the students think that the life Tutor (counselor) is helpful to his ideological education and life learning, and the implementation way of education factor has a great correlation with this factor.
In the survey, we can find that the comprehensive education, the whole process education and the whole staff education are in line with the needs of College Students’ Education in school. Combined with the improvement of students’ feedback channels and platforms, we can further improve the relevant systems, responsibilities and assessment guarantee of community management, strengthen the construction of education team, so as to achieve all-round education results.
About the students’ recognition of the dormitory management, when asked “if you choose again, you are still willing to live in the current dormitory”, 77.52% of the students are willing to choose the current dormitory again, which shows that the apartment community management has been recognized as a whole. But 22.47% of the students are not satisfied. It can be seen that we need to continue to improve the apartment community management related strategies to promote the continuous progress of community management.
It can be seen from the survey that students are not only the object of community management, but also the main body of community management evaluation. Students can give full play to their professional expertise in community culture construction and college moral education activities, and participate in the scheme design and research of community management. Therefore, in the formulation of strategies, we can give full play to the participation of students, make them put forward reasonable suggestions, and promote community management.
4. Based on the Current Situation of Community Management in Polus International College
In order to explore more effective education strategies, according to the above questionnaire analysis and interview survey, based on the current domestic research on community management in higher vocational colleges, combined with the community student work mode of Polus International college and the questionnaire survey, the problems in the implementation process of this mode are found. This topic initially proposes to build a community management strategy system with the “174N+” community student management strategy as the core, “Coordinate the management resources of Party and League organizations, counselors, tutors, student guides, management and service personnel, and implement the linkage training of students in and out of class” (Chen, 2013: p. 99), including The contents are as follows:
4.1. Set up the Community Development Management Service Center around the Community Management Objectives and Sort out the Organizational Structure
The main goal of community management in higher vocational colleges is to implement the national education policy and improve the effectiveness of education. It needs community managers to constantly investigate and find out and meet the needs of students, so as to maximize the development of community management in higher vocational colleges, give full play to the power of Ideological and political education and improve the quality of personnel training. On the basis of this goal, the organizational structure of community management service center is constructed in Figure 1.
Under the leadership of the Party committee and the administration of the college, a leading group for student work at the school level is established. The leader in charge of student work is the group leader, the director of the student work department is the Deputy group leader, and the persons in charge of the ideological and Political Department, the personnel department, the academic affairs office and the Youth League Committee of the college are all involved. The office is located in the student work department. The student community management service center should be set up, and all departments of the Department of study and work, the security office, the logistics resources support department and the study and work office of the secondary college should play their functions and expertise to jointly educate people.
On the basis of community management, the college counselors should be responsible for the selection of qualified party members and League assistants, and assist the college counselors to set up a model for student management Network platform and other multiple ways to build a harmonious community.
Figure 1. The organizational structure of community management service center.
The community management service station shall provide logistics support, provide high-quality community environment, and configure and maintain corresponding hardware and software facilities. “Community is the closest space to citizens’ life, and community autonomy is the basis of citizens’ political participation and the starting point of citizens’ participation” (Wei, 2007: p. 105). Therefore, a student autonomy management committee can be set up at the same level of the logistics service center, which requires the selection of personnel from the class life committee and dormitory head, so as to truly give the student autonomy management committee autonomy They have the right to supervise, inspect and participate in community democratic management, give full play to their role as the main body of action, cultivate a wider range of public generals, learn to operate their own strength and command and manage their own community life, and lay a good foundation for the society to actively participate in basic autonomy and orderly political participation in the future (Yang, 2013: p. 25).
4.2. Constructing and Implementing the Core Strategy of Community Management—“174N+” Community Management Strategy
In addition to providing 24-hour service for the party and the Communist Youth League, the “property education center” also provides 24-hour service for the party and the Communist Youth League It is the seven functional blocks of one station, three meetings and three platforms under the community development management service center. One station is the post station of Party members, and it is also the mobile workstation of outstanding Party members and probationary party members, giving full play to the vanguard and exemplary role; the three associations refer to the student union, association association and community self-management Association, continuing to give play to the potential and influence of students’ self-management; the three platforms are ideological and political education platform, mental health service platform and entrepreneurship and employment service platform, through micro class, in-service platform By means of online interaction and network management, the socialist values system, mental health education and innovation and entrepreneurship quality education are integrated into students’ daily community life to guide students to establish a correct world outlook, outlook on life and outlook on honor and disgrace, improve students’ Ideological and moral quality, legal literacy, mental health literacy and innovation awareness, and promote students’ all-round development; “4” refers to the school and the secondary school The four level linkage system of colleges, classes and dormitories, unifies the thinking from top to bottom, implements the management strategy, and works together to build a development-oriented education community; “N” is a number of community characteristic construction projects carried out by the community, enriching the community cultural life; “+” is the construction of community management Internet information platform, using the Internet, new media and new technology tools to build community student communication In order to enhance the network influence of community governance construction and enhance the effectiveness of education work, we need to build an information platform for communication and give regular information updates and feedback. The “174N+” community development management strategy leads the community development of higher vocational students through the party and league construction, promotes the cooperation of organizations at all levels, the participation of multiple subjects, and the co governance and sharing of community students, so as to improve the community management ability and fully achieve the goal of Education.
4.3. Planning Community Construction and Improving Community Supporting Resources
Students’ community planning should focus on the characteristics of students’ living together, abide by the principles of ecology and humanity, not only follow the guidance of community education, but also fully understand the needs and opinions of students. The planning of student community should give full play to the functions of environmental security management, convenient service and facing special groups to plan the hardware and software construction at the same time. “Colleges and universities should set up student community property management institutions in accordance with the socialized mode, build up professional property management teams, and provide” warm, active, patient and thoughtful “modern property services for college students” (Wu & Kuai, 2014: p. 38).
In terms of hardware planning and construction, we should constantly improve the community infrastructure, especially the power supply facilities and hot water supply facilities, and regularly send professional and technical personnel to check and repair to ensure the quality of their use; we should also improve the community basic learning, life, culture, entertainment and other facilities supporting guarantee, so as to provide a broad platform for students to carry out community cultural activities; increase the number of existing facilities, such as It is necessary to increase investment in the green environment, lighting design, fire safety, health and epidemic prevention of the community, and constantly provide the perfect guarantee of public facilities.
In software planning and construction, we can provide more humanized services on the basis of student-centered. For example, the vending machine service can be added in the dormitory building to meet the students’ late night dietary needs. The property management station can provide mite and bacteria removal services, and also provide the use of microwave oven, electric kettle, induction cooker and other services in the station to meet the students’ special needs such as medicine boiling and disinfection. When encountering students’ violation of rules and regulations, we should consider the reasons and needs behind students’ behaviors, understand from the perspective of humanity, and try to provide convenience to meet the normal and reasonable needs of students. In addition, some students with physical or psychological defects should also pay attention to their special situations and needs and provide humanized solutions. For example, Polus International college has a classic case of providing humanized services for disabled students by providing barrier free access and convenient dormitory.
In order to create a good community living environment for college students and improve their satisfaction with community management, identity and sense of belonging, it is necessary to reasonably plan community comprehensive service facilities, take serving students as the core, sound cultural facilities as the basis, and superior community environment as the guarantee, so as to make them meet the needs of students.
4.4. Perfect Every System and Carry Out the Quality Education of “Three Perfects”
1) Improve the relevant system, responsibility and assessment guarantee of community management, and establish the supervision and feedback mechanism of community service. Community managers should find and solve the problems encountered by students in time, feed back the students’ opinions and suggestions to the decision-makers, and set up mailbox and reporting telephone to provide more supervision platform for students, so as to ensure the effect of community service. They can regularly carry out the “community management and service satisfaction” survey, and carry out the selection of “community workers most loved and welcomed by students” in the academic year Activities, consciously accept the supervision of students.
The community management system also needs to be constantly revised and improved, which combines the students' excellent evaluation and the development of Party members with the students' daily performance in the community, and establishes a comprehensive quality evaluation and assessment system for the students’ compliance with the rules and discipline, internal hygiene, safety standards, cultural construction and other aspects in the apartment, so as to make the students pay attention to their civilization cultivation in the community, find out the gap and deficiency, which is conducive to the development of the community Through community management to improve the comprehensive quality of students.
2) Improve the professional quality of all staff and the awareness of moral education, especially the professional quality and education ability of community management personnel. We should strengthen the construction of College Students’ community work team, establish the “student-centered” service concept, take serving students’ growth and success as the work goal, and strengthen the scientific and humanized management of College Students’ community.
Carry out quality education and life education to ensure the effectiveness of education. In the community-based management of college students, counselors are not only the tutors of personality development, but also the tutors of life. Based on the community, they should do a good job in Ideological and political guidance, psychological counseling, career planning, interpersonal counseling, emotional counseling and emergency handling. The college can formulate a plan to improve the team of counselors, organize targeted training, encourage counselors to improve their academic qualifications, obtain psychological counselors and other certificates, and write the three tutor training plan into the five-year talent training plan of the college, so as to continuously improve the overall level of the three tutor team.
5. Constantly Innovate Cultural Carriers and Enrich the Construction of Community Cultural Brand Activities
In the aspect of community culture construction, students are not only the object of community management, but also the main body of evaluating students’ community management. Therefore, it is very important to get the participation and recognition of students’ main body when carrying out cultural construction. Community culture construction and college moral education activities can be combined, education theme, series, monthly activities, annual plan. On the basis of the existing dormitory culture festival, we should take ideological and political education as the leading role, build community culture with professional characteristics, and carry out project activities such as one college and one brand. For example, in Polus international college, Business school can carry out flea market Festival, School of Art and Design can carry out design art exhibition, School of Health can carry out nutrition and food culture festival, and School of Humanities and Education can carry out cultural activities Carry out special project activities such as foreign cultural exchange day, so as to enrich the cultural life of community students, give full play to students’ autonomy and participation, and create a community subject full of cultural characteristics and healthy vitality.
Community functional departments and professional departments can also carry out relevant theme community activities. The school logistics service center can carry out activities in combination with the project of environmental protection education popular science base to enlighten students' environmental awareness; students from environmental art department and community management specialty can play their professional expertise, participate in the scheme design and Research of community management, put forward reasonable suggestions, and promote community management. In addition, in terms of patriotic education and traditional culture education, we can carry out theme activities to carry forward folk culture and highlight traditional charm when traditional cultural festivals such as Mid Autumn Festival, Dragon Boat Festival and Double Ninth Festival come; in terms of creating learning atmosphere, we can create community learning rooms and talents training characteristics of learning and erudition; in terms of cultivating social responsibility consciousness, we can set up love flow In the graduation season, we should start to donate idle items and pass them to the next generation of students who have difficulties in their families, so as to pass on love and form a brand education effect.
To sum up, the community-based management of Polus International College should continue its educational characteristics and achievements, integrate the original community management measures, innovate community management strategies according to the needs of students, and integrate the whole college apartment community into a community with educational resources, security resources and cultural resources. The modern management education platform constantly meets the pursuit and demand of the majority of higher vocational college students for a better life. With the help of the important carrier of apartment community management, the school’s leadership, management, service and ideological and political power are pressed to the front line of education management and service for students, so as to effectively promote the implementation of the concept of “three complete education”, and build the apartment community into a place of integration where students can get the ideological education, teachers and students can exchange views, host cultural events and get convenience services of life .
According to the domestic research on community management, combined with the analysis and survey data of our college’s community management strategy, and based on the analysis of the shortcomings of “1334 community student work mode”, this paper preliminarily explores and puts forward the conclusion of “174N+” education strategy in higher vocational colleges, and believes that according to the needs of students and development, we should keep pace with the times and continue to innovate and improve management ideas, which will better meet the needs of students’ all-round development, play the multiple functions of community management, service and education, so as to promote the community management of higher vocational colleges more scientific, comprehensive and sustainable development.
 Yang, Y. C. (2013). Living Community College System and the Solution to the Management Problems of College Students’ Dormitory: Taking Zhaoqing University as an Example. Journal of Zhaoqing University, 34, 1-5.