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 JSS  Vol.9 No.2 , February 2021
The Theoretical Significance and Teaching Strategy of Balanced Development of Education
Abstract: Education is the cornerstone of a nation’s development and the equity of compulsory education is regarded as the “greatest tool” to achieve social equity. After the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the balanced development of compulsory education was formally put on the agenda in the form of documents. In the process of the development of urban and rural education, there are still many practical problems in the implementation and practice of the balanced development of primary and secondary education in all regions of China. These problems include the improvement of the construction of teaching staff, policy guidance, homogenized education development, etc. Besides, the effective teaching strategies can promote the reform of primary and secondary education in China.

1. Basic Theoretical Methods for Balanced Development of Education

1.1. Basic Theory of Balanced Development of Education

1.1.1. Multidimensional Meanings of Balanced Development of Education

Balanced development of education is the main principle and policy of education development put forward in the stage of compulsory education in China. From the perspective of literal explanation and theoretical concept, different supervision subjects and education subjects have given it multiple meanings.

From a policy perspective, in 2005 and 2012, the Ministry of Education and the State Council respectively emphasized speeding up the balanced development of compulsory education in the “Opinions on Further Promoting the Balanced Development of Compulsory Education” pointed out that it is an educational strategic plan to “promote the country’s century-old plan, talent reserve management, and human development” (Opinions on Further Promoting the Balanced Development of Compulsory Education, 2012); later in the “National Medium and Long-term Education Reform and Development Plan Outline”, it also emphasizes the importance of implementing the education balanced supervision and evaluation, strengthening the implementation and realizing the education balanced teaching innovation.

From the perspective of teaching, most teaching workers believe that the balanced development of primary and secondary education is through the use of theory and innovative teaching methods to promote “teaching reform of teaching institutions, strengthening the integration of teaching resources and teachers, promoting the comprehensive quality of young students” (Li & Li, 2017), which is a form of teaching transformation. From a theoretical point of view, most academic researchers believe that the balanced development of primary and secondary education refers to the basic education concept of “maintaining the rights of youth compulsory education, embodying humanistic education, and individualized development of students” (Zhang, Sheng, & Luo, 2019).

1.1.2. The Basic Connotation of Balanced Development of Education

From the perspective of the development of compulsory education, the purpose of promoting the balanced development of education in China is to promote the healthy, stable and balanced development of education reform. In the outline of the plan, the connotation of balanced development of education in primary and secondary schools is proposed, which includes 15 basic teaching objectives and tasks, such as “reflecting education equity, deepening government policy supervision, caring for left behind children, and implementing basic public education facilities”.

From a practical point of view, the basic connotation of balanced development of education is based on the goal of achieving ideal cultural education, implementing teaching innovation, and cultivating national reserve talents, which needs to meet the educational needs of the times. In the course of practice, the concept, cultural connotation, and teaching goals of balanced development of education are constantly updated and transformed with the evolution of the national education system and social environment.

From the perspective of social and cultural development, deepening the balanced development of education at the primary and secondary levels can provide more equitable educational opportunities for more young people and build a harmonious society. The academic circles also interpret the connotation of the balanced development of primary and secondary education from different perspectives: the first is about the optimal allocation of educational resources. It is required to reflect a good role in the allocation of educational resources so that educational policies, financial investment, and the scientific allocation of teaching equipment are balanced. The second is to promote the goals and tasks of compulsory education. Deepen the connotation and teaching goals of the balanced development of education, so that the ideological, moral, academic performance, and comprehensive literacy of young people can achieve a balanced development. The third is to promote the coordinated development of educational functions. Under the principle of educational fairness, it plays a role in humanistic education such as “individual people”, “humanization”, and “differentiation”.

1.2. Specific Methods for Balanced Development of Education

1.2.1. Follow the Guiding Ideology of the National Education Policy

According to the instructions of relevant documents, all urban government agencies and education departments should speed up the implementation of the “Compulsory Education Law of the People’s Republic of China” and “Opinions on Further Promoting the Balanced Development of Compulsory Education” and other policy instructions to implement relevant teaching reforms. At the same time, the implementation of balanced development of education should strictly follow the guiding ideology of the modernization of socialism with Chinese characteristics, accelerate teaching innovation, build a relaxed, civilized, and perfect teaching environment and teaching system mechanism, also need do a good job in local education services and reflect the principle of education equity. Care for the overall development of students, realize “individualized” education, improve the balanced development of students’ ideological quality, academic performance, and cultural literacy, and continuously improve the level of cultural education.

1.2.2. Accelerate the Teaching Innovation of “Educational Balanced Development”

The in-depth implementation of the balanced development of education is related to the country’s future talent strategy development, and it is more related to the inheritance of regional history and culture, humanistic spirit, educational philosophy, and the coordinated development of local industrial structure. In view of this, to improve the quality of the balanced development of education in various regions, the following teaching innovations need to be realized:

One is the need to standardize the school-running mechanism of primary and secondary schools. By changing the traditional education and teaching mode, giving play to the social guiding role of education, classifying teaching and strengthening the quality of schooling.

The second is to speed up the establishment of high-quality teachers. Teaching institutions in urban areas should attach importance to the construction of teaching staff and give full play to the role of talents in the process of balanced development of education. Only by improving the comprehensive quality, cultural level and teaching quality of school teachers, establishing long-term training mechanism, talent introduction mechanism and salary and welfare system for primary and secondary school teachers, can we promote the guarantee of teachers in the balanced development of education.

The third is to innovate campus culture and educational resource allocation. We should build a campus culture and education service that can reflect the role of modern and humanized teaching, and focus on the construction of “software and hardware” to promote the balanced development of education to connect with the fair education cooperation mechanism. We should pay attention to establishing long-term educational cooperation with the government and local cultural and educational institutions, and do a good job in supporting the construction of basic educational facilities, educational service system and educational resources in communities, streets and public areas. Speed up the construction of modern education informatization, do a good job in the integration of educational resources, and comprehensively improve the quality of the balanced development of teaching institutions in all regions.

2. Analysis of the Problems and Causes of the Balanced Development of Education in My Country

2.1. Problems and Difficulties Faced by the Balanced Development of Education in My Country

The balanced development of education is an education policy aimed at promoting the cultural and educational level of various regions and improving the quality of education and teaching in primary and secondary schools. However, due to differences in local policies, cultures, and economies, it is still difficult for our country to reflect the educational role of “ideal culture” in the process of promoting balanced development of education. The balanced development of education is essentially a kind of innovative teaching concept that pursues “ideal education” and changes the defects of traditional exam-oriented education (Su, 2018). But in reality, it stays at the stage of theory and exploration, and the era of truly ideal education has not yet come. The specific problems in the balanced development of education in my country are as follows:

The first is from the perspective of society and talent education. At present, public education policies, educational resources, and educational services in most areas of my country are still not in place. In some areas, some local governments have problems with supervision and negligence, and they are not thorough enough to implement balanced education policies. Lack of realistic planning and long-term considerations for the implementation of the evaluation of balanced development of education, financial “assistance”, public education facilities and services, and pay far less attention to education balanced development than other administrative public affairs Facing greater constraints.

Second, there are problems with family conditions and lack of local education. A few families facing greater economic and survival pressure are unable to send their children to school. Even if the “nine-year compulsory education” policy is provided, there are still difficulties in implementing it. Young people from poor families cannot enjoy policy convenience; in addition, Most of the rural schools are faced with the imperfect situation of campus culture, teaching mechanism and teaching resources, ignoring the education and guidance of students’ interest in learning, mental health, ideological and moral aspects.

2.2. Analysis of the Causes of the Balanced Development of Education

Compared with economically developed cities, towns, villages and rural areas with relatively remote locations and weaker infrastructures are unable to give full play to their teaching advantages, leading to greater differences in the balanced development of urban and rural education. The main reasons are as follows:

First, there are serious differences in the “balanced development of education” between urban and rural primary and secondary schools. On the one hand, compared with cities, the public education policies in towns and rural areas are incomplete and imperfect, the educational environment is poor, and the rural educational infrastructure is relatively backward. On the other hand, economically underdeveloped areas are facing problems such as insufficient investment in education caused by insufficient fiscal policy funds. Individual local governments also face major deficiencies in their public education supervision functions, job setting, and education balance evaluation, which makes primary and secondary education balanced. There are large urban-rural differences in development.

Second, the allocation of rural education resources and the construction of the teaching staff are not perfect. Although the state has proposed to accelerate the integration of urban and rural development in recent years, the urban population and labor resources are far more than those in counties and rural areas. Most rural migrant workers enter the cities, causing difficulties in economic, cultural, and educational work in towns and rural areas, especially education and teaching. Issues such as resources and the construction of teaching staff have become one of the keys to the balanced development of primary and secondary education.

The third is that the growth education of rural youth is facing greater practical factors. There are a large number of left-behind children in rural areas in my country, which puts tremendous pressure on rural educators whose teachers are already weak. On the one hand, most of the parents of left-behind children, due to long-term work abroad, lack of education and care for their children, and lack of necessary family education, make it difficult for their psychological problems to be resolved and resolved in time. If things go on like this, it will lead to balanced education in towns and villages. Work lags behind in urban areas, which affects the overall quality of my country’s education reform.

3. Improving the Teaching Strategy for the Balanced Development of Education in My Country

3.1. Create a “Diversified” Education System Mechanism

The balanced development of education, publicity, practice, and teaching improvement work requires solid theoretical support. For this, teaching institutions need to carry out teaching innovations around the country’s basic education strategies, specifically including the following two points:

One is the need to establish a more flexible, efficient, and diversified teaching system to promote balanced and rapid development of education. In the process of implementing teaching innovation, we should pay attention to the teaching principles of “multiple education” and make up for the shortcomings of traditional teaching models by caring for students, focusing on their all-round development, and not deviating from the basic principles of balanced education (Su, 2015).

The second is to focus on curriculum innovation. In the process of accelerating the balanced development of education, various teaching institutions need to accelerate the reform of new courses, improve teaching methods, enhance the fun of teaching, actively organize various cultural, sports, and social activities in primary and secondary schools to increase students’ interest in learning and enrich education balance, develop the teaching content and improve the quality of teaching.

3.2. Pay Attention to the Organic Combination of Theory and Practice

In the teaching reform of balanced development of education, it is necessary to focus on theoretical research and practical exploration and innovation. The organic combination of the two will continuously improve the intensity of balanced development of education in our country.

First, the balanced development of education requires continuous exploration and teaching innovation. It is not limited to theoretical research. It needs to rely on the guidance of national policies to play the coordinating role of social forces, public financial resources, and teachers to enable schools in various regions to change traditional teaching concepts, reflect the principle of educational equity, increase the country’s compulsory education reform and the promotion of new courses, and promote the balanced development of education.

The second is to learn from foreign advanced theoretical methods, combine foreign advanced educational theories and teaching practical experience, and strive to promote balanced development of education and improve teaching strategies. Teaching innovation can be implemented according to different curriculum standards, school teaching requirements, and students’ differentiated development. For example, the “fair theory” proposed by the famous American psychologist Adams and Maslow’s “level of needs theory” is introduced into classroom teaching to meet the “social needs” of students in the process of “fair education”. “Self-worth realization” needs to improve teaching quality.

3.3. Give Full Play to the Multifunctional Role of Balanced Development of Education

In the process of accelerating the promotion of educational balance and the process of teaching innovation and reform, there are differences in historical culture, cultural background, economic conditions, etc., and the unique geographical advantages of the local area, traditional culture and other characteristics can be used to accelerate the construction of campus culture and teaching staff. Construction, through the support of local education investment to promote the reform of cultural education and promote teaching innovation. At the same time, in the process of integrating education and teaching resources, schools in all regions of our country need to do a good job of cost control, increase investment in the information construction of campus networks, education platforms, and multimedia teaching tools, promote the development of education modernization, and improve teachers’ quality of teaching that allows students to gain a better learning experience and play a multi-functional role in the balanced development of education.

3.4. Further Eliminate the Difference in the Balanced Development of Urban and Rural Education

With the popularization of basic education and the increasing emphasis on new curriculum reforms, balanced development of education is based on accelerating talent training. It is necessary to formulate more long-term talent planning goals to promote the transformation of urban and rural economic structure, talent allocation, and cultural education. Achieve coordinated development.

As far as the government is concerned, it should change its ideological concept of emphasizing economic and industrial development and neglecting cultural education reform. The first is to actively implement national policy guidance, strengthen financial investment and improve the cultural and educational service system for areas with backward economic conditions and weak educational infrastructure. The second, pay attention to caring for left-behind children, pay attention to the balanced development of education for students from poor families, and provide them with a sound education guarantee and assistance mechanism will promote and support the development of local culture and education, and eliminate the “cultural differences” in my country’s urban and rural areas.

For primary and secondary schools, the goal of balanced development of education is reflected in whether the school’s educational resources, teachers, education system, and public education service levels are complete and comprehensive. Therefore, urban and rural primary and secondary schools need to formulate more scientific and long-term Effective teaching planning. Pay attention to the reform of the teaching system and the construction of the teaching staff, balance the cultural and educational differences between urban and rural areas, and lay a good foundation for teaching development.

3.5. Pay Attention to the Mental Health Education of Students

Affected by traditional exam-oriented education, most primary and secondary schools ignore the psychological needs of students in their teaching, resulting in a balanced development of education that cannot realize the value of “humanization” and “fair education”. In primary and secondary schools in urban and rural areas, we should pay attention to the mental health education of students, promote the innovative development of teaching in the process of educational balance, meet students’ “physical needs”, “psychological needs” and “social needs”, and create a development that meets the physical and mental health of students. The teaching conditions and infrastructures ensure basic teaching needs. At the same time, increase the interaction between teachers and students, guide teachers to pay attention to emotional communication and teaching interaction with students in the daily teaching process, so that students can feel the dominant position of teaching, help students solve problems, reduce learning pressure, and improve students in the balanced development of education Satisfaction and acquisition.

The implementation and implementation of balanced development of education is an important measure for the country to speed up personnel training, promote education equity, and improve education reform in the compulsory education stage. Through comprehensive discussions on the basic theories, methods, and existing problems of balanced education, it provides the corresponding solutions and teaching strategies have deep practical significance.

Fund Project

Sichuan Old Revolutionary District Development Research Center Project: One of the research results of the research on the balanced development of rural compulsory education in Eastern Sichuan (SLQ2019B-20) under the background of the rural revitalization strategy.

Cite this paper: Li, H. (2021) The Theoretical Significance and Teaching Strategy of Balanced Development of Education. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 9, 270-278. doi: 10.4236/jss.2021.92018.
References

[1]   (2012). The State Council: Opinions on Further Promoting the Balanced Development of Compulsory Education (Guofa [2012] No. 48).

[2]   Li, G. R., & Li, X. H. (2017). The Evolution of China’s Compulsory Education Balanced Development Policy and Its System Logic. Journal of Henan Normal University (Philosophy and Social Sciences Edition), No. 5, 147-151.

[3]   Su, N. (2015). Research on the Guarantee Mechanism of the Balanced Development of Regional Compulsory Education (p. 4). Guangzhou: Guangdong Higher Education Press.

[4]   Su, P. Y. (2018). Research on the Quality Improvement Strategy of Weak Schools under the Background of Compulsory Education Regional Equilibrium. Education Review, No. 12, 51-53.

[5]   Zhang, H. R., Sheng, Y. Q., & Luo, M. (2019). 40 Years of Balanced Development of Compulsory Education in My Country: Looking Back and Rethinking—Based on the Perspective of Data Analysis. Journal of Southwest University (Social Science Edition), 45, 72-80.

 
 
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