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 OJN  Vol.11 No.1 , January 2021
The Effect of Unplanned Pregnancy among Women Collage in Wadajir Distract Moqdisho Somalia
Abstract: Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is either mistimed or unwanted at the time of conception. It is a core concept in understanding the fertility of populations and the unmet need for contraception. Unintended pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of morbidity for women, and with health behaviors during pregnancy with adverse effects. And the aim of this study is to establish the level of effect of the unplanned pregnancy in women college in Wadajir district. This study used a cross-sectional study design. And the aim of this study is to establish the level of effect of the unplanned pregnancy on women college in Wadajir district. This study was being used cross sectional study design. This research had undertaken Wadajir district in Banadir region Mogadishu-Somalia. The sample size was 60 participating in the data collection phase from 1-30 Jun 2020. This study used primary data. This was collected from respondents in the area of study. Data was collected using a pre-cod structured questionnaire for the survey. Data showed that: 39 (65%) of the respondents answered yes that lack of education caused most unplanned pregnancy, 40 (66%) said that low-income countries are the risk factor of unplanned pregnancy, 47 (78%) of the respondents answered family planning is most common preventive for unplanned pregnancy, and 0 (67%) said that school dropout is the most compilation of unplanned pregnancy. Based on the findings of this research, the knowledge of the majority of respondents about unplanned pregnancy among women college replied yes, and they also replied that the most cause of unplanned pregnancy among women college is lack of education.

1. Background

Around the world, 38% of pregnancies (approximately 80 million pregnancies) were unintended in 1999. Unintended pregnancies are the most reason for actuated premature births, coming about in around 42 million initiated premature births; not all unintended pregnancies result in premature births or undesirable children. Unintended pregnancy has been connected to various maternal and child wellbeing issues [1].

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is either mistimed or unwanted at the time of conception. It is a core concept in understanding the fertility of populations and the unmet need for contraception. Unintended pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of morbidity for women, and with health behaviors during pregnancy with the adverse effects. For example, women with an unplanned pregnancy may delay prenatal care, which may affect the health of the infant. Women of all ages may have unintended pregnancies, but some groups, such as teens, are at a higher risk [2].

It is reported that in Africa, we find that 213 million pregnancies occurred in 2012, up slightly from 211 million in 2008; despite the ranging from short, long term to permanent methods, as well as natural methods of contraception, the problem of unwanted pregnancies is very big worldwide but still underreported in many communities due to its sensitive nature. This is so said due to the high incidence of pregnancy termination which contributes to high maternal mortality and morbidity [3].

About 80 million unintended pregnancies are estimated to occur worldwide annually. In developing countries more than one-third of all pregnancies are considered unintended and about 19% will end up in abortion, which are most often unsafe accounting for 13% of all maternal death globally [4].

Despite all these alarming statistics, only 13 percent of married adolescents aged 15 - 19 use contraception in sub-Saharan. In South Africa, 61 percent of sexually active women used a modern contraceptive method, yet 53% of all births were reported as mistimed or unwanted and 78 percent of births to women aged 19 or younger were unplanned [5].

The major consequence of unwanted pregnancy worldwide is induced abortion. This can be performed in health care services whereby the abortion is provided by a skilled health care provider with proper equipment, correct technique as well as under sterile environment as part of the reproductive health services. According to WHO standards, these services are provided [6].

In Somalia Unwanted pregnancies are affected by a number of factors including personal beliefs, social services, religious and cultural values as well as the existing laws in the community. Most of the time unwanted pregnancies started as unplanned pregnancy, but occasionally the planned pregnancy may end up being unwanted pregnancy [7].

According to [4], it is also shown that out of 210 million pregnancies occurring in the world annually, about 79 million are estimated to be unintended, of these more than 50% end up in abortion. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for complications related to abortions are less than 20 years of age [8].

Problem statement

In Somalia studies on unwanted pregnancies and induced abortion among youths at the community levels are few, with a lot of studies done at the health facility level. This points out the need of more community-based studies, because most of the maternal deaths due to abortion complications occur outside the formal health system [9].

The problem of unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in the community is very big but much underreported; Women are not open to discussion on the sensitive issue of abortion and unplanned pregnancies [10].

So, this study will provide information on the real situation at the community level. Several studies have been conducted to determine factors contributing to the unwanted pregnancies and induced abortion in Sub Saharan Africa, Reasons includes: poverty, no support from the partner, disruption of education and employment, family building preferences i.e. need to post pone childbearing or to achieve health spacing between births, relationship problems with the partner/husband, risk to maternal or fetal health, pregnancy resulting from rape or incest, most of the time it is poor access to contraceptive or contraceptive failure [11].

Specific objectives

1) To identify the causes and risk factors of unplanned pregnancy on women college in Wadajir district.

2) To establish the level of effect of the unplanned pregnancy on women college in Wadajir district.

3) To describe the preventive measures of the unplanned pregnancy on women college in Wadajir district

Significance of the study

It has been related with destitute pre-birth behavior, as ladies in this condition may not recognize that they are pregnant on time, they have moreover been appeared to delay starts of pre-birth care conjointly lock in in substance mishandle amid pregnancyand it is also associated with low economic status and termination of educational career for the young mother. The larger part of the ladies uncovered their circumstance to their accomplice and as it were one or two companions. Keeping the circumstance, a mystery increased the sense of confinement and discouragement experienced by the ladies [12].

2. Methodologies

2.1. Research Design

This study was used cross sectional study design, quantitative, cross sectional study design is present oriented used to investigate population by selecting samples to analyze and discover occurrence the data collected by the questionnaire. This design is selected for this study because it is effective, less cost and easily accessible for collecting information from the target population. This design is used to describe the effect of unplanned pregnancy among women college.

2.2. Study Site and Target Population

This research had undertaken Wadajir district in Banadir region Mogadishu, Somalia. Wadajir district is 1of 16 districts in Banadir region Mogadishu Somalia is the 2nd largest district in Banadir region. Geographically it lays south western part of Mogadishu the district was established in 1970s.

2.3. Sample Size and Instrument for Data Collection

The sample size of this was 60 participates of 70 unplanned pregnancy who lived in Wadajir distract during 30 days of data collection phase from day 1-30 Jun 2020. 10 remained refused to participate in our data collection. This study used non-probability technique and 60 respondents who were unplanned pregnancy women were living in Wadajir district.

2.4. Sampling Procedure

The study participants were selected by using probability sampling especially stratified sampling to find the most information on the characteristic of interested population

2.5. Validity and Reliability of the Instrument

To establish the reliability of questionnaire the researchers used method of expertise judgment as best method of reliability after the construction of the questionnaire. The researchers approached supervisor and other experts that have great knowledge about the topic of this study to ensure the reliability and validity of the researcher instrument. The sample technique and procedure or mechanisms put in place made the study possible to insure the validity and reliability as they kicked off the biasness in the research and the advice of experts: which clearly made the research relevant, specific and logical. In addition, a pilot test was conducted 20 respondents in order to test and prove on the reliability of the questionnaire. To prove the validity of the data collection instrument scale was used the validity relevance questionnaire and the total number of questions.

2.6. Data Processing and Analysis

The researcher was quantitative data analysis in this study to analyze the data statistically package for the social science (SPSS) used.

2.7. Ethical Consideration and Approval

In this study the researchers should keep on the ethical issue through the research.

Every respondent was asked for permission to complete the questionnaire by following good explanation for the respondents were done before filling the questionnaire and every respondent will promise privacy and confidentiality mentioned finally thanks every respondent because of taking part in this study.

3. Result and Findings

Figure 1 reveals that the majority of the study respondents 42 (70%), were in the age of 15 - 24, 14 (24%) of age group of 25 - 34, 2 (3%) of age group of 35 - 44, while 2 (3%) in the age of over 45.

Figure 2 reveals that the majority of the study respondents 38 (63%), were Single, 18 (30%) were Married, while 4 (7%) were Divorced.

Figure 3 reveals that the majority of the study respondents 36 (60%), were Bachelor Degree, 13 (22%) were Diploma level, 10 (17%) were Secondary level, while 1 (2%) were Postgraduate Level.

Figure 4 shows 30 (50%) of the respondents were Employed, followed by 20 (33%) of respondents which were Students, while 7 (12%) were Housewife, 3 (5%) were Unemployed.

Figure 1. Age group.

Figure 2. Marital status.

Figure 3. Education level.

Figure 4. Occupation.

Subject Knowledge

Figure 5 shows the majority of respondents 40 (67%) know the meaning of unplanned pregnancy and the remaining 20 (33%) did not know.

Figure 6 shows the majority of respondents 34 (57%) know the cause of unplanned pregnancy and the remaining 26 (43%) did not know.

Figure 7 shows the majority of respondents 40 (67%) said that school dropout is the most compilation of unplanned Pregnancy, 11 (18%) said Social consequence is the most and the remaining 9 (15%) said the physical effect of termination of pregnancy is the most compilation.

Figure 8 shows the majority of respondents 40 (66%) said that low income countries is the risk factor of unplanned Pregnancy, 10 (17%) said high income countries is the risk factor and the remaining 10 (17%) said the people who use oral contraceptive is the risk factor.

Figure 9 shows the majority of the respondents 37 (62%) said poor health are signs and symptoms, 17 (28%) of the respondents said prenatal and postnatal, while 6 (10%) of the respondents said good nutrition.

Table 1 shows respondents by whether unplanned pregnancy can be preventable:

Table 1. Respondents by whether unplanned pregnancy can be preventable.

Figure 5. Effect of unplanned pregnancy.

Figure 6. Causes of unplanned pregnancy.

Figure 7. Complication of unplanned pregnancy.

Figure 8. Risk factor for unplanned pregnancy.

Figure 9. Sign and symptoms of unplanned pregnancy.

Figure 10 shows the majority 29 (48%) of the respondents answered yes unplanned pregnancy is common is Wadajir, 18 (30%) of the respondents answered no while the rest of the respondents which is 13 (22%) answered I don’t know.

Figure 11 shows the majority 39 (65%) of the respondents answered yes that lack of education caused most of unplanned pregnancy, 14 (23%) of the respondents answered no while the rest of the respondents which is 7 (12%) answered I don’t know.

Figure 12 shows the majority 47 (78%) of the respondents answered family planning is most common preventive for unplanned pregnancy, 13 (22%) of the respondents answered desire to avoid pregnancy while (0%) or no one to say fear of contracting sexually transmitted disease.

4. Discussions

This study took into consideration of 60 respondents as sample size to determine the realistic findings about the topic under the study.

Figure 10. Did you believe unplanned pregnancy common in Wadajir district.

Figure 11. Lack of education is most common cause of unplanned pregnancy.

Figure 12. Most common preventive of unplanned pregnancy.

4.1. Consequences for the Parents

Finally, unintended pregnancies inside marriage are related with a greater risk of divorce after the child’s birth. For all these reasons, children born after unintended conceptions are exceptionally likely to live separated from one or both of their father, as a rule their father, at some point amid childhood

4.2. Consequences for the Social

Having unwanted pregnancy to a woman is depressing and debilitating, putting a woman in dilemma, the woman may not be mentally, physically, socially and psychologically fit to bear the child. The decision of a woman on what to do with the unwanted pregnancy may be guided by what is best at that particular time and point in life; this is based on her own opinion as well as the people surrounding her at the moment, by the time the woman with unwanted pregnancy seeks for medical attention she has already made her mind and most of the time is to terminate the pregnancy.

Based on findings of this research, the knowledge of majority of respondents about unplanned pregnancy among women college replied yes, and they also replied greater part respondents that the most cause of unplanned pregnancy among women college is lack of education.

5. Limitation of the Study

The researcher was faced problem including:

1) There was be some respondents was refuse the participants of this study;

2) The main problem is COVID-19;

3) Sometimes may occur poor network according to the internet;

4) There is also a lack of library books to get as reference because of COVID-19.

6. Conclusions

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is either mistimed or unwanted at the time of conception. It is a core concept in understanding the fertility of populations and the unmet need for contraception. Unintended pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of morbidity for women, and with health behaviors during pregnancy with adverse effects. For example, women with an unplanned pregnancy may delay prenatal care, which may affect the health of the infant. Women of all ages may have unintended pregnancies, but some groups, such as teens, are at a higher risk (Review, 2007).

In Somalia studies on unwanted pregnancies and induced abortion among youths at the community levels are few, with a lot of studies done at the health facility level. This points out the need for more community-based studies, because most of the maternal deaths due to abortion complications occurring outside the formal health system. The problem of unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in the community is very big but much underreported; women are not open to discussing the sensitive issue of abortion and unplanned pregnancies.

Based on findings of this research, the knowledge of the majority of respondents about unplanned pregnancy among women college replied yes, and they also replied that the most cause of unplanned pregnancy among women college is lack of education.

7. Recommendation

The first is to increase women’s awareness regarding unplanned pregnancy.

The second is to create an educated woman who can take responsibility for her own health upon noticing signs and symptoms, so that she can seek preventive measures, also we considered good practice to avoid unplanned pregnancy among women collage and to advise these women to do one of preventive model. And we recommended that women be advised to report all unplanned pregnancy to the care providers. Also women should be advised, encouraged and helped to do family planning. Women with unplanned pregnancy should be strongly recommended to receive active management. Since unplanned pregnancy is common in Wadajir district, immediate and appropriate management is required to save the life of the mother and their fetus. And lastly we recommend that it giving health education for families about unplanned pregnancy because the common cause was lack of education.

QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear respondent:

We are required to conduct a research about “the effect of unplanned pregnancy among women collage”. We are pleased to inform you that you have selected to participate in our study. We hope you could complete the questionnaire as honestly and objectively as possible. This questionnaire is purely for academic purpose and your participation is voluntary. We promise that your response was kept confidentiality.

PART ONE: BASIC DEMOGRAPHIC CHARECTERISTICS

Please tick in the appropriate response

1. Age group

A. 15 - 24 ( ) B. 25 - 34 ( ) C. 35 - 44 ( ) D. ( ) over

2. Marital status

A. Single ( ) B. Married ( ) C. Divorced ( )

3. Educational level

A. Secondary ( ) B. Diploma ( ) C. Bachelor Degree ( )

D. Postgraduate ( )

4. Occupation

A. employed ( ) B. housewife ( ) C. student ( ) D. unemployed ( )

PART TWO: SUBJEC KNOWLEDGE

1. Do you have any idea about the effect of unplanned pregnancy among women collage?

A) Yes ( ) B) No ( )

2. Do you know the cause of unplanned pregnancy?

A) Yes ( ) B) No ( )

3. Which the following is most complications of unplanned pregnancy?

A) School dropout ( ) B) Social consequence ( )

C) Physical effects of termination of pregnancy ( )

4. Who risk factor unplanned pregnancy?

A) Low-income countries ( ) B) High income countries ( )

C) People who use oral contraceptive ( )

5. Which of the following signs and symptoms of unplanned pregnancy?

A) Poor health mother ( ) B) good nutritional mother ( ) C) prenatal and postnatal problem ( )

6. Do you believe any effect of unplanned pregnancy can be preventable?

A) Yes ( ) B) No ( ) C) I don’t know ( )

7. Do you believe unplanned pregnancy is very common in Wadajir district?

A) Yes ( ) B) No ( ) C) I don’t know ( )

8. Do you believe lack of education is most common cause of unplanned pregnancy?

A) Yes ( ) B) No ( ) C) I don’t know ( )

9. Which the following most common preventive of unplanned pregnancy?

A) Desire to avoid pregnancy ( ) B) Fear of contacting sexually transmitted disease ( )

C) Family planning ( )

10. Can you believe to improve effect of unplanned pregnancy among women those live in Wadajir district?

A) Yes ( ) B) No ( ) C) I don’t know ( )

THANK YOU FOR YOU COOROPRATIONS

Cite this paper: Ahmed, S. , Mohamed, M. , Hussein, A. and Nur, M. (2021) The Effect of Unplanned Pregnancy among Women Collage in Wadajir Distract Moqdisho Somalia. Open Journal of Nursing, 11, 42-55. doi: 10.4236/ojn.2021.111005.
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